Monday, May 18, 2015

34 Works - Reverse painting on glass, Icons - Religious Art - Paintings from the Bible - Part Two

Reverse painting on glass is an art form consisting of applying paint to a piece of glass and then viewing the image by turning the glass over and looking through the glass at the image. Another term used to refer to the art of cold painting and gilding on the back of glass is verre églomisé, named after the French decorator Jean-Baptiste Glomy (1711–86), who framed prints using glass that had been reverse-painted. In German it is known as Hinterglasmalerei. 

This art form has been around for many years. It was widely used for sacral paintings since Middle Ages. The most famous was the art of icons in the Byzantine Empire. Later the painting on glass spread to Italy where in Venice it influenced its Renaissance art. Since the middle of the 18th century, painting on glass became favored by the Church and the nobility throughout Central Europe. More



The foot washing, Staffelsee, 2nd Period 19th century. In bright colors running scene in opulent interior and drapery, in the foreground Jesus, Peter's Feet washing. Profiled wooden frame with gilded interior bar. 30 x 23 cm. More

Washing of the Feet, is a religious rite observed by several Christian denominations. John 13:1–17 mentions Jesusperforming this act. More

The Supper, Staffelsee, 2nd Period 19th century. In bright colors running scene in opulent interior with chandeliers and drapery, in the foreground with Judas' pieces of silver. Profiled wooden frame with gilded interior bar. 30 x 23 cm. More

The proclamation, Romania, Nicula, around 1800. In bright colors and gold foil running scene with stylized interior, along the right side, Maria, in front of her the Angel of the Annunciation, about the Holy Spirit as a dove. Stylized Zopfrahmen in red and white against dark blue background. Light color abrasion. Profiled wooden frame. 33 x 29.5 cm. More

Angel of the Annunciation; In Abrahamic religions, Gabriel is an archangel who typically serves as a messenger sent from God to certain people. More

The crucifixion, Romania, Nicula, E. 18th century. Expressive executed in bright colors and gold foil glass painting with Mary and the disciple John under the cross of Christ standing surrounded by stylized draperies. Broad, profiled wooden frame. 34 x 30.5 cm. More

Rosary, Romania, Nicula, 19th century. In bright colors rendered picture with in a black robe draped with rose decoration Mother of God, the home to the cross of Jesus bowing. The white and blue background is decorated with rose branches.  31.5 x 26.5 cm. More

Theotokos is the Greek title of Mary, the mother of Jesus used especially in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic Churches. Its literal English translations include "God-bearer", "Birth-Giver of God" and "the one who gives birth to God." Less literal translations include "Mother of God."

Roman Catholics and Anglicans use the title "Mother of God" more often than "Theotokos." The Council of Ephesus decreed in 431 that Mary is Theotokos because her son Jesus is both God and man: one Divine Person with two natures (Divine and human) intimately, hypostatically united. More

Heavenly board, Romania, Nicula, A. 19C. Limited by red ridges, light blue diamond fields with Jesus, the Virgin Mary with the Child, St. Nicholas and St. Paraskeva a gold foil Deposited, surrounded by painted rosettes Rautenfeld. Polychrome painted with light paint chipping. Profiled wooden frame. 31 x 26 cm as a model before this Hinterglasbild probably served the woodcuts of Hajdate near Cluj (Cluj), where the issue occurs already in the 1st half of the 18th century. More

Saint Nicholas; (15 March 270 – 6 December 343AD), also called Nikolaos of Myra, was a historic 4th-century Christian saint and Greek Bishop of Myra (part of modern-day Turkey). Because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession, he is also known as Nikolaos the Wonderworke. He had a reputation for secret gift-giving, and thus became the model for Santa Claus, whose modern name comes from the Dutch Sinterklaas. His reputation evolved among the faithful, as was common for early Christian saints. In 1087, part of the relics (about half of the bones) were furtively translated to Bari, in Apulia, Italy; for this reason, he is also known as Nikolaos of Bari. The remaining bones were taken to Venice in 1100. More


Saint Paraskevi, The Parthenomartyr, (July 26th), was born near Rome during the reign of Hadrian (117-138 AD). Her parents were the pious Christian and prayed fervently for a child, and God finally blessed their piety. They gave great honor to Friday, the day of Our Lord's suffering. Being born on this day, her parents named her Paraskevi ("Friday" in Greek, but literally "preparation").

St Paraskevi obtained an excellent education from both secular and Scriptural instructors. She was also very knowledgeable in the field of philosophy. Her understanding and kindness made her even more desirable. When she was 20 years old, both her parents died 1eaving her as the sole heir to the family fortune. Filled with the spirit of Christ and Christian ideals, she sold all her worldly possessions using the money to relieve human suffering. There was a portion retained to a community treasury that supported a home for reverent virgins like a contemporary monastery. 

She left Rome at the age of 30 and began her holy mission, passing through many cities and villages. St Paraskevi’s activities occurred during a period that the Jews and Romans persecuted the Christian religion with the greatest intensity. Antoninus Pius (138-161AD) ruled Rome at this time, and protected Christians against the blind mania of the Jewish and Roman inhabitants. 

Paraskevi spoke persuasively to her fellow Roman citizens, leading them from idolatry to faith in Christ. Eventually, Antoninus heard of St. Paraskevi's holy mission. Upon her return to Rome, several Jews filed complaints about her and Antoninus summoned her to his palace to question her. Attracted by her beauty and humility he tried with kind words to make her denounce her faith, even promising to marry her. Angered by her refusal he had a steel helmet, lined with nails and compressed on her head with a vice. It had no effect on the Saint. Antoninus again continued her torture by having her hung by her hair and at the same time burning her hands and arms with torches. The Saint suffered greatly, but had the will not to submit to the pain. Antoninus then prepared a large cauldron of oil and tar, boiled the mixture and then had Paraskevi immersed in it. 

Miraculously she stood in it as if she being refreshed rather than burned. Antoninus then approached the cauldron only to be blinded by the hot steam and searing emissions coming from the area. At this moment the mighty emperor asked for the intervention of St Paraskevi to heal him from this affliction to which she responded immediately, and he regained his sight. 

Humbled by the miracle he freed the Saint. From this episode it is clear to the Christians that St Paraskevi has the intercessional ability to help people with visual ailments. Antoninus released Paraskevi and ceased persecuting Christians throughout the Empire.

After Antoninus' death in 161, a plague broke out throughout the empire. Romans took it as a sign from their gods that that they were angered by the tolerance of Christianity. Under Antoninus' successor, Marcus Aurelius (161-180AD), the laws dealing with "non-believers" were cahnged and the persecutions against the Christians resumed.

The provincial eparchs Asclepius and Tarasios captured St Paraskevi. She was thrown into a snake pit. The Saint made the Sign of the Cross over the serpent and the serpent perished. St Paraskevi was then tied, beaten, and imprisoned. She was then convicted and condemned to death by beheading. More

Mary with grief Rosary, Romania, Nicula, E. 18 / A. 19C. Mary adorned with roses garment tends her head to the cross of Jesus. Design in bright colors and gold foil, partially rubbed. Profiled wooden frame. Besch. 28 x 23 cm. More



Saint George and the Dragon, Romania, 19th century. Painted in bright colors against a white ground, partly supplemented. St. George, Scheii Brasovului, performed in colorful, bright colors, partly backed by gold foil, consolidated jumps with small loss. H. 45-71 cm

The story of Saint George and the Dragon was Eastern in origin, brought back with the Crusaders and retold with the courtly appurtenances belonging to the genre of Romance. 

In the Golden Legend, the narrative episode of Saint George and the Dragon took place somewhere he called "Silene", in Libya; the Golden Legend is the first to place this story in Libya as a sufficiently exotic locale, where a dragon might be found. In the tenth-century Georgian narrative, the place is the fictional city of Lasia, and the idolatrous emperor who rules the city is called Selinus.

The town had a pond where a dragon dwelt. It poisoned all the countryside. To appease the dragon, the people of Silene used to feed it two sheep every day, and when the sheep failed, they fed it their children, chosen by lottery. One day the lot fell on the king's daughter, Sabra who was sent out to the lake, dressed as a bride, to be fed to the dragon. 

Saint George by chance rode past the lake. The princess, trembling, sought to send him away, but George vowed to remain. As the dragon reared out of the lake while they were conversing. Saint George fortified himself with the Sign of the Cross, charged it on horseback with his lance, and gave it a grievous wound. He then called to the princess to throw him her girdle, and he put it around the dragon's neck. When she did so, the dragon followed the girl like a meek beast on a leash.

Saint George then called out to them, saying that if they consented to become Christians and be baptised, he would slay the dragon before them. The king and the people of Silene converted to Christianity, George slew the dragon, and the body was carted out of the city on four ox-carts. More

The Holy Trinity, Romania, Nicula, 19th century. Executed in polychrome painting. Profiled wooden frame. 34 x 28.5 cm

The Christian doctrine of the Trinity defines God as three consubstantial persons,expressions, or hypostases: the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit; "one God in three persons". The three persons are distinct, yet are one "substance, essence or nature". More

The Holy Trinity, Romania, Nicula, 19th cent. Depicted against a white background in bright colors, framed by rose branch scene with God the Father, Christ Carrying the Cross and the Holy Spirit as a dove.  47 x 37.5 cm. More

Holy Demetrios, Romania, Nicula, 19th century. In bright colors executed representation of the Holy '' DUMITRU '' surrounded by rose branches.  28 x 23 cm. More

Saint Demetrios; the earliest written accounts of his life were compiled in the 9th century. According to these early accounts, Demetrius was born to pious Christian parents in Thessaloniki, Illyricum in 270AD. The biographies have Demetrius as a young man of senatorial family who was run through with spears in around 306 AD in Thessaloniki, during the Christian persecutions of Diocletian and Galerian. More

The heavenly board, Romania, Nicula, 19th century. In bright colors painted. In diamond fields Jesus, Maria are presented with the baby Jesus, Holy Paraskeva and St. Nicholas, surrounded by rich rose decoration. 49 x 38 cm. More

The resurrection, Romania, Nicula to 1800. In bright colors painted against a white background Resurrection of Jesus among the sleeping soldiers, surrounded by rose branches. Profiled wooden frame. 31 x 25.5 cm More

Jesus' birth, Romania, Nicula, 19th century. Represented before light blue background in bright colors, framed by roses scene with Mary, Joseph and Jesus as a babe in the background ox and donkey, about the shining star. Shortened at the bottom. Schlichter wooden frame. 27 x 26 cm. More

The Nativity, Romania, Nicula, 2nd half of the 19th century. Represented before light blue background in colorful, bright colors, from rose branches framed birth of Jesus with Joseph, Mary and the infant in swaddling clothes, in the background ox and donkey and the sculptured star. Schlichter, ornamental ornate wooden frame. 47.5 x 37 cm. More

The Archangels Michael and Gabriel, Romania, Nicula, 1st half of the 19th century. Before white ground of rose branches framed, performed in bright colors and gold leaf representation of the two archangels with attributes. Schlichter wooden frame. 33 x 28.5 cm. More


The Archangels Michael leads God's armies against Satan's forces in the Book of Revelation, where during the war in heaven he defeats Satan. Michael is specifically referred to as "the archangel Michael". Christian sanctuaries to Michael appeared in the 4th century, when he was first seen as a healing angel, and then over time as a protector and the leader of the army of God against the forces of evil. By the 6th century, devotions to Archangel Michael were widespread both in the Eastern and Western Churches. More

Gabriel is an archangel who typically serves as a messenger sent from God to certain people. More


The Fathers, Romania, Laz or Lancram, mid-19th century. In bright colors and gold foil executed presentation of the hierarchs Gregory, Basil and John. Part retouched. 28.5 x 23.5 cm More

Saint Gregory the Great was the first of the popes to come from a monastic background. Gregory is a Doctor of the Church and one of the Latin Fathers. Immediately after his death, Gregory was canonized by popular acclaim. He is the patron saint of musicians, singers, students, and teachers. More

Saint Basil the Great was an influential theologian who supported the Nicene Creed and opposed the heresies of the early Christian church, fighting against both Arianism and the followers of Apollinaris of Laodicea. His ability to balance his theological convictions with his political connections made Basil a powerful advocate for the Nicene position. Basil was known for his care of the poor and underprivileged. Basil established guidelines for monastic life which focus on community life, liturgical prayer, and manual labour. More

Saint John Chrysostom,  Archbishop of Constantinople, was an important Early Church Father. He is known for his preaching and public speaking, his denunciation of abuse of authority by both ecclesiastical and political leaders, the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, and his ascetic sensibilities. He emphasized charitable giving and was concerned with the spiritual and temporal needs of the poor. He also spoke against abuse of wealth and personal property. More


The Circumcision of Jesus, Lancram, painter Ioan Kostea, 19th century. The circumcision of the child Jesus by the High Priest with assistance liturgical figure in the parent's presence in the temple area. The Feast of the Circumcision of the Lord is celebrated in the Orthodox Church on 14 January. As stated in the Old Testament, the Circumcision ritual was carried out eight days after the Christ's birth. Together with the later baptism performed by John the Baptist, transitions from the Old to the New Testament. Jesus Christ united both ritual in itself. More

The grief Rosary, Romania, Alttal, mid-19th century. Before cobalt blue ground running in bright colors scene of the Virgin Mary, her head leaning to the crucifix, surrounded by stylized draperies and winged angel's head (Gabriel). Wide wooden frame with former red interior bar. 42 x 36 cm. More

The Holy Trinity, Laz, Malerfamilie Poienaru 1884 framed by flower borders represents the Trinity on a cloud bank, the globe, supported by three angels. Design in bright colors and gold foil, partly rubbed. Dated lower left in red. Profiled, red and brown painted wooden frame with cord ornament,  51.5 x 46 cm. More

Saint George,  Romania, Fagaras, Malerfamilie Deji, 2nd half of the 19th century Rich, ornamental paintings in bright colors. The noble knight slaying the dragon, left the grateful, rescued Princess, right Cherub. Schlichter wooden frame with wavy decor. 85.5 x 70 cm. More

The mourners and the Virgin, Romania, Fagaras, Malerfamilie Deji, 2nd half of the 19th century Rich, ornamental painting in bright colors. Maria as a grieving mother of God looks on with bowed head, surrounded by cherubim crucifix. Links of the risen Jesus in blessing attitude.  Schlichter wooden frame with wavy decor. 85.5 x 70.5 cm. More

Constantine and Helen,  Romania, Scheii Brasovolui, 2nd half of the 19th century. In bright colors and gold foil executed against dark blue background image with standing under the cross saints surrounded by cherubs and Rose ornaments. Schlichter wooden frame. 45 x 39 cm. More

Saint Constantine the Great; (27 February c. 272 AD – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD of Thracian-Illyrian ancestry. Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman army officer, and his consort Helena. 

Constantine was the first Roman emperor to claim conversion to Christianity, and played an influential role in the proclamation of the Edict of Milan, which decreed tolerance for Christianity in the empire. He built a new imperial residence at Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople after himself. It would later become the capital of the Empire for over one thousand years; for which reason the later Eastern Empire would come to be known as the Byzantine Empire. More

Saint Helena, (c. 250 – c. 330was the mother of Saint Constantine the Great, and was born at Drepanum (Helenopolis) in Asia Minor to parents of humble means. 

Saint Helena was an important figure in the history of Christianity and the world due to her major influence on her son and her own contributions in placing Christianity at the heart of Western Civilization. She is traditionally credited with a pilgrimage to Syria Palaestina, during which she is claimed to have discovered the True Cross.

She is revered as a saint by the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, the Roman Catholic, and the Anglican as well as commemorated by the Lutheran Church.. More


Saint Demetrios, Banat, Biserica Alba, 19th century. On a dark blue background illustrated in bright colors and gold leaf with the saint on horseback, killing the pagan Emperor of Bulgaria. In the right corner of a floating angel carrying a wreath. Edges with ornamental borders. Schlichter wooden frame. 47.5 x 41 cm (with frame). Demetrios was the son of an influential Roman family, who was killed by 306AD during the persecution of Christians in Thessaloniki by pierced him with spears, because he refused to follow its co-coreligionists. More

Holy Elias through the cloud, Romania, 19C , band split, executed in gold foil and colorful painting of representation:. Saint Elias in gold, drawn by red, winged horses cars, including the plowing Elisa stylized, exotic landscape. Farbabrieb. Schlichter wooden frame. 53 x 42 cm (with frame). Very rare representation of Elijah motif. More

Elijah was a prophet and a wonder-worker in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of Ahab (9th century BC). Elijah defended the worship of Yahweh over that of the Canaanite idol Baal. He also had God perform miracles for him, which included raising the dead, bringing fire down from the sky, and having himself be taken up, "by a whirlwind". In the Book of Malachi, Elijah's return is prophesied "before the coming of the great and terrible day of the Lord", making him a harbinger of the Messiah and the eschaton in various faiths that revere the Hebrew Bible. Elias was snatched away by a fiery chariot in the year 895 B.C. References to Elijah appear in the Talmud, the Mishnah, the New Testament and the Qur'an. More

Christ and the vine, Romania, Scheii Brasovului, 2nd half of 19th century. In gold foil and bright colors executed Hinterglasbild with representation of Christ on a chest sitting, from his right side outgrows a vine with leaves and rich grapes loops around the cross. A grape is pressed by Christ in a golden chalice as a symbol of the Eucharist. Min. Farbabrieb. Schlichter, ornamental painted wooden frame. 43 x 38.5 cm. More

Holy Haralambius, Romania, Scheii Brasovolui, 2nd half of the 19th century. The Holy is facing architectural backdrop. Standing in a blessing posture,stands on a chain that lies at his feet, personification of the plague, which has conquered the him. Version with depth effect in multi-colored, mostly dark colors and gold foil. Brown painted wooden frame. 47 x 42 cm. More

Holy Haralambius, also known as Saint Charalambos. Charalambos was Bishop of Magnesia,  in central Greece, and spread the Gospel in that region for many years. However, when news of his preaching reached the authorities of the area, he was arrested and brought to trial, where he confessed his faith in Christ and refused to offer sacrifice to idols.

Despite his advanced age, he was tortured mercilessly. They lacerated his body with iron hooks, and scraped all the skin from his body. He was later condemned to death and led to the place of execution, Charalambos prayed that God grant that the place where his relics would repose would never suffer famine or disease. More


Saint Nicholas, Romania, Fagaras, 2nd half of the 19th century. Before dark blue ground shown in bright colors, gold and silver foil the saint in his blessing posture, the right, the three young women, left the grateful father.  51 x 46.5 cm. More

In Saint Nicholas' most famous exploit, a poor man had three daughters but could not afford a proper dowry for them. This meant that they would remain unmarried and probably, in absence of any other possible employment, would have to become prostitutes. Even if they did not, unmarried maidens in those days would have been assumed as being a prostitute. Hearing of the girls' plight, Nicholas decided to help them, but being too modest to help the family in public (or to save them the humiliation of accepting charity), he went to the house under the cover of night and threw three purses (one for each daughter) filled with gold coins through the window opening into the house. More


Saint Nicholas, Romania, Lancram, mid-19th century. Mostly in green and yellow executed on Silver Fund with the blessed Saint Nicholas, at his feet the grateful father, right, the three virgins, above Christ and the Blessed Mother. Schlichter wooden frame. 47 x 40.5 cm. More


Coronation of the Virgin, Romania, Zone Alba, Painters Family Prodan (attr.), 2nd half of the 19th century. In bright colors and rich gold foil running presentation on cloud band was assisted by cherubim. Profiled wooden frame. 51.5 x 45 cm. More

Christ Pantocrator, Romania, Zone Alba, 19th century. Fragment. In colorful paint and gold foil executed representation of blessing, seated on a throne of Christ, in the upper corners of the Sun and Moon. Profiled wooden frame. 35 x 35 cm. More

In Christian iconography, Christ Pantocrator refers to a specific depiction of Christ.


Coronation of the Virgin, Romania, Lancram, 19th century. Mainly in greens and browns, and black and white representation of the Coronation of the Virgin performed on cloud bank surrounded by point rosettes. Fond of silver-coated paper. Profiled, simple wooden frame. 46.5 x 41.5 cm. More

The last Judgment, Lancram, Malerfamilie Kostea, 2nd half of the 19th century. Christ sits in central box on the heavenly throne and calls on the Last Judgment, beside him, John the Baptist and the Virgin Mary. God the Father and the Holy Spirit as a dove. A variety of saints, sometimes it attributes, grouped around the Saints Constantine and Helen, carrying at the lower frame the cross of Christ. In the corners Fichtenzapfen with foliage. Polychrome paint, mainly, partly rubbed in strong green and red. Profiled, red and black painted wooden frame, decorated with white dot rosettes. 54.5 x 48 cm. More

The Three Hierarchs, Marginimea Sibiului, Saliste, painter Ion Morar (1815-1890) in bright colors executed and filed, with gold foil glass picture with the under arcades Fathers of the Orthodox Church, Basil of Caesarea, John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzen, in the Left the gospel, the rights to the benediction raised. In inscriptions. Dark, profiled wooden frame. 47.5 x 42 cm. More

Gregory made a significant impact on the shape of Trinitarian theology among both Greek- and Latin-speaking theologians, and he is remembered as the "Trinitarian Theologian". Much of his theological work continues to influence modern theologians, especially in regard to the relationship among the three Persons of the Trinity. Along with the brothers Basil the Great and Gregory of Nyssa, he is known as one of the Cappadocian Fathers. More