Sunday, January 29, 2017

18 Classic Works of Art by the Old Masters, Marine Paintings - With Footnotes, #22

Germain Fabius Brest, 1823 - 1900, FRENCH
ON THE BOSPHORUS
Oil on canvas
117 by 89cm., 46 by 35in.
Private Collection

Encouraged by his teacher in Marseille, Emile Loubon, Fabius Brest spent four years, from 1855 until 1859, living in Turkey, recording in a series of paintings views of Constantinople, the surrounding countryside, and the Black Sea coast. The time he spent there continued to inspire his work for the rest of his career, and provided the subjects for many of his Salon submissions throughout the 1860s and 1870s. More

Germain Fabius Brest (born 1823 - died in 1900) is a French orientalist painter. He studied his art with painters Emile Loubon, Marseille, and Constant Troyon in Paris.
On the advice of Loubon who made a living in Palestine. He then traveled to Turkey from 1855 to 1859, from where he returned with many landscape paintings.

The east, and especially architecture orientale remained his main sources of inspiration throughout his life. More Germain Fabius Brest 

Marc-Aurèle Fortin, 1888 - 1970
Barge, Port of Montreal
Watercolour and pencil, c. 1934
10.25 x 13.75 in
Private Collection

Marc-Aurèle Fortin (March 14, 1888 – March 2, 1970) was a Québécois painter, born in 1888 in Ste-Rose, Quebec. He studied art in Montreal and worked at the Montreal Post Office, and at an Edmonton bank. He studied art abroad. He was known for painting watercolour landscapes of the St. Lawrence Valley. He travelled around the St. Lawrence Valley by bicycle. Fortin believed that "Canadian artists should take their inspiration from the countryside and progress towards a national art... We should excel in landscapes, exactly as the French do".

He was part of the first Atelier exhibition at Henry Morgan Galleries in April 1932 together with Atelier founder John Goodwin Lyman, André Biéler, and Edwin Holgate. Fortin was exhibited by Galerie L'Art français from the 1940s.

His works are displayed at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts in Montreal. He was a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts[3] He died in 1970. More

Marc-Aurèle Fortin, 1888 - 1970
ANTIBES, LE PORT
Watercolour
28 x 37 cm
Private Collection

Marc-Aurèle Fortin, 1888 - 1970, see above

Montague Dawson, (1890–1973)
A merchant convoy under escort, c. 1918
pencil, watercolour and bodycolour
6 x 7 ½ in. (15.2 x 19 cm.)
Private Collection

Montague Dawson RMSA, FRSA (1890–1973) was a British painter who was renowned as a maritime artist. His most famous paintings depict sailing ships, usually clippers or warships of the 18th and 19th centuries. Montague was the son of a keen yachtsman and the grandson of the marine painter Henry Dawson (1811–1878), born in Chiswick, London. Much of his childhood was spent on Southampton Water where he was able to indulge his interest in the study of ships. For a brief period around 1910 Dawson worked for a commercial art studio in Bedford Row, London, but with the outbreak of the First World War he joined the Royal Navy. Whilst serving with the Navy in Falmouth he met Charles Napier Hemy (1841–1917), who considerably influenced his work. In 1924 Dawson was the official artist for an Expedition to the South Seas by the steam yacht St.George. During the expedition he provided illustrated reports to the Graphic magazine.

After the War, Dawson established himself as a professional marine artist, concentrating on historical subjects and portraits of deep-water sailing ships. During the Second World War, he was employed as a war artist. Dawson exhibited regularly at the Royal Society of Marine Artists, of which he became a member, from 1946 to 1964, and occasionally at the Royal Academy between 1917 and 1936. By the 1930s he was considered one of the greatest living marine artists, whose patrons included two American Presidents, Dwight D Eisenhower and Lyndon B Johnson, as well as the British Royal Family. Also in the 1930s, he moved to Milford-Upon-Sea in Hampshire, living there for many years. Dawson is noted for the strict accuracy in the nautical detail of his paintings which often sell for six figures.

The work of Montague Dawson is represented in the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich and the Royal Naval Museum, Portsmouth. More Montague Dawson

Nicholas Pocock, 1740 - 1821
View of Southampton, taken from the shore towards Netley Abbey, c. 1908
Oil on canvas
19 ¼ x 29 ½ in. (48.9 x 74.9 cm.)
Private Collection

Nicholas Pocock (2 March 1740 – 9 March 1821) was a British artist known for his many detailed paintings of naval battles during the age of sail. Pocock was born in Bristol in 1740, the son of a seaman. He followed his father's profession and was master of a merchant ship by the age of 26. During his time at sea, he became a skilled artist by making ink and wash sketches of ships and coastal scenes for his log books.

In 1778, Pocock's employer, Richard Champion, became financially insolvent due to the effects of the American Revolutionary War on transatlantic trade. As a result, Pocock gave up the sea and devoted himself to painting. The first of his works were exhibited by the Royal Academy in 1782. Later that year, Pocock was commissioned to produce a series of paintings illustrating George Rodney's victory at the Battle of the Saintes. In 1789, he moved to London, where his reputation and contacts continued to grow. He was a favourite of Samuel Hood and was appointed Marine Painter to King George.

Pocock's naval paintings incorporated extensive research, including interviewing eyewitnesses about weather and wind conditions as well as the positions, condition, and appearance of their ships; and drawing detailed plans of the battle and preliminary sketches of individual ships. 

In addition to his large-scale oil paintings depicting naval battles, Pocock also produced many watercolours of coastal and ship scenes. More

Alberto Pasini, 1826 - 1899, ITALIAN
Golden Horn, Istambul, circa 1876
Oil on panel
22.5 x 35.5 cm;
Private Collection

Alberto Pasini (Busseto, 3 September 1826 – Cavoretto, 15 December 1899) was an Italian painter. He was enrolled at the age of 17 years, in the Academy of Fine Art of Parma, studying landscape painting and drawing. In Parma, he was helped early on by Antonio Pasini, who painted for the local nobility and collaborated with the publishing house established by Giovanni Battista Bodoni. By 1852, he exhibited a series of thirty designs, made into lithographs, depicting various castles around Piacenza, Lunigiana and Parma. He was noticed by the artist Paolo Toschi, who encouraged Pasini to travel to Paris, where Pasini first joined the workshop of Charles and Eugène Ciceri, of the so-called School of Barbizon.

In 1853 his lithograph of The Evening gained him admittance to the Paris Salon, and to the workshop of the famous Théodore Chassériau. The eruption of the Crimean War offered a new opportunity, when in February 1855, this latter painter recommended Pasini to replace him on the entourage of the French plenipotentiary minister Nicolas Prosper Bourée to Persia. Pasini accompanied him, returning through the north of Persia and Armenia before reaching the port of Trebizond. In subsequent trips, he visited Egypt, the Red Sea, Arabia, Istanbul, and Persia. Pasini parlayed his exposures during this trip into numerous highly detailed paintings of orientalist subjects. He left again for Istanbul in October 1867, summoned by the French Ambassador Bourée. He returned to Turkey in 1876 to execute the four paintings commissioned by Sultan Abdul Aziz. He was about to return to Istanbul the next year, when his patron, the Sultan, died.

Alberto Pasini, 1826 - 1899, ITALIAN
Market in Istanbul (Constantinople), c. 1868
Oil on canvas
Height: 23.5 cm (9.3 in). Width: 90 cm (35.4 in).
Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum,  Madrid, Spain


In 1865, he spent some time in Cannes, painted landscapes of the Riviera. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, he returned to Italy, settling in Cavoretto, on the hills around Turin. He continued to travel, closer to his home, with trips to Venice and two sojourns in Spain in 1879 and 1883. More Alberto Pasini 

Emil Jakob Schindler, 1842 - 1892
Küstenlandschaft in Dalmatien (Dalmatian Coastline), c. 1890
Oil on Canvas

Emil Jakob Schindler (April 27, 1842 – August 9, 1892) was an Austrian landscape painter. He was born into a family of manufacturers that had been established in Lower Austria since the 17th Century. He was supposed to pursue a career in the military, but rejected that for a career in the arts. In 1860, he entered the Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna, where he studied with Albert Zimmermann. He found his models, however, in the Dutch Masters such as Meindert Hobbema and Jacob Izaaksoon van Ruisdael. In 1873, he travelled to Venice, followed by trips to Dalmatia and Holland.

In 1875, he married the operetta singer Anna von Bergen (1857–1938), who may have been pregnant at the time of the wedding. Their financial situation was somewhat desperate and they had to share an apartment with a colleague of Schindler's, Julius Victor Berger. 

Emil Jakob Schindler, 1842 - 1892
Küstenlandschaft in Dalmatien (Dalmatian Coastline), c. 1887
Oil on Canvas

View of Ragusa (Dubrovnik), painted in 1887 during Jakob Emil Schindler second journey to the Dalmatian coast. The people shown in the foreground are the artist’s wife, the Hamburg singer Anna Sofie Moll-Schindler-Bergen, and their daughter Alma Mahler and Franz Werfel. The figures on the right in the middle of the work are the painter Carl Julius Rudolf Moll, shown dressed as a gardener, and Schindler’s second daughter, Margarethe. Schindler had rented a house in Dubrovnik which is clearly visible at the edge of the cliffs. During severe Sirocco winds the waves would break over the cliff, creating a magical spectacle. More View of Ragusa

In 1881, he won the Reichel Prize, which came with a cash award of 1,500 Gulden, enabling the family to rent their own apartment. Winning the prize also served to attract clients and their financial condition continued to improve. After 1885, he spent his summers at the artists colony in Plankenberg Castle near Neulengbach.  Two years later, he received a commission from Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria to sketch the coastal towns in Dalmatia and Greece, as part of a project called "The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in Words and Pictures" (24 volumes). That same year, he became an honorary member of the Vienna Academy. In 1888, the Munich Academy followed suit.

He died as the result of appendicitis. The city of Vienna gave him an "Ehrengrab" (Honor Grave) at the Zentralfriedhof, designed by the sculptor Edmund von Hellmer. Three years later, Hellmer created a statue of him for the Stadtpark.[1] A street in the Währing District named after him. More Emil Jakob Schindler

William Edward Norton, (American, 1843-1916)
Bustling Fishing Port
Oil on canvas
22 3/4 x 29 3/4 in. (57.8 x 75.5 cm)
Private Collection

William Edward Norton (1843-1916), American. Born in Boston to a New England family of shipbuilders, Norton's interest in ships led him initially to a career at sea. After his sea service, he enrolled at both Harvard Medical School and the Lowell Institute, where his interest in art led him to study under the master American landscape painter, George Inness.

Later opening a studio in Boston, Norton enjoyed immediate success. From the sale of his paintings he financed further art studies in Europe. While painting in London, he found wide acceptance in many of the major European galleries, including the Paris salon, the most prestigious venue for an artist of his day to exhibit. He was awarded an honorable mention by the salon in 1900.

Returning to America he continued to receive strong recognition, representing the United States at the International Exposition of 1900 and winning the coveted Osorne Prize for marine painting in 1905 & 1906. Today, this important American artist's work continues to attract connoisseurs of quality marine paintings in both Europe and America. More William Edward Norton

Thomas Buttersworth, 1768 - 1842
An Austrian frigate in two positions off the harbour at Cadiz
Oil on canvas
22 x 30 in. (55.9 x 76.2 cm.)
Private Collection

Thomas Buttersworth (5 May 1768 – November 1842) was an English seaman of the Napoleonic wars period who became a marine painter. He produced works to commission, and was little exhibited during his lifetime.

Butterworth was born on the Isle of Wight. He enlisted in the Royal Navy in London in 1795, and served on HMS Caroline during the wars with France, before being invalided home from Minorca in 1800.

The National Maritime Museum in London has 27 watercolours by him, several of which are mounted on sheets from 18th century printed signal and muster books. He went on to paint numerous naval battle scenes and pictures such as the ‘'Inshore Squadron off Cadiz in 1797'’ which are thought to show scenes he witnessed. On being appointed Marine Painter to the East India Company he painted ship portraits on commission. It had been thought that he died in 1830, but recent research has found that he painted Queen Victoria’s visit to Edinburgh in 1842 before he died in London later that year. More Thomas Buttersworth 

Thomas Buttersworth, 1768 - 1842
British '74' engaging the enemy, with a pilot cutter beyond
Oil on canvas laid down on board
25 x 30 in. (63.5 x 76.2 cm.)
Private Collection

Thomas Buttersworth (5 May 1768 – November 1842), see above

Walter Lofthouse Dean, (American, 1854-1912)
A Summer Day on the Dutch Shore
Oil on canvas
20 x 30 in. (50.7 x 76.3 cm)
Private Collection

Walter Lofthouse Dean (June 4, 1854 – March 13, 1912) was an American marine-landscape painter, commodore of the Boston Yacht Club and Vice President of the Boston Art Club. While Dean is primarily known for marine paintings from the Boston, Massachusetts region, he also developed many charcoal, pen and pencil drawings, watercolors and oil paintings of non-marine topics, including still life, architecture and landscapes. Dean was a recognized artist while he was alive and was listed in the 1903 Men of Massachusetts, along with Who's Who in American Art. Dean's most famous painting, Peace, is owned by the US Government and was exhibited at the Chicago World's Fair in May–October 1893. More Walter Lofthouse Dean

Sir William Russell Flint, 1880-1969 (United Kingdom)
Sireny watch (Sirens observed), c. 1959
Watercolor on paper
27.5 x 37
Private Collection

Sir William Russell Flint (4 April 1880 – 30 December 1969) was a Scottish artist and illustrator who was known especially for his watercolour paintings of women. He also worked in oils, tempera, and printmaking. He was born in Edinburgh then educated at Daniel Stewart's College and Edinburgh Institution. From 1894 to 1900 Flint apprenticed as a lithographic draughtsman while taking classes at the Royal Institute of Art, Edinburgh. From 1900 to 1902 he worked as a medical illustrator in London while studying part-time at Heatherley's Art School. He furthered his art education by studying independently at the British Museum. 

Flint was elected president of Britain’s Royal Society of Painters in Watercolours (now the Royal Watercolour Society) in 1936 to 1956, and knighted in 1947. More

Jan Hillebrand Wijsmuller, (Dutch, 1855-1925)
Horse-drawn Cart on Beach
Oil on board
12 x 18 in. (30.5 x 45.8 cm)
Private Collection

Jan Hillebrand Wijsmuller (13 February 1855 in Amsterdam – 23 May 1925 in Amsterdam) was a Dutch painter. He belongs to The 2. Golden Age of Dutch Painting.

He is an impressionist of the School of Allebé, better known as Amsterdam Impressionism, part of the international movement of the Impressionism. From the art historical point of view he is one of the 2nd generation of the Hague School. He used the bright color palette of the French Impressionists, too – but from the perspective of a Dutchman. More Jan Hillebrand Wijsmuller 

Giuseppe Laezza, (Italian, 1835-1905)
Fisherman's Family Beside a Beached Vessel
Oil on canvas
10 x 19 1/4 in. (25.2 x 49.0 cm)
Private Collection

Giuseppe Laezza (1835-1905) was an Italian painter, mainly of landscapes. He resided in Naples where in 1877 he exhibited: Dopo il tramonto; San Germano; Cassino, and Una mala pesca alla Marinella. Among his works are: A Procession of Children to the Festival of Ponti Rossi, End of the Grape Harvest; Panorama of Sorrento;Curiosity of a Painter; and Un bagno pubblico a San Giovanni a Teduccio, exhibited at Turin in 1884. He became a professor at Naples. He died in poverty. More Giuseppe Laezza

Giuseppe Laezza,  (Italian, 1835–1905)
Marina di Napoli con pescatori e veduta del Vesuvio
Naples Marina with fishermen and view of Vesuvius
Oil on panel
23.8 x 41 cm. (9.4 x 16.1 in.)
Private Collection

Fausto Zonaro (18 September 1854 – 19 July 1929) was an Italian painter, best known for his Realist style paintings of life and history of the Ottoman Empire. Born in Masi, a municipality in the Province of Padua, then part of the Austrian Empire. He was the eldest child of the mason Maurizio. Maurizio intended that his son should also be a mason, yet at a young age, Fausto showed a great ability at drawing. With his parents’ consent, he enrolled first in the Technical Institute in Lendinara, then in the Cignaroli Academy in Verona. Fausto opened a small art school and studio in Venice.

He actively displayed works in exhibition and gained respect of critics. He painted mainly genre works in oil and watercolor. The turning point in Zonaro’s career occurred however in 1891, when he fell in love with Elisabetta Pante, a pupil of his in Venice, And together they traveled to Istanbul, capital of the Ottoman Empire. They were partly inspired by Edmondo de Amicis’ orientalist travel book Constantinopoli.

Fausto Zonaro, 1854 - 1929, ITALIAN
VIEW OF THE BOSPHORUS
Oil on panel
23 by 40cm., 9 by 15¾in.
Private Collection

In 1892, Zonaro and Pante married, and lived in the Istanbul neighborhood of Pera. Over time he gained patronage in aristocratic circles. Munir Pasha, the Minister of Protocol, who invited him to visit Yıldız Palace and meet the prestigious local artist Osman Hamdi Bey. He was employed in teaching painting to the Pasha's wife, and in this way Zonaro and Pante got to know the important artistic figures of Istanbul of that time. In 1896 he was nominated as the court painter thanks to the intervention of the Russian ambassador.

Zonaro remained in Istanbul until 1909, when he returned to Italy following the Young Turk Revolution that overthrew his patron Abdulhamid II and the shift to constitutional monarchy. There would be no Ottoman court painter after him. He settled in Sanremo where he continued to paint small works depicting the Italian Riviera and the nearby French Riviera until his death. More

Fausto Zonaro, 1854 - 1929, ITALIAN
VIEW OF THE BOSPHORUS
Oil on panel
23 by 40cm., 9 by 15¾in.
Private Collection






Acknowledgement: SKINNERSotheby's

Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others



Saturday, January 28, 2017

06 Orientalist Paintings by Artists from the 19th Century, with footnotes, 13

Orientalism is a term that is used for the depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern cultures. It refers to the works of the Western artists on Oriental subjects, produced from their travels in Western Asia, during the 19th century. Depictions of Islamic "Moors" and "Turks" can be found in Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque art. A creative apprehension of a completely different world with its own laws, customs, special attitude towards life and death, love, feelings, and beauty. Wikipedia/Yana Naumovna Lukashevskaya

Rudolf Ernst, 1854 - 1932, AUSTRIAN
THE ARMS MERCHANT
Oil on panel
61 by 49cm., 24 by 19¼in
Private Collection

Rudolf Ernst’s The Arms Merchant focuses on all manner of closely observed weaponry, from the yataghan sword being inspected by the prospective customer, to the ivory-hilted kard (dagger), curved shamshir (sword), and Caucasian flintlock pistol on display on the floor. 

Rudolf Ernst, 1854 - 1932, AUSTRIAN
THE ARMS MERCHANT
Detail

Nearby, the merchant’s hookah pipe rests against the folds of the rug. The composition perfectly captures a Middle Eastern side street, the merchant’s canopy adorned with decorative ostrich egg pendants. Painted when Ernst was thirty-one, the present work is among the artist’s early Orientalist works, inspired by his recent travels to Egypt. Almost all his paintings were executed in his studio in Paris, which he decorated in an Eastern style and filled with the sketches and props he accumulated on his travels. More ARMS MERCHANT

Rudolf Ernst, 1854 - 1932, AUSTRIAN
THE ARMS MERCHANT
Detail

RUDOLF WEISSE(USTI (AUSSIG), BOHEMIA1869 - PARIS1930) was born in Usti (Aussig), Bohemia, a town on the banks of the Elbe. He studied at the Viennese Akademie der Bildenden Künste. He exhibited at the Salon in Paris between 1889 and 1927 and also showed paintings in Vienna, London, Bordeaux and Toulon. 

Weisse specialized in portraits and Orientalist views, chiefly street scenes in Cairo, which he must have visited. He was influenced by the colourful, meticulous and realistic genre scenes of the Viennese painters Ludwig Deutsch (1855-1935) and Rudolf Ernst (1854-1932). In 1889 Weiss was awarded a Médaille d’Honneur at the Parisian Exposition Universelle for Après la guerre – scène orientale and a Portrait de femme. He won a gold medal in Vienna in 1920. 

The work of Rudolf Weisse is represented in the Najd Collection. More Rudolf Ernst

Josep Tapiró Baró, 1836 - 1913, SPANISH
THE YOUNG RECRUITS
Watercolour and gouache
49.5 by 70cm., 19½ by 27½in.
Private Collection

Depicting a group of young boys playing city guards on the ramparts of the city fortifications built around the Medina of Tangiers by Pasha Er Riffi, The Young Recruits displays Tapiró's love of detailed, ethnographic observation, as well as his technical accomplishment in his chosen medium. More YOUNG RECRUITS

Josep Tapiró i Baró (17 February 1836, Reus - 4 October 1913, Tangier) was a Catalonian painter; best known for his watercolor portraits from Morocco. His first formal studies were in 1849 with Domènec Soberano, a local wine merchant and amateur painter. In 1853, he was given the opportunity to exhibit at a showing held by the Casino de Reus.

Later that year, he enrolled at the Escola de la Llotja. At this time, he produced mostly historical and religious scenes. In 1857 Tapiró moved to Madrid, where he enrolled at the "Escuela Superior de Pintura y Grabado", a branch of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. He returned to Barcelona in 1860 and assisted with decorating the façade at the Palau de la Generalitat de Catalunya.

Josep Tapiró, (1836 - 1913)
Berber Bride, circa 1896
Watercolour on paper
Height: 688 mm (27.09 in). Width: 476 mm (18.74 in).
Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya

In 1862, he joined his friend, Fortuny, in Rome and was introduced to his circle of artistic acquaintances. They also visited Naples and Florence. While there, he took evening classes to learn how to paint watercolors and his works began to focus more on genre themes. These works became very popular and established his reputation.

In 1871 he took a trip to Tangier. This would prove decisive for his career. In 1873, he held his first showing of Orientalist paintings at the "International Art Circle of Rome".

His memories of Tangier led him to join a diplomatic mission on its way to meet with Sultan Hassan I in 1876. Once there, he moved into a newly-built home near the medina quarter. He would live in Tangier for the rest of his life.

His health problems eventually led to his death in 1913. More Josep Tapiró i Baró 

Eugène Verdyen, 1836 - 1903, BELGIAN
A LADY OF SMYRNA
Oil on canvas
65 by 80cm., 25½ by 31½in.
Private Collection

Smyrna was an Ancient Greek city located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. This place is known today as İzmir, Turkey. Due to its advantageous port conditions, its ease of defence and its good inland connections, Smyrna rose to prominence. More Smyrna

Eugène Verdyen lived from 1836 to 1903.  Born in Liège, Eugène Verdyen studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Brussels, where he worked as a professor later.  Verdyen went on study trips to Italy, North Africa and Turkey.  His favorite depictions were landscapes and portraits.  In addition, he painted numerous genre scenes. More Eugène Verdyen

Georges Washington, 1827 - 1910, FRENCH
CROSSING THE FORD
Oil on canvas
55.5 by 81cm., 22 by 32in
Private Collection

George Washington, born 15 September 1827 in Marseille and died November 19, 1901 in Douarnenez, was a French Orientalist painter. Like most aspiring artists, the young Georges Washington moved to Paris, where he trained at the Ecole des Beaux Arts under François-Edouard Picot (1786-1868). The artist’s exotic style was also indebted to Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863). Washington’s art conveys a similar feeling to the work of Eugène Fromentin (1820-76) who often painted naturalistic Middle Eastern scenes of rural and nomadic life. Washington’s love of the Middle East and its customs was further enhanced and encouraged by his father-in-law, the military and Orientalist painter Henri-Félix-Emmanuel Philippoteaux (1815-1884), whose daughter Anne-Léonie Philippoteaux married Washington in Paris on 6th August 1859.

Georges Washington (French 1827-1910)
The Skirmish
Oil on canvas
23.5″ x 19.75″
Private Collection

Not long after finishing his training at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Washington embarked on the first of a number of trips to Algeria and based on close observation of its inhabitants, their dress and customs in 1857 he made his Paris debut at the Salon des Artistes Français with a view of nomads titled Plaine du Hoiina (Sahara Algérien). From then up until 1901 Washington continued to be a popular exhibitor at the Salon; one of his first works shown there to gain critical acclaim was Nomades dans le Sahara en Hiver. In addition to Paris, Washington also showed his work in Moscow in 1881 and was later posthumously honoured when four of his paintings were included in the Exposition Coloniale de Marseille in 1906.

Following two commissions from a Belgian company, he travelled to Morocco and then subsequently visited Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey, which were to inspire his varied subjects including battle scenes and cavalry skirmishes. His travels also took him to America for the unveiling in Philadelphia of a cyclorama (a monumental 360° panoramic view) of the Battle of Gettysburg by his brother-in-law Paul-Dominique Philippoteaux (1846-1923).

Following the death of his wife he retired to live with his daughter and son-in-law at Douarnenez on the Brittany coast, where he died shortly after on 19th November 1901. More George Washington










Acknowledgement: Sotheby's

Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others


Friday, January 27, 2017

17 Orientalist Paintings by Artists from the 19th Century, with footnotes, 11

Orientalism is a term that is used for the depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern cultures. It refers to the works of the Western artists on Oriental subjects, produced from their travels in Western Asia, during the 19th century. Depictions of Islamic "Moors" and "Turks" can be found in Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque art. A creative apprehension of a completely different world with its own laws, customs, special attitude towards life and death, love, feelings, and beauty. Wikipedia/Yana Naumovna Lukashevskaya

Etienne Dinet, 1861 - 1929, FRENCH
LE CAIRE, BRUME, POUSSIERE ET FUMEES DU SOIR
CAIRO, MIST, DUST AND EVENING FUMES
signed E DINET lower left
oil on board
37 by 75cm., 14½ by 29½in
Private Collection

Nasreddine Dinet (born as Alphonse-Étienne Dinet on 28 March 1861 – 24 December 1929, Paris) was a French orientalist painter. Dinet was born the son of a prominent French judge. From 1871, he studied at the Lycée Henry IV, where the future president Alexandre Millerand was also among the students. Upon graduation in 1881 he enrolled in the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts and entered the studio of Victor Galland. The following year he studied under William Bouguereau and Tony Robert-Fleury at the Académie Julian. He also exhibited for the first time at the Salon des artistes français.

Nasreddine Dinet (1861–1929)
Raoucha, c. 1901
Oil on canvas
46 × 45 cm (18.1 × 17.7 in)
Private collection

Dinet made his first trip to Bou Saâda by the Ouled Naïl Range in southern Algeria in 1884, with a team of entomologists. The following year he made a second trip on a government scholarship, this time to Laghouat. At that time he painted his first two Algerian pictures: les Terrasses de Laghouat and l’Oued M’Sila après l’orage.

Alphonse Etienne Dinet (French, 1861-1929)
L'Arabe et son cheval , c. 1903
Oil on canvas
50.8 x 40.64cm (20 x 16in).
Private Collection

With his painting, L'Arabe et son cheval, Dinet's talent for capturing psychology and detail is evident, from the prayer beads around the neck of the rider swathed in white cloth, to the horse's colorful bridle, and background of soft desert mountains. It is one of the only paintings by the artist where the individual appears to be posing, with the rider's steely, direct stare towards the viewer, as Dinet's preferred work state was somewhat spontaneous with the reliance on his camera to capture more permanent scenes. L'Arabe also represents a distinct departure from Dinet's usual cast of playful Berber adolescents and groups of women, illustrating instead a common trio found in Orientalist works of art: a man, his horse and the desert they travel together. The unique curved shape of the top of the canvas is reminiscent of the arched dome commonly found in Middle Eastern architecture, especially the circular construction of mosques. With the maturation of his talent, Dinet became an arch-realist and an authority on Algerian life rather than an exotic maker of myth. More L'Arabe et son cheva

He won the silver medal for painting at the Exposition Universelle in 1889, and in the same year founded the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. In 1887 he further founded with Léonce Bénédite, director of the Musée du Luxembourg, the Société des Peintres Orientalistes Français.

Nasreddine Dinet (1861–1929)
On the Terrace in the Moonlight, c. 1908
(Sur les Terrasses, Clair de Lune)
Oil on canvas
51x61cm, 20x24"
Private Collection

In 1903 he bought a house in Bou Saâda and spent three quarters of each year there. He announced his conversion to Islam in a private letter of 1908, and completed his formal conversion in 1913, upon which he changed his name to Nasr’Eddine Dinet. In 1929 he and his wife undertook the Hajj to Mecca. The respect he earned from the natives of Algeria was reflected by the 5,000 who attended his funeral on 12 January 1930 in Bou Saâda. There he was eulogized by the former Governor General of Algeria Maurice Viollette. More Alphonse-Étienne Dinet

Etienne Dinet, 1861 - 1929, FRENCH
SPECTATEURS ADMIRANT UNE DANSEUSE, c. 1905
SPECTATORS ADMIRING A DANCER
Oil on canvas
84 by 102.5cm., 33 by 40¼in.
Private Collection

Spectateurs admirant une danseuse is a superb example of Dinet's mature oeuvre, testament to his intimate knowledge of, and respect for, the people of Algeria. Fluid, almost Impressionistic brushstrokes, and beautifully confident handling of light as it filters through from behind the figures, are coupled with a sympathetic, careful observation of the men’s various expressions as they react to the dance unfolding before them. More Spectateurs admirant une danseuse

Eugène Fromentin, 1820 - 1876, FRENCH
LE SIMOUN
Oil on canvas
55 by 65.5cm., 21¾ by 25¾in.
Private Collection

The simoun is a warm, dry and violent wind that blows on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea: the Sahara , in Palestine , in Syria and in the desert of Arabia.

Le Simoun is among the most iconic images in nineteenth-century Orientalist art, one of a handful of smaller versions of Fromentin's extraordinary painting of 1864, the Coup de vent dans les plaines d'alfa  Below

Eugène Fromentin, 1820 - 1876, FRENCH
Coup de vent dans les plaines d'alfa, c. 1864
Gale in the Alfa Plains
Oil on canvas
117 by 163cm
Najd Collection of orientalist paintings

Eugène Fromentin (October 24, 1820 – August 27, 1876) was a French painter and writer, now better remembered for his writings. He was born in La Rochelle. After leaving school he studied for some years under Louis Cabat, the landscape painter. Fromentin was one of the earliest pictorial interpreters of Algeria, having been able, while quite young, to visit the land and people that suggested the subjects of most of his works, and to store his memory as well as his portfolio with the picturesque and characteristic details of North African life. In 1849, he was awarded a medal of the second class.

In 1852, he paid a second visit to Algeria, accompanying an archaeological mission, and then completed that minute study of the scenery of the country and of the habits of its people which enabled him to give to his after-work the realistic accuracy that comes from intimate knowledge. More

Alfred Dehodencq, 1822 - 1882, FRENCH
LE HAJJ
Oil on canvas
85.5 by 120cm., 33¾ by 47¼in.
Private Collection

Dehodencq's large and lavish rendition of the annual Hajj (pilgrimage) en route to Mecca is an especially magnificent and wonderfully detailed painting of the subject by a Western artist. The landscape is not specific, but the shoreline might suggest a location on the Red Sea, south of Aqaba. At the centre of the enfilade of dignitaries, janissaries, soldiers, and musicians and mounted on the leading camel is the holy mahmal, the elaborate coffer containing the Koran that accompanies the pilgrims to Mecca.

Ottoman control of the Hajj developed with the rise of the Ottoman Empire. The sacking of Constantinople in 1453 established the Ottomans as the principle Muslim power worldwide and their later conquest of Egypt and Syria in 1515 and 1517 gave them control of the eastern border of the Red Sea including Mecca and Medina. With the Sultan's adoption of the role of protector of the two shrines at Mecca and Medina the pre-eminent status of the Ottoman Sultan among Muslim rulers was confirmed. In the ensuing years the Ottomans did their utmost to be seen as leaders of the Muslim world and defenders of Islam's holiest cities, a role that included building forts and defences to upgrade the Hajj routes, the three most important of which led from Cairo, Damascus and Baghdad. More

Edmé-Alexis-Alfred Dehodencq, PARIS 1822-1882, OUTPUT PACHA 
LA SORTIE DU PACHA
THE PACHA GOING OUT; SIGNED LOWER RIGHT; OIL ON CANVAS
Oil on canvas 
118 x 89 cm; 46 1/2 by 35 in

Alfred Dehodencq (23 April 1822 – 2 January 1882) was a mid-19th-century French Orientalist painter born in Paris. He was known for his vivid oil paintings, especially of Andalusian and North African scenes. Dehodencq was born in Paris. During his early years, he studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. During the French Revolution of 1848 he was wounded in the arm and was sent to convalesce in the Pyrenees before moving to Madrid. He spent five years in Spain where he became acquainted with the works of Spanish painters Diego Velázquez and Francisco Goya which had a strong influence on his approach to painting.

In 1853 he travelled to Morocco, where for the following ten years he produced many of his most famous paintings depicting scenes of the world he encountered. Dehodencq was the first foreign artist known to have lived in Morocco for an extended number of years.

Dehodencq married Maria Amelia Calderon in 1857 in Cadiz, Spain, and they had three children. Dehodencq returned to Paris in 1863 with his wife, and was decorated with the Legion of Honour in 1870. He committed suicide on 2 January 1882 having been sick for a long time and is buried in the Montmartre Cemetery. More Alfred Dehodencq 

Henry James Soulen, (American, 1888-1965)
Hajj camp, en route to the Masjid al-Haram
Oil on canvas 
76.2 x 91.4 cm (30 x 36 in)
Private Collection

HENRY JAMES SOULEN (1888 - 1965), was born in Milwaukee, Henry James Soulen was a noted illustrator. He attended the Art Students League in Milwaukee, the Art Institute of Chicago, and later studied under the celebrated teacher, Howard Pyle, the founder of the Brandywine School. He also studied with N.C. Wyeth, Frank Schoonover, and Jessie Wilcox Smith.

An illustrator for the "Saturday Evening Post," Henry Soulen began his career in May, 1912. He also worked for other publications including "Country Gentleman" and "Ladies Home Journal" and earned a Peabody Award for his magazine cover designs. He was known for his use of intense, brilliant color at a time when many illustrations were in black and white. 

He was a thorough researcher and eventually collected a large and varied collection of costumes, weapons, and other objects that he used in his drawings. At age 62, he became a college professor at the University of Maryland and taught the first illustration that art department offered. During World War II, he gave free art lessons at the Valley Forge Military Hospital, a rehabilitation center for veterans. More Henry James Soulen

Henry James Soulen (American, 1888-1965)
A pilgrimage to Palestine, Sinai
Oil on canvas
86.4 x 76.2cm (34 x 30in) 
Private Collection

Soulen spent several months traveling through the Middle East as the accompanying artist to Dr. Harry Emerson Frosdick who wrote A Pilgrimage to Palestine for the Christmas issue of The Ladies Home Journal. It was during that trip that Soulen painted the present work, A pilgrimage to Palestine, Sinai and fragments of his letter that accompanied sketches sent while overseas were quoted in Frosdick's article: 

"A number of persons told me, before I left America, that I would be disappointed by the artistic possibilities of Palestine. They agreed that it was burned up and uninteresting. I am quite sure now they hadn't seen much of the real country. In the cities, including Jerusalem, familiarity with tourists has made the natives more or less uninteresting. But, in the villages and in the wilderness, conditions are as they were thousands of years ago. You will see acres of wheat in the fertile valleys to be reaped with a sickle. The costumes are the same...It is only because we judge Bible stories by our own standards that any of them sound improbable. After my experience of living in the desert, I have begun to understand these stories." More A pilgrimage to Palestine

Henri Emilien Rousseau,  (French, 1875-1933)
Return of the falconer 
Oil on canvas
50.8 x 43.18cm (20 x 17in).
Private Collection

Return of the falconer. Passionate about portraying the reality rather than the romance of Bedouin life, Rousseau spent the years between 1920 and 1932 in intense study of nomadic culture and visiting the Rif and Atlas mountains of Morocco. By befriending Caïds, or tribal chiefs, Rousseau was granted access to various regions which were otherwise off limits to outsiders, and gained a unique perspective to his work distinct from that of his more imaginative peers. Perhaps it was here where he fell under the spell of the Bedouin horsemen, a subject Rousseau was already familiar with, and would come to characterize his Orientalist compositions. In 1927, the Galerie Georges Petit in Paris saw the exhibition of more than eighty Moroccan works by Rousseau which was met with enormous success. This was followed by an exhibition at the Exposition Universelle, held in 1931.

In this present work, The return of the falconer, Rousseau illustrates a favorite subject of his, the horseman and his hunting bird, which he returned to again and again. More noble than fanciful, the villagers become figures of truth set against the indigenous desert landscape Rousseau was unwilling to romanticize, whether his subjects were quietly reflective, as in this work, or bearing a standard. Yet try as he might to subdue the exotic, there is no escaping the majesty and appeal of falconry in Rousseau's art. More Return of the falconer 

Henri Rousseau Henry, Emilien Rousseau (Cairo 1875 - Aix-en-Provence in 1933) is an Orientalist painter. A pupil of Jean-Léon Gérôme at the Beaux Arts in Paris, he won the second Grand Prix de Rome in 1900 and a travel grant at the Salon of French Artists. He traveled to Belgium, the Netherlands, North Africa, Spain and Italy where he admired the great masters (Rubens, Rembrandt, Velasquez, Murillo, the Titian, Raphael etc ...)

After this initiatory journey, he settled in Versailles and set up his studio at the Villa des Arts in Paris. In 1919 he moved to Aix in Provence with his large family (seven children). Knight of the Legion of Honour in arts. His work  is dedicated to Tunisia, Algeria and especially Morocco, Provence and the Camargue remained its anchor points. His success was with a bourgeois and wealthy clientele, where he sold his work at numerous exhibitions in Paris, Brussels, Stockholm, Marseilles. More

Leopold Alphons Mielich, (Austrian, 1863-1929)
The house of Cairo 
oil on canvas
76.45 x 51.56cm (30 1/8 x 20 5/16in).
Private Collection

Alphons Leopold Mielich (Klosterneuburg, 27 January 1863 - Salzburg, 25 January 1929) was an Austrian orientalist painter. In 1902, he traveled with the Czech scholar Alois Musil to the Umayyad desert castle Qasr Amra, then in the Ottoman Empire (modern-day Jordan), where he copied some of the paintings discovered there. More Alphons Leopold Mielich

Alphons Leopold Mielich, 1863-1929, AUSTRIAN
THE POTTERY SELLER
Oil on canvas
145.5 by 195.5 cm
Private Collection

The Pottery Seller by Alphons Mielich is a masterful evocation of everyday Egyptian life. As startling as the all the bustling activity of market day is the bright desert light, which so fascinated Western painters on their visits to the region, and which lent their palettes a whole new chromatic dimension. The heat of the midday sun is almost palpable, as one trader, engaged in conversation with another, shields his face using the basket containing his wares. Austrian-born Mielich first travelled to Egypt in 1889, and returned on several occasions up until the outbreak of the First World War, and the 'snapshot' verisimilitude of the scene in the present work is testimony to his sensitive understanding of the culture he depicts.  More The Pottery Seller

Alberto Pasini, 1826 - 1899, ITALIAN
A FERRY ON THE NILE, c. 1861
Oil on canvas
39 by 65cm., 15½ by 25½in.
Private Collection

Alberto Pasini (Busseto, 3 September 1826 – Cavoretto, 15 December 1899) was an Italian painter. He was enrolled at the age of 17 years, in the Academy of Fine Art of Parma, studying landscape painting and drawing. In Parma, he was helped early on by Antonio Pasini, who painted for the local nobility and collaborated with the publishing house established by Giovanni Battista Bodoni. By 1852, he exhibited a series of thirty designs, made into lithographs, depicting various castles around Piacenza, Lunigiana and Parma. He was noticed by the artist Paolo Toschi, who encouraged Pasini to travel to Paris, where Pasini first joined the workshop of Charles and Eugène Ciceri, of the so-called School of Barbizon.

Alberto Pasini, 1826 - 1899, ITALIAN
Damascus, c. 1880
Oil on fabric
Height: 42.6 cm (16.8 in). Width: 32.6 cm (12.8 in). ;
Walters Art Museum, Mount Vernon-Belvedere, Baltimore, Maryland

In 1853 his lithograph of The Evening gained him admittance to the Paris Salon, and to the workshop of the famous Théodore Chassériau. The eruption of the Crimean War offered a new opportunity, when in February 1855, this latter painter recommended Pasini to replace him on the entourage of the French plenipotentiary minister Nicolas Prosper Bourée to Persia. Pasini accompanied him, returning through the north of Persia and Armenia before reaching the port of Trebizond. In subsequent trips, he visited Egypt, the Red Sea, Arabia, Istanbul, and Persia. Pasini parlayed his exposures during this trip into numerous highly detailed paintings of orientalist subjects. He left again for Istanbul in October 1867, summoned by the French Ambassador Bourée. He returned to Turkey in 1876 to execute the four paintings commissioned by Sultan Abdul Aziz. He was about to return to Istanbul the next year, when his patron, the Sultan, died.

In 1865, he spent some time in Cannes, painted landscapes of the Riviera. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, he returned to Italy, settling in Cavoretto, on the hills around Turin. He continued to travel, closer to his home, with trips to Venice and two sojourns in Spain in 1879 and 1883. More Alberto Pasini 

Alberto Pasini, 1826 - 1899, ITALIAN
Arab Caravan, before 1899
Oil on Canvas






Acknowledgement: Sotheby's, Bonhams

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