Monday, August 27, 2018

01 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 29

Ferencz Eisenhut, 1857 - 1903, HUNGARIAN
IN THE HAREM, c. 1889
Oil on panel
49 by 32.5cm., 19 by 12¾in.
Private collection


Harem a sacred inviolable place; for female members of the family. Harem properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations. Similar institutions have been common in other Mediterranean and Middle Eastern civilizations, especially among royal and upper-class families and the term is sometimes used in non-Islamic contexts. The structure of the harem and the extent of monogamy or polygamy has varied depending on the family's personalities, socio-economic status, and local customs. A harem may house a man's wife—or wives and concubines, as in royal harems of the past.

In the West, Orientalist imaginary conceptions of the harem as a fantasy world of forbidden sexuality where numerous women lounged in suggestive poses have influenced many paintings, stage productions, films and literary works. Several European Renaissance paintings dating to the 16th century defy Orientalist tropes and portray the women of the Ottoman harem as individuals of status and political significance. In many periods of Islamic history women in the harem exercised various degrees of political power. More on the Harem

Franz Eisenhut (25 January 1857 2 June 1903) was a prominent Danube Swabian Realist and Orientalist painter. He is considered one of Austria-Hungary's greatest academic painters in the second half of the 19th century. His works can be found in many European museums across the continent.

Franz Eisenhut was born in Nova Palanka, Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, Austrian Empire. His father had hoped for Franz to become a merchant, but the Hungarian painter He studied at Hungarian Royal Drawing School in Budapest from 1875 until 1877. Afterwards, he became a student of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Munich. He studied there until 1883.

After finishing the Academy, he went on a trip to the Orient for the first time, visiting the Caucasus. The next year, he held his first exhibition in Budapest. The Orient became his main source of inspiration and Orientalist paintings will become his most famous works. His first great success was the 1886 painting "Healing through the Koran in Beirut".

Franz Eisenhut's most famous work is the painting "Battle of Zenta", made in 1896 for the Hungarian Millennium Exhibition, celebrating 1000 years since the Hungarian settlement in the Great Hungarian Plain. More on Franz Eisenhut




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Sunday, August 26, 2018

18 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY FROM SAVOY , from the 18th & 19th C., with Footnotes. #3

French School (15th century)
Francoise-Madeleine d'Orleans (1648-64) Duchess of Savoy, c. 1664
 prior to her marriage
Oil on canvas
60 x 73 cm (23,6 x 28,7 inches)
Chateau de Versailles

Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans (13 October 1648 – 14 January 1664) was born a Princess of France and was the Duchess of Savoy as the first wife of Charles Emmanuel II. She was a first cousin of Louis XIV as well of her husband. She was the shortest-serving Savoyard consort, dying at the age of fifteen, childless.

Orléans was born in Paris in 1648. She was the youngest surviving daughter of Gaston d'Orléans and his second wife Marguerite of Lorraine. From birth, she was styled Mademoiselle de Valois, derived from one of her father's subsidiary titles. She grew up in the company of her sisters and Mademoiselle de La Vallière, future mistress of Louis XIV. She resided at the Château de Blois. Her father died in 1660 and her mother remained unmarried.

As French court etiquette dictated, she held the status of a Granddaughter of France.

Orléans married the Duke of Savoy by proxy at the Palais du Louvre on 4 March 1663. The couple met for the first time at Annecy on 3 April 1663 where they were married officially. The couple travelled to Turin, capital of Savoy, where they arrived on 15 June 1663. She was known as Francesca Maddalena d'Orléans in her adopted Savoy.

The duchess soon died on 14 Jan 1664 at the Royal Palace of Turin, leaving her husband without an heir. She was 15 years old. More on Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans

The French Renaissance was the cultural and artistic movement in France between the 15th and early 17th centuries. The period is associated with the pan-European Renaissance, a word first used by the French historian Jules Michelet to define the artistic and cultural "rebirth" of Europe.

Notable developments during the French Renaissance include the spread of humanism, early exploration of the "New World" (as New France by Giovanni da Verrazzano and Jacques Cartier); the development of new techniques and artistic forms in the fields of printing, architecture, painting, sculpture, music, the sciences and literature; and the elaboration of new codes of sociability, etiquette and discourse.

The French Renaissance traditionally extends from (roughly) the French invasion of Italy in 1494 during the reign of Charles VIII until the death of Henry IV in 1610. This chronology notwithstanding, certain artistic, technological or literary developments associated with the Renaissance arrived in France earlier; however, the Black Death of the 14th century and the Hundred Years' War kept France economically and politically weak until the late 15th century.

The reigns of Francis I of France (from 1515 to 1547) and his son Henry II (from 1547 to 1559) are generally considered the apex of the French Renaissance. More on French School (15th century)


French School circa 1680, follower of Beaubrun
FRANCES-MADELEINE ORLEANS, DUCHESS OF SAVOY, CIRCA 1680
Oil on canvas 
upper right Inscriptions FRANÇOISE MADELEINE ORLEANS Duchess of Savoye / 1664 / 197BIS
the collection of brand back of King Louis-Philippe and No. 175 
107.5 x 91 cm; 42 1/4 by 35 5/8 in

Orléans was born at the Château de Saint Germain en Laye outside Paris in 1648.


Le Saint-Germain-en-Laye et la rampe des grottes

She was the youngest surviving daughter of Gaston d'Orléans and his second wife Marguerite of Lorraine. 


Anthony van Dyck (1599–1641)
Portrait of Gaston of France, duke of Orleans (1608-1660), c. 1632 or 1634
Father
Oil on canvas
193 × 119 cm (76 × 46.9 in)
Musée Condé

Sir Anthony van Dyck, ( 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and Flanders. He is most famous for his portraits of Charles I of England and his family and court, painted with a relaxed elegance that was to be the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years. He also painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draughtsman, and was an important innovator in watercolour and etching. The Van Dyke beard is named after him. More Sir Anthony van Dyck


Anthony van Dyck (1599–1641)
Portrait of Margaret of Lorraine
Mother
Oil on canvas
203 × 115 cm (79.9 × 45.3 in)
Uffizi Gallery

From birth, she was styled Mademoiselle de Valois, derived from one of her father's subsidiary titles. She was the favourite sister of La Grande Mademoiselle, the famous heiress. She grew up in the company of her sisters and Mademoiselle de La Vallière, future mistress of Louis XIV. She resided at the Château de Blois. Her father died in 1660 and her mother remained unmarried.


School of Pierre Mignard (1612–1695)
Portrait of Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier, also referred to as La Grande Mademoiselle
Oil on panel
140 × 110 cm (55.1 × 43.3 in)
Palace of Versailles

As French court etiquette dictated, she held the status of a Granddaughter of France as a male line descendant of the late king Henry IV of France. She was styled as a petite-fille de France.

Pierre Mignard (17 November 1612 – 30 May 1695), was a French painter known for his religious and mythological scenes and portraits. He was a near-contemporary of the Premier Peintre du Roi Charles Le Brun with whom he engaged in a bitter, life-long rivalry.

Pierre Mignard was born at Troyes in 1612. He came from a family of artisans. He was the younger brother of Nicolas, who became a painter and etcher. Mignard trained in Bourges with the Mannerist painter Jean Boucher. He then studied for a period in the studio of Simon Vouet. Mignard left for Rome in 1635 where he would stay about 22 years. 

In Rome he painted religious commissions. He was particularly known for his many images of the Madonna and Child. They were so popular that they were referred to as "Mignardises." He also painted altarpieces. His compatriot Nicolas Poussin hired Mignard to make copies of is works. He was also active as a reproductive engraver making copies after Annibale Carracci. Mignard's life-long interest in portrait painting was also developed at this time and he painted portraits of subsequent popes, cardinals and prominent members of the Italian nobility. He also travelled to Northern Italy where he visited Bologna, Parma, Mantua, Florence and Venice.

His reputation was such that he was summoned to Paris in 1657. In Paris he became a popular portrait painter. He found favor with king Louis XIV who sat for many portraits. Mignard became a rival of the leading French painter of that time and first painter to the King, Charles Le Brun. He declined to enter the Academy of which Le Brun was the head. Mignard also opposed the authority of the Academy. 


With the death of Le Brun in 1690, Mignard succeeded to all the posts held by his opponent. He died in 1695 at Paris as he was about to begin work on the cupola of the Invalides. More on Pierre Mignard


Anonymous (Italy)
Portrait of Christine Marie, Dowager Duchess of Savoy, c. 1633
Oil on canvasil
Staatsgalerie im Neuen Schloss, Schleißheim

Under the influence of her paternal aunt Christine Marie, Dowager Duchess of Savoy, she was engaged to her first cousin Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy. Christine Marie had chosen her as she had wanted to maintain her power and influence in government having previously been regent for her son since 1637. 


Pierre Mignard (1612–1695)
Portrait of cardinal Jules Mazarin (1602-1661)
Oil on canvas
65 × 55.5 cm (25.6 × 21.9 in)
Musée Condé, Château de Chantilly, Chantilly

The match was approved of by Cardinal Mazarin who had previously rejected Marie Jeanne of Savoy, another candidate for Charles Emmanuel II. Orléans proved suitably docile and was chosen over Marie Jeanne.


Unknown
Marie Jeanne of Savoy (1644-1724) some time after her marriage holding the Savoyard crown
Oil on canvas
Location Unknown

Orléans married the Duke of Savoy by proxy at the Palais du Louvre on 4 March 1663. The couple met for the first time at Annecy on 3 April 1663 where they were married officially. The couple travelled to Turin, capital of Savoy, where they arrived on 15 June 1663. She was known as Francesca Maddalena d'Orléans in her adopted Savoy.


Piedmontese School, 17th Century
Charles Emanuel II, the Duke of Savoy, in armour
Oil on canvas
 41.34 X 32.28 in (105 X 82 cm)
Private Collection

The duchess soon died on 14 Jan 1664 at the Royal Palace of Turin, leaving her husband without an heir.She was buried at Turin Cathedral where she rests today. Her husband, inconsolable at her death, ordered a lavish funeral. After Orléans' death, Louis XIV tried to engage La Grande Mademoiselle to Charles Emmanuel II who refused the match. He later married again to Marie Jeanne of Savoy by whom he had a son.


Unknown artist
Charles Dauphin - Carlo Emanuele II (1634-1675), son and heir of Vittorio Amedeo I, his wife Jeanne de Nemours (1644-1724) and his son, the future Vittorio Amedeo II (1666-1732), c. 1666
Oil on Canvas
Museo del Prado, Madrid

BRAMBILLA GIOVANNI BATTISTA
Duke Carlo Emanuele II of Savoy; Vittorio Amedeo II Prince of Piedmont, C.1675
340 CM x 282 CM
OIL ON CANVAS
PALAZZO MADAMA, Turin, Italy

Giovanni Battista Brambilla (active 1770) was an Italian painter. He was a native of Piedmont. He was a pupil of Carlo Delfino. He painted for churches in Turin, including a Martyrdom of St. Dalmazio for the church dedicated to that saint. He also painted altarpieces for churches in Villafranca. The Equestrian Portrait of Carlo Emanuele II, Duke of Savoy and of Vittorio Amedeo II, Prince of Piedmont (c. 1675) are on exhibit at the Palazzo Madama of Turin. More on Giovanni Battista Brambilla






Acknowledgment: Sotheby's

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01 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 25

Frederick Arthur Bridgman, 1847 - 1928, AMERICAN
ALGERIAN SPAHI ON HORSEBACK, c. 1900
Watercolour and pencil on paper
41 by 30cm., 16 by 11¾in.
Private collection

Spahis were light cavalry regiments of the French army recruited primarily from the indigenous populations of Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco. 

Following the French occupation of Algiers in 1830, detachments of locally recruited irregular horsemen were attached to the regiments of light cavalry assigned to North African service. These auxiliaries were designated as chasseurs spahis. In 1834 they were organised into four squadrons of regular spahis. In 1841 the 14 squadrons by then in existence were brought together in a single corps of spahis. Finally, in 1845 three separate Spahi regiments were created: the 1st of Algiers; the 2nd of Oran and the 3rd of Constantine.


The spahi regiments saw extensive service in the French conquest of Algeria, in the Franco-Prussian War, in Tonkin towards the end of the Sino-French War (1885), in the occupation of Morocco and Syria, and in both World Wars. A detachment of Spahis served as the personal escort of Marshal Jacques Leroy de Saint Arnaud in the Crimean War. A contingent of Spahis also participated in the North China campaign of 1860. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71 one detached squadrons of Spahis formed part of the forces defending Paris, while a provisional regiment comprising three squadrons was attached to the Army of the Loire. A serious rising against French rule in Algeria during 1871–72 was sparked off by the mutiny of a squadron of Spahis who had been ordered to France to reinforce those units already there.  More on Spahis




Frederick Arthur Bridgman (November 10, 1847 - 1928) was an American artist, born in Tuskegee, Alabama. The son of a physician, Bridgman would become one of the United States' most well-known and well-regarded painters and become known as one of the world's most talented "Orientalist" painters. He began as a draughtsman in New York City, for the American Bank Note Company in 1864-1865, and studied art in the same years at the Brooklyn Art Association and at the National Academy of Design; but he went to Paris in 1866 and became a pupil of Jean-Leon Gerome. Paris then became his headquarters. A trip to Egypt in 1873-1874 resulted in pictures of the East that attracted immediate attention, and his large and important composition, The Funeral Procession of a Mummy on the Nile, in the Paris Salon (1877), bought by James Gordon Bennett, brought him the Cross of the Legion of Honor. Other paintings by him were An American Circus in Normandy, Procession of the Bull Apis (now in the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.), and a Rumanian Lady (in the Temple collection, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). More on Frederick Arthur Bridgman





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Friday, August 24, 2018

01 Paintings, The amorous game, Part 20 - With Footnotes

Rob Hefferan, (b. 1968)
Dancing by the Fire
Hand Embellished Giclee Canvas
20" x 28.25"
Private collection

Born in Manchester in 1968, Rob Hefferan, was a true free spirit from the very beginning. Desperate to follow an artistic career he found discouragement round every corner. Ignoring the advice of his elders, he gained a place at university to study for a degree in illustration, but after a year he began to feel constrained by the limitations of the course and decided to go it alone. 


Rob spent a challenging year putting together a portfolio, then set out to find work utilising his design skills in order to finance his dream of being an artist. His exceptional versatility as a designer and illustrator won him a number of major contracts, ranging from high profile advertising campaigns to providing the artwork for childrens books, and he soon found himself in the gratifying position of making a large amount of money from doing something he really enjoyed. Yet he never allowed his considerable success to deflect him from his original aim of becoming a full time artist, and continued to spend much of his spare time painting. More on Rob Hefferan







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01 Painting, Streets of Paris, by the artists of the time, Part 33 - With Footnotes

Michael Rozenvain
Parisian Cafe
Serigraph and acrylic on board
14.5in. by 12in.
Private collection

Parisian cafés serve as a center of social and culinary life in Paris. They have been around since the 17th century, and serve as the meeting place, neighborhood hub, conversation matrix, rendez-vous spot, and networking source, a place to relax or to refuel - the social and political pulse of the city. Parisian cafés show the Parisian way of sitting undisturbed for a couple of hours, watching things happening and people going by.

Typical Paris cafés are not coffee shops. They generally come with a complete kitchen offering a restaurant menu with meals for any time of the day, a full bar and even a wine selection. More on Parisian cafés 

Michael Rozenvain was born in Kiev, in the Ukraine in 1963. He currently lives in Toronto. After having studied at the art school of Kiev, he pursued his artistic studies at the Academy of Applied Arts in Lvov. Rozenvain has participated in many collective and solo exhibitions. Rozenvain is also very active in the creation of fresco paintings as well as monumental works of art for prestigious hotels as well as large libraries. Since 2006, Rozenvain resides in Canada and his studio is located in Toronto.

Themes like the Mediterranean, cobblestone streets, French bistros, cafes, and orchestras are Rozenvain’ s favourites subjects. His colour scheme is rich and sultry, inviting the onlooker to hop into the painting for either a glass of wine or an espresso. Rozenvain applies many layers of paint, thus creating the illusion of depth through his highly textured canvas. His sense of composition and his agile paintbrush strokes are all elements that distinguish this artist and have made him famous worldwide. More on Michael Rozenvain



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01 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 24

Giulio Rosati, 1858 - 1917, ITALIAN
THE CARPET MERCHANT
Pencil, watercolour and gouache on paper
36 by 25.5cm., 14¼  by 10in.
Private collection

Giulio Rosati, 1858 - Rome - 1917,  specialised in eighteenth century costume pieces, comical scenes of from the life of the clergy and Orientalist subjects. His preferred medium was watercolour, though he also worked in oils.

Rosati studied at the Academy of Rome. He was the pupil of several eminent artists, in particular the poet and architect Francesco Podesti (1800-1895) and Dario Querci (born 1831), a portrait and history painter from Messina. He also studied with Luis Alvarez y Catala (1836-1901), director of the Prado Museum, Madrid.

Rosati was one of a large group of Italian Orientalist painters working in Rome at the end of the nineteenth century. These artists emulated Mariano Fortuny y Marsal in his skilful rendering of detail and bright colouring. This manner was particularly popular with American and British collectors, many of whom purchased these images as a memento of their travels in the Near East, a voyage very much in vogue at the end of the last century. 


Guilio Rosati had a son Alberto who also became an artist. His manner is very much indebted to his father, but he was not so prolific. More Giulio Rosati



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Thursday, August 23, 2018

Sunday, August 12, 2018

01 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 27

Frederick Arthur Bridgman, 1847 - 1928, AMERICAN
WOMEN OF BLIDAH ON THE DAY OF THE PROPHET, c. 1900
Oil on canvas
66 by 54.5cm., 26 by 21½in.
Private collection

The Day of the Prophet, known as Mawlid, is celebrated on either the twelfth or seventeenth day of Rabia al Awal, the third month of the Muslim calendar, roughly coinciding with January. Mawlid also provided a framework for female involvement. Women often participated in the celebrations outside the mosque rituals. The present work shows a congregation of women dressed in their ritual drapery. It was painted a year after Bridgman's larger work of the same subject, depicting Algerian women burning candles in the cemetry of Oued El-Kebir outside Blidah, in Algeria. More on The Day of the Prophet

Blidah , today Blida, is the name of a city in Algeria. It is the capital of the province of the same name and is also called Ville des Roses ("City of Roses").


The city is located about 40 km south of the Algerian capital Algiers in a valley of Tellatlas. The coast of the Mediterranean is about 30 km away. In 1838 , Blidah was captured by French troops who set up a garrison there. In 1825 and 1867 , the city was destroyed by earthquakes. Today there is a university ( Université Saad Dahlab Blida ). More on Blidah




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01 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 26

Gustavo Simoni, 1846 - 1946, ITALIAN
THE CARPET SELLER, c. 1893
Watercolour and pencil on paper
57 by 86.5cm., 22¾ by 34in.
Private collection

Arab Market Scene is the type of on-site composition that Simoni developed into paintings in his studio from travel sketches in North Africa and the Middle East. Although best known for his Orientalist works depicting mosques and other Islamic subject matter — he was particularly fascinated with the village festivals he witnessed in North Africa — Simoni also created images of everyday life, like this market scene, which depicts the daily workings of a village community conversing, walking, and selling beautifully crafted, decorative wares. More on the Arab Market 

Gustavo Simoni ( Rome , 5 November 1845 - Palestrina , 1926 ) was an Italian painter and teacher. He was born in Rome. He had a younger brother, Scipione, who directed him to painting.

He chose to follow the innovative road marked by Mariano Fortuny. Starting in 1877 Gustavo Simoni traveled extensively, going to France, Spain and Africa, where he stayed several times in Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco. He settled for many years in the ancient city of Tlemcen, in Algeria, in an isolated house where he welcomed friends who came from Rome. He had relationships with authoritative personalities of the place. His fame was gained among collectors and connoisseurs. He won the Gold Medal at the Paris Salon of 1889 and was again awarded in 1895, at the Exposition of Fine Arts in Rome.


He became a member of the Accademia di San Luca . In the late nineteenth century he opened a studio in Paris, where he attended the main exponents of symbolism, satisfying the requests for the orientalist genre in watercolor and, in large sizes, in oil. Back in Rome, he founded his own school of Orientalist painting. He lived in a farmhouse in Via di Villa Patrizi. More on Gustavo Simoni



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Saturday, August 11, 2018

01 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 23

Jules van Biesbroeck, 1873 - 1965, BELGIAN
THE CARAVAN, EL KANTARA
Oil on board
99 by 122cm., 39 by 48in
Private collection

El Kantara is a town and commune in Biskra Province, Algeria. The 1911 Baedeker travel guide described it as "one of the most important caravan-stations in E. Algeria." The town is well known for the eponymous gorge nearby, described by locals as the "Mouth of the Desert" (see in the background). The area was named El Kantara by Arab conquerors. More on El Kantara

Jules Pierre van Biesbroeck (1873 - 1965) was a Belgian painter of landscapes and portraits, as well as sculptures.

He gained his artistic skills from his father Jules Evarist van Biesbroeck. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Ghent.  Debuted in 1888 at the Salon des Champs-Elysées in Paris with his large-format painting "Le lancement d'Argos", which created a scandal. He was like his father, a professor of the Academy in Ghent. On a  trip to North Africa in 1926, he began to treat themes of the Orient. He experimented mainly with light effects in his paintings. Until 1935 he also maintained a studio in Algiers.


JP van Biesbroeck also had intensive contacts with the Socialist Workers' Movement in Ghent. More on Jules Pierre van Biesbroeck



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01 Painting, Streets of Paris, by the artists of the time, Part 31 - With Footnotes

Manfred Lindemann-Frommel, 1852 - 1939, GERMAN
THE PORTE SAINT MARTIN, c. 1891
Oil on canvas
59 by 73.5cm., 23 by 29in.
Private collection

The Porte Saint-Martin is a Parisian monument located at the site of one of the gates of the now-destroyed fortifications of Paris. It is located at the crossing of Rue Saint-Martin, Rue du Faubourg Saint-Martin and the grands boulevards Boulevard Saint-Martin and Boulevard Saint-Denis.


The Porte Saint-Martin was designed by architect Pierre Bullet at the order of Louis XIV in honor of his victories on the Rhine and in Franche-Comté. Built in 1674, it replaced a medieval gate in the city walls built by Charles V. It was restored in 1988. More on The Porte Saint-Martin 

Manfred Lindemann-Frommel (born November 18, 1852 in Munich , † June 15, 1939 in Regensburg ) was a German marine painter, architect and art professor. He first studied architecture in Karlsruhe. He was a student from 1875 to 1883 at the Technical University of Munich by Adolf Heinrich Lier . He then continued his studies at the State Academy of Fine Arts in Karlsruhe under Hermann Baisch and Gustav Schoenleber. He also attended the School of Applied Arts in Dresden .


Professionally he went to Berlin in 1891 , in 1895 at the Berlin Bauakademie , in 1895 he exhibited at the Great Art Exhibition in Berlin. In 1896 he moved to Laboe, in 1912 to Kiel, in 1926 to Regensburg , where he lived and worked in the palatial Künstlerhaus Wittelsbacher Straße 9 . Lindemann-Frommel painted mainly seascapes with ships of the German fleet, these also as murals for city halls. More on Manfred Lindemann-Frommel


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