Sunday, April 29, 2018

01 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 15

Isidore-Alexandre-Augustin Pils, (FRENCH 1813-1875)
Family at doorway preparing cous-cous
Oil on canvas 
90 x 67cm (35.5 x 26.25in) 
Private collection

Isidore-Alexandre-Augustin Pils (19 July 1813/15, Paris – 3 December 1875, Paris) was a French painter. Pils was born in Paris. At the age of twelve, he studied with Guillaume Guillon-Lethière for four years. He later studied under François-Édouard Picot.

By 1840 he'd been admitted to the École des Beaux-Arts and was competing for the Prix de Rome, which he won in 1841 for a history painting, St. Peter Healing a Lame Man at the Door of the Temple. Although in poor health, Pils then spent the customary three years at the French Academy in Rome at the Villa Medici, which then had Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres as its director. While in Italy he visited Naples, Venice, and Florence.

After experiences travelling with French troops through the Crimea, his themes took on military and nationalistic subjects. He later produced many military scenes during the siege of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870.

Pils was appointed professor of painting at the École des Beaux-Arts in 1863 but left the same year for two years in Algeria. In 1868 he was elected to Académie des Beaux-Arts. More on Isidore-Alexandre-Augustin Pils





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Saturday, April 21, 2018

07 Paintings, The amorous game, Part 3 - With Footnotes

N. C. Wyeth, 1882 - 1945
UNTITLED (COUPLE AND WAGON), c. 1914
Oil on canvas
44 by 32 inches, (111.8 by 81.3 cm)
Private Collection

Newell Convers Wyeth (October 22, 1882 – October 19, 1945), known as N. C. Wyeth, was an American artist and illustrator. During his lifetime, Wyeth created over 3,000 paintings and illustrated 112 books, 25 of them for Scribner's, the Scribner Classics, which is the work for which he is best known. The first of these, Treasure Island, was one of his masterpieces and the proceeds paid for his studio. Wyeth was a realist painter just as the camera and photography began to compete with his craft. Sometimes seen as melodramatic, his illustrations were designed to be understood quickly. He is notably the father of painter Andrew Wyeth and the grandfather of Jamie Wyeth, both celebrated American painters. More on Newell Convers Wyeth

Ferdinand Victor Léon Roybet, 1840-1920, FRENCH
A CHOICE
Oil on panel
37 5/8 by 50 3/4 in., 95.5 by 129 cm
Private Collection

Ferdinand Victor Léon Roybet (12 April 1840, Uzès - 11 April 1920, Paris) was a French painter and engraver; best known for his historical and costume genre scenes. His father was the owner of a café and a liqueur manufacturer who moved his family to Lyon in 1846. He began by studying engraving at the École nationale des beaux-arts de Lyon. After his father's death in 1863, he took his new wife and baby to Paris, where he studied with Jean-Georges Vibert and copied the Old Masters at the Louvre.

In 1865, after some financial hardships, he presented two paintings at the Salon and, the following year, achieved success when one of his works was purchased by Mathilde Bonaparte for 5,000 francs. He then decided to concentrate on costumed figures, mostly from the 18th century, and was awarded a contract for three canvases per month at an annual salary of 25,000 francs.

He was named a knight in the Legion of Honour in 1893 and many wealthy people among his clients; notably Cornelius Vanderbilt, who paid 100,000 francs for one of his works at the Palais de l'Industrie in 1893. He also painted many notable people in period costume.

Toward the end of his life, he turned to religious subjects, producing a tableau of 22 paintings depicting the Passion of Christ. After his death, in 1921, they were the subject of a special showing at the Salon. Six years later, the Musée Roybet Fould was established in Courbevoie by Consuelo Fould, who owned a large number of Roybet's paintings. More on Ferdinand Victor Léon Roybet

Charles Haigh-Wood, (British, 1856-1927)
Temptresses
Oil on canvas
18 x 25-1/2 inches (45.7 x 64.8 cm)
Private Collection

Charles Haigh-Wood,  (British, 1856-1927) was a genre painter, who lived in London, Bury and Taplow, Buckinghamshire.

Haigh-Wood’s enchanting visions of romance, with attractive girls and pretty dresses are some of the most endearing and popular of all images. His patrons adored them, a successful businessman of Haigh-Wood’s day with any pretension to artistic taste had to own one.

He exhibited from 1874 to 1904, at the Royal Academy from 1879 to 1904, Suffolk Street, New Watercolour Society and elsewhere.

Titles at the Royal Academy include “The Harvest Moon” 1879, “Chatterboxes” 1889 and “The Old Love and the New” 1901. More on Charles Haigh-Wood

Pierre-Charles Comte (French 1823-1895)
The secret rendezvous 
Oil on panel
28 7/8 x 21in (73.5 x 53.5cm)
Private Collection

Pierre-Charles Comte , born in Lyon on April 23 , 1823 and died at Fontainebleau on November 30 , 1895, was a French painter. A student of Claude Bonnefond at the School of Fine Arts in Lyon between 1840 and 1842. He then moved to Paris to enter the studio of Robert-Fleury .

He exhibited at the Salon in Paris between 1848 and 1887, and in Lyon. He got a medal 3rd  class at the 1852 Lounge, 2nd class to those of 1853 and 1855 and a return in 1857. He received a medal of 3rd  class at the Universal Exhibition of 1867 . He then settled in Fontainebleau

He first practices were painting history , especially the history of the Valois, and genre painting . From 1875, he changed his style by adopting a more "modern" technique. He also made many sculptures at the end of his life. More on Pierre-Charles Comte 

Auguste Jean Baptiste Vinchon (French, 1789-1855)
A painter and his muse 
oil on canvas
22 x 18in (56 x 46.5cm)
Private Collection

Jean Baptiste Auguste Vinchon (5 August 1789 – 1855) was a French painter. He was born in Paris on 5 August 1789. He became a painter of historical subjects, and a printer. Vinchon was a pupil of Gioacchino Giuseppe Serangeli in his Paris studio. He won the second Prix de Rome for painting in 1813 and the first Prix de Rome in 1814 for his painting of the Death of Diagoras. During the First French Empire (1804–14) Vinchon and Nicolas Gosse painted a number of Scenes from Ancient Life in grey scale for the Louvre, based on the plates of Antichità di Ercolano. More on Jean Baptiste Auguste Vinchon

Cyr-Jean-Aime (St-Cyr) Girier (French, 1837-1912)
An awkward silence 
Oil on canvas
29 x 39 1/2in (73.6 x 100.3cm)
Private Collection

Edwin Roberts (British, 1840-1917)
Soft soap
Oil on canvas
24 x 18 inches (61.0 x 45.7 cm)
Private Collection

Edwin Roberts (1840-1917), from London, was a famous painter during his career. His genre paintings reflect his Victorian time frame from which he painted.

Roberts exhibited extensively in London from 1862-1886, including at The Royal Academy and forty-six paintings at the Royal Society of British Artists. 

G. DALLA NOCE (ITALIAN, 19TH CENTURY)
LOVER'S SCENE
Oil on panel
26 x 19 in.
Private Collection






Acknowledgement: Bonhams   , and others

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01 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 19

Charles Wilda, 1854 - 1907, GERMAN
A SOUK IN CAIRO, c. 1887
Oil on panel
63 by 47cm., 25 by 18½in.
Private collection

Open air markets in Old Cairo are called a “souk” in Arabic. You’ll find these types of markets in all Middle Eastern countries.  The tradition of buying and selling, haggling and bargaining among the crowds has being going on for centuries already.

Charles Wilda (born December 20, 1854 in Vienna as Karl Wilda , † June 11, 1907 ibid) was an Austrian painter of Viennese Orientalism . Wilda studied as a pupil of the painter Leopold Carl Müller at the Vienna Academy . He belonged to the center of Austrian Oriental painting.

In his paintings, the daily life in Cairo, where he frequented, played the most important role. His paintings have titles such as "The Snake Charmer" or "The Storyteller". In 1892 he undertook an Egyptian journey with the same-age sculptor Arthur Strasser.

Since 1880s, he exhibited almost regularly at the Vienna Annual Exhibition , the Berlin International Art Exhibition , the Munich Annual Exhibition or the Dresden International Art Exhibition . At the Paris World Exposition in 1900 he was well represented with some of his works. 


The tomb of Charles Wilda at the Vienna Central Cemetery, designed by Hella Unger, 1909. More on Charles Wilda





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01 Paintings, The amorous game, Part 15 - With Footnotes

Guillaume Seignac
A la fontaine
Oil on canvas
31 3/4 x 22 1/2in (80.5 x 57cm)
Private Collection

Guillaum Seignac (1870–1924) was a French academic painter, born in Rennes in 1870, and died in Paris in 1924. He started training at the Académie Julian in Paris, where he spent 1889 through 1895. He had many teachers there, including Gabriel Ferrier, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, and Tony Robert-Fleury.

In addition to his training in the academic style, much of Seignac's work displayed classical themes and style, for example, his use of diaphanous drapery covering a woman's body is reminiscent of classical style. Guillaume Seignac regularly exhibited at the Salon and won several honors, including in 1900 honorable mention and in 1903 a Third Class medal. More on Guillaume Seignac




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01 Painting, Streets of Paris, by the artists of the time, Part 27 - With Footnotes

Eugène Galien-Laloue, (French, 1854-1941)
Théâtre du Châtelet 
Gouache over traces of pencil 
19 x 30.5cm (7 1/2 x 12in)
Private collection

The Théâtre du Châtelet is a theatre and opera house, located in the place du Châtelet in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France.
The theatre is one of two apparent twins constructed along the quays of the Seine, facing each other across the open Place du Châtelet and its ornate fountain. Their external architecture is essentially Palladian entrances under arcades. At the centre of the plaza is a sphinx-endowed fountain, erected in 1808, which commemorates Napoleon's victory in Egypt. More on Théâtre du Châtelet

Eugène Galien-Laloue (1854–1941) was a French artist of French-Italian parents and was born in Paris on December 11, 1854. He was a populariser of street scenes, usually painted in autumn or winter. His paintings of the early 1900s accurately represent the era in which he lived: a happy, bustling Paris, la Belle Époque, with horse-drawn carriages, trolley cars and its first omnibuses. Galien-Laloue's works are valued not only for their contribution to 20th-century art, but for the actual history, which they document. His work can be seen at the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Louvier; Musée des Beaux-Arts, La Rochelle; Mulhouse, France.

A typical Galien-Laloue painting depicts sidewalks and avenues crowded with people or tourists mingling before the capital's monuments. He also painted the landscapes of Normandy and Seine-et-Marne, as well as military scenes he was commissioned to produce in 1914. The Republic of France selected Galien-Laloue to work as a 'war artist,' both during the Franco-Prussian War and World War I, chiefly in watercolor. More on Eugène Galien-Laloue







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Saturday, April 14, 2018

01 Painting, Streets of Paris, by the artists of the time, Part 26 - With Footnotes

Michael Alford, United Kingdom
Can-Can 3
Oil on Other
24 H x 48 W x 1 in

The can-can  is a high-energy, physically demanding dance that became a popular music hall dance in the 1840s, continuing in popularity in French cabaret to this day. Originally danced by both sexes, it is now traditionally associated with a chorus line of female dancers. The main features of the dance are the vigorous manipulation of skirts and petticoats, along with high kicks, splits, and cartwheels. More on the can-can

Michael Alford is a British figurative artist known for an expressive painting style that fuses classical technique with a sharp, modern sensibility. He lives and works in London and exhibits extensively in the United Kingdom, the United States and continental Europe.

Michael’s varied body of work reflects an interest in many types of painting. He is well known for powerful cityscapes of contemporary urban centers—especially London—and for landscapes that capture diverse geographies through the eyes of a passionate traveler.

Michael’s earliest art training came from his father, a colonel in the Royal Engineers, who taught him to draw in perspective from a young age. After a stint in the Royal Marines, Michael studied Spanish and Arabic at Durham University. He travelled extensively in South America and the Middle East, keeping detailed sketchbooks to record his experiences. He later studied art at the Slade School and the Chelsea School of Art.

Driven by a love for plein air sketching and painting from life, Michael’s recent trips have taken him to India, East Africa, North Africa, the Middle East, Europe, the Caribbean and North America. He has worked as war artist for the British Military on three occasions. In 2011 and 2013 he accompanied troops to Helmand Province, Afghanistan. In 2016, a third military commission took him to Iraq.

Michael has been awarded prizes including the Stanley Grimm Prize 2016 from the Royal Institute of Oil Painters, the Green and Stone Oil Painting Prize, the Agnes Reeve Memorial Prize for best painting of London, and the Prima Luce Mural prize. He is a former council member of the Chelsea Arts Society. In 2017 he participated in SkyArts Landscape Artist of the Year competition. More on Michael Alfor






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Thursday, April 12, 2018

01 Painting, Streets of Paris, by the artists of the time, Part 25 - With Footnotes

Pierre Bonnard, (3 October 1867 — 23 January 1947)
L'Arc de Triomphe, Planche XI de "Quelques aspects de la vie de Paris" , 1895
Color lithograph
Haut. 29,5, Larg. 45, 5 cm
Private collection

The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the center of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues.

Inspired by the Roman Arch of Titus, the Arc de Triomphe has an overall height of 50 metres (164 ft), width of 45 m (148 ft), and depth of 22 m (72 ft), while its large vault is 29.19 m (95.8 ft) high and 14.62 m (48.0 ft) wide. The smaller transverse vaults are 18.68 m (61.3 ft) high and 8.44 m (27.7 ft) wide. Three weeks after the Paris victory parade in 1919 (marking the end of hostilities in World War I), Charles Godefroy flew his Nieuport biplane under the arch's primary vault, with the event captured on newsreel.


Paris's Arc de Triomphe was the tallest triumphal arch until the completion of the Monumento a la Revolución in Mexico City in 1938. More on L'Arc de Triomphe

Pierre Bonnard (3 October 1867 — 23 January 1947) was a French painter and printmaker, as well as a founding member of the Post-Impressionist group of avant-garde painters Les Nabis. Bonnard preferred to work from memory, using drawings as a reference, and his paintings are often characterized by a dreamlike quality. The intimate domestic scenes, for which he is perhaps best known, often include his wife Marthe de Meligny.


Bonnard has been described as "the most thoroughly idiosyncratic of all the great twentieth- century painters", and the unusual vantage points of his compositions rely less on traditional modes of pictorial structure than voluptuous color, poetic allusions and visual wit. Identified as a late practitioner of Impressionism in the early 20th century, Bonnard has since been recognized for his unique use of color and his complex imagery. More on Pierre Bonnard



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01 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 16

Arthur von Ferraris, 1856-1936, HUNGARIAN
THE ARMOURER’S SHOP, c. 1893
Oil on canvas
60 by 89cm., 23½ by 35in.
Private collection

In painting Ferraris demonstrates his skill both as a draughtsman and as an acute observer of Egyptian society. From the array of weapons including kilij swords and khanjar knives, to the costumes of the shopkeepers and their client, deep in negotiation, every detail is painstakingly observed and minutely rendered, offering up a fascinating visual document of the vibrancy of life in the streets of Cairo at the turn of the century. Ferraris's fastidious attention to detail reflects the influence of his teacher, Jean-Léon Gérôme, at whose encouragement Ferraris travelled to Cairo in the winter of 1885 in the company of Ludwig Deutsch.  More on this painting

Arthur Von Ferraris (1856 - c.1928) was born in 1856 in Galkovitz, Hungary.  Like so many European regions in 1848, Hungary experienced a major reform movement—in this case to oust the longstanding Hapsburg rulers in Vienna.  

Von Ferraris’ first move was to Vienna during his teenage years.  His first teacher was the Viennese artist, Joseph Matthaus, who specialized in portrait painting.  He did not stay long in Vienna however, leaving for Paris in 1876.

After settling into life in Paris, von Ferraris studied with Jules Lefebvre at the Académie Julian, and then with Jean-Léon Gérôme at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.  He began exhibiting at the Salon des Artistes Français in 1881, just a year after beginning his studies with Gérôme. 

Iin the winter of 1884-85 he traveled to Egypt with his friend, Ludwig Deutsch, an Austrian painter who was also living in Paris.  Undoubtedly Gérôme encouraged the trip.  Von Ferraris and Deutsch spent a productive winter in Cairo, returning to Paris with a wealth of drawings, oil sketches and possibly photographs.  

By the late 1880s, von Ferraris had set up a studio with another Orientalist painter, Charles Wilda.  He continued to paint society portraits—a reliable source of income with wealthy clients.  Von Ferraris exhibited many of his society portraits at the annual Salon.

His Orientalist paintings were regularly shown at the Salon throughout the late 1880s and early 1890s.   Von Ferraris also won honorable mentions at both of the world fairs, the Exposition Universelle, in Paris in 1889 and 1900.

In 1893, he left Paris for Budapest, where he stayed for the next two years. By 1894, he left Budapest for Vienna, and began to exhibit his work in Berlin as well.  Turn-of-the-century Vienna the Vienna Secession group (led by Gustave Klimt) was proclaiming that art should be free—especially from the stodgy, provincial thinking at the tradition-bound Künstlerhaus.  Von Ferraris seems not only to have supported the ideas of the Secession reform group, but also to have become a member in 1898, shortly after it was founded.  

He traveled frequently throughout the Middle East, but also exploring Palestine.  Significantly, his reputation as a society portraitist continued to bring steady, financially rewarding work from international clients.  He made several trips to New York City where he achieved a certain social status for having painted the portrait of John Davison Rockefeller, the founder of Standard Oil. More on Arthur Von Ferraris






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Wednesday, April 11, 2018

06 Ancient Arabian Engravings - With footnotes -

Arabian Bronze Statuette, ca. 1st Millenium BCE

Southwestern Arabia, modern day Yemen, 1st millennium BCE. This is a bronze statuette of a human figure with thin arms and legs and a somewhat animalistic face, complete with two pointed ears. During the first millennium BCE, this part of the world saw several kingdoms - Qataban, Saba (Sheba), and Himyar - emerge who had built their wealth upon desert trade and in particular frankincense and myrrh. Those two resins were burnt on every altar from the Mediterranean to the Near East, enriching this area. They used some of their wealth to create a wide variety of bronze statues, including small copies of larger ones for domestic or personal use; this particular piece is probably a copy of a much larger statue and may have been left as a votive offering or carried by an individual as a good luck charm. Size: 1.25" W x 2.9" H (3.2 cm x 7.4 cm) More on this work

South Arabian Inscribed Limestone Funerary Stele
3.25" L x 7.3" W x 15.75" H (8.3 cm x 18.5 cm x 40 cm) 


From the ancient Near East, Yemen, ca. 1st millennium BCE. This is a pale brown limestone slab with a carved abstract head with a triangular nose, deep set oval eyes, small mouth, prominent brow ridge, and the suggestion of crown or headdress. At one time, this figure would have had inset eyes with pupils made of shell or some other softer material. Below the face is a clear inscription in the ancient Yemeni alphabet (also known as Old South Arabian), probably in the language of the Kingdom of Qataban. The deceased in ancient Saudi Arabia were often represented in anthropomorphic funerary stelae like this one. They have been found in three areas, one of which was the cemetery at Tamna, the capital city of Qataban. This is a "high-relief" stela. Custom stand included.  More on this work

A South Arabian alabaster head of a man 
Sabaean, circa 3rd-1st Century B.C
26cm x 21.5cm

In the form of a rectangular stele with a stylised mask-like face in relief, depicted with flat brows and almond-shaped eyes recessed once for inlay, one eye still retaining the white plaster inlay with blue-glass rim, with a large straight nose and a schematic beard beneath the raised dimpled chin. This head is probably from Marib, the capital of the Sabaean kingdom. There is a very similar head in the National Museum of Yemen, Sana'a.

The Sabaeans or Sabeans were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who lived in what is today Yemen, in the south west of the Arabian Peninsula.


The kingdom of Saba' has been identified with the biblical land of Sheba. The view that the biblical kingdom of Sheba was the ancient Semitic civilization of Saba in Southern Arabia is controversial. The British Museum states that there is no archaeological evidence for such a queen but that the kingdom described as hers was Saba, "the oldest and most important of the South Arabian kingdoms" Kenneth Kitchen dates the kingdom to between 1200 BCE until 275 CE with its capital Marib. The Kingdom fell after a long but sporadic civil war between several Yemenite dynasties claiming kingship, resulting in the rise of the late Himyarite Kingdom. Sabaeans are mentioned in the biblical books of Job, Joel, Ezekiel, and Isaiah., and in ayat 2:62, 5:69, and 22:17 of the Quran. More


A South Arabian alabaster head of a woman 
Qatabanian, circa 1st Century B.C./A.D.
 29.5cm (including the base)

With a long neck, the oval face with stylised facial features including arching incised eyebrows above almond-shaped eyes, inlaid with white stone, the long straight nose with a small mouth below, hair falling behind semi-circular ears, set on an alabaster stepped base.

Qataban or Katabania was an ancient Yemeni kingdom. Its heartland was located in the Baihan valley. Like some other Southern Arabian kingdoms it gained great wealth from the trade of frankincense and myrrh, incenses which were burned at altars. The capital of Qataban was named Timna and was located on the trade route which passed through the other kingdoms of Hadramaut, Sheba and Ma'in. The chief deity of the Qatabanians was Amm, or "Uncle" and the people called themselves the "children of Amm".

It was a prominent Yemeni kingdom in the 2nd half of the 1st millennium BCE, when its ruler held the title of the South Arabian hegemon, Mukarrib. More on Qataban 

A South Arabian alabaster head 
Circa 1st Century B.C./A.D.
16cm x 15cm

In the form of a rectangular stele, the stylised face carved in relief with incised facial features and a long straight nose, the reverse with a panel of horizontal grooves.

A South Arabian alabaster head 
Circa 1st Century B.C./A.D.
 21cm high

The stylised face with a straight browline above almond-shaped schematic eyes, a long slender nose, and a straight slit mouth, some incision at the chin to represent a beard, the back unworked.






Acknowledgement: BonhamsArtemis Gallery, 

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01 Painting, Streets of Paris, by the artists of the time, Part 28 - With Footnotes

FRENCH SCHOOL, (Early 20th Century)
Parisian Market Scene
Oil on Cardboard
8” by 11”,
Private collection

Paris markets – the permanent or weekly, covered or street – are fantastic resources and often very beautiful and atmospheric. For food and drink, markets like Bastille and Saxe-Breteuil are a great opportunity to meet producers and sample new flavours, if not always the cheapest or most efficient way of getting your weekly shopping done.  More on Paris markets 

School of Paris refers to the French and émigré artists who worked in Paris in the first half of the 20th century. The School of Paris was not a single art movement or institution, but refers to the importance of Paris as a center of Western art in the early decades of the 20th century. Between 1900 and 1940 the city drew artists from all over the world and became a centre for artistic activity. School of Paris was used to describe this loose community, particularly of non-French artists, centered in the cafes, salons and shared workspaces and galleries of Montparnasse.


Before World War I the name was also applied to artists involved in the many collaborations and overlapping new art movements, between post-Impressionists and pointillism and Orphism, Fauvism and Cubism. In that period the artistic ferment took place in Montmartre and the well-established art scene there. But Picasso moved away, the war scattered almost everyone, by the 1920s Montparnasse become a center of the avant-garde. After World War II the name was applied to another different group of abstract artists. More on School of Paris





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Monday, April 2, 2018

01 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 16

Gustave Clarence Rodolphe Boulanger, (FRENCH 1824 - 1888)
Aristocratic ladies promenading at the city walls, c. 1869
Oil on canvas
73 x 50cm
Private collection

Gustave Clarence Rodolphe Boulanger (25 April 1824 – October 1888) was a French figure painter known for his classical and Orientalist subjects. He was born at Paris in 1824, and orphaned at age 14 His uncle and guardian subsequently sent him to the studio of Pierre-Jules Jollivet and then to Delaroche in 1840. In 1849 took the Prix de Rome with his painting, Ulysses, a work which combined a classical approach with Orientalist overtones.

In 1845, he first visited Algeria and this gave him an interest in Orientalist themes. Boulanger's knowledge of Pompeii, which he visited while studying at the École de Rome, also gave him ideas for many future works. His paintings are prime examples of academic art of the time, particularly history painting. Boulanger had visited Italy, Greece, and North Africa, and his paintings reflect his attention to culturally correct details and skill in rendering the female form.


He began teaching at the Institut de France in 1882 and was an influential teacher, noted for his dislike of the Impressionism. More on Gustave Clarence Rodolphe Boulanger







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