Saturday, September 29, 2018

01 Painting, Streets of Paris, by the artists of the time, Part 33 - With Footnotes

Eugene Galien-Laloue, French, 1854-1941 
Le Marche aux Puces/ Flea market
Gouache on thin board 
13 x 16 1/8 inches (33 x 41 cm)
Private collection

Fleas are parasitic insects that have always been assumed, rightly or wrongly, to infest the old clothes full of vermin sold by the scavengers , "fleas included". The expression "flea market" became quickly popular and appeared in 1900 on the legends of postcards representing views of the Porte de Clignancourt or Avenue Michelet 1 . More on flee markets in Paris

Eugène Galien-Laloue (1854–1941) was a French artist of French-Italian parents and was born in Paris on December 11, 1854. He was a populariser of street scenes, usually painted in autumn or winter. His paintings of the early 1900s accurately represent the era in which he lived: a happy, bustling Paris, la Belle Époque, with horse-drawn carriages, trolley cars and its first omnibuses. Galien-Laloue's works are valued not only for their contribution to 20th-century art, but for the actual history, which they document. His work can be seen at the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Louvier; Musée des Beaux-Arts, La Rochelle; Mulhouse, France.


A typical Galien-Laloue painting depicts sidewalks and avenues crowded with people or tourists mingling before the capital's monuments. He also painted the landscapes of Normandy and Seine-et-Marne, as well as military scenes he was commissioned to produce in 1914. The Republic of France selected Galien-Laloue to work as a 'war artist,' both during the Franco-Prussian War and World War I, chiefly in watercolor. More on Eugène Galien-Laloue




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Thursday, September 20, 2018

01 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 37

Paul Joanowits, 1859 - 1957, SERBIAN
BASHI-BAZOUKS BEFORE A GATEWAY,  circa 1887-88
Oil on panel
46 by 35cm., 18 by 14¾in.
Private collection

Bashi-bazouks were irregulars in the Ottoman army and hailed from lands across the Ottoman empire, from Egypt to the Balkans. The strain on the Ottoman feudal system caused by the Empire's wide expanse required heavier reliance on irregular soldiers. They were armed and maintained by the government, but did not receive pay and did not wear uniforms or distinctive badges. Because not formally trained, they could not serve in major military operations, but were useful for other tasks such as reconnaissance and outpost duty.

The two soldiers, in all their regalia, converse in an Egyptian setting, the gate topped by Mamluk carvings and flanked by East African 'Grandees' chairs', amalgams of Mamluk, Portuguese, and Indian influence. Both men are armed with Ottoman flintlock rifles from Algeria, and the standing guard smokes an Ottoman chibouk pipe with a tophane bowl. On the left, a seventeenth-century Ottoman Tulip-period Tombak ewer rests on the arm of one of the chairs. More on Bashi-bazouks

Paul Joanowits, 1859 - 1957, was born in Vršac, formerly southern Hungary and today Serbia. He studied at the Vienna Academy from 1876 to 1883 under K. L.Müller. From there he sent his first painting to the art society in Budapest, earning him a Hungarian state scholarship. Like his teacher, he painted oriental images, in Vienna and later in Munich. During the late 19th century he painted scenes of the Serbian uprising for King Alexander of Serbia. Back in Vienna, his main interest lay in painting portraits, amongst which is a picture of Emperor Francis Joseph I. Joanovitch exhibited in Vienna, Munich and Berlin and today his works can be found in museums in Belgrade, Budapest, London, Munich and Vienna. More on Paul Joanowits






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Tuesday, September 18, 2018

04 Paintings, MODERN & CONTEMPORARY MIDDLE EASTERN ART, With Footnotes - 8

Manal Deeb
Cordoba
Acrylic painting on canvas
24" X 30"

Manal Deeb
Thoughtful
Acrylic painting on canvas
24" X 30"

Manal Deeb
Spirit
Acrylic painting on canvas
18" X 24"

Manal Deeb
Ancestors
16" x 24"

Manal Deeb is a Palestinian-American artist who was born in Ramallah, Palestine, and currently resides in the Washington DC area, USA. 

Manal studied Studio Arts at the University of Illinois in Chicago, and got her Bachelor Degree in Interdisciplinary Studies with concentration in Psychology of Art from George Mason University in Virginia.  She is a resident artist at the Workhouse Arts Center in Lorton, VA USA.

Manal has had solo and group exhibits in cities across the United States. Her work has also been exhibited internationally in Paris, Rome, and Cairo; London and Brighton, England; Delhi, India; Doha, Qatar; Amman, Jordan; Islamabad, Pakistan; and Malaga, Spain.

Her mission and main subjects are: humanity, Palestine, the Palestinian people, global cultures, creating bridges between religions, Arab women, and identity. More on Manal Deeb





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Friday, September 14, 2018

01 Painting by the Orientalist Artists of the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 35

Edmund Aubrey Hunt, 1855 - 1922, AMERICAN
ARAB FANTASIA
Oil on canvas laid on panel 
37.5 by 54.5cm., 14¾ by 21½in.
Private collection

Fantasia is a traditional exhibition of horsemanship in the Maghreb performed during cultural festivals and to close Maghrebi wedding celebrations. "Fantasia" is an imported name, the actual traditional term used is lab el baroud.

The performance consists of a group of horse riders, all wearing traditional clothes, who charge along a straight path at the same speed so as to form a line, and then at the end of the charge (about two hundred meters) fire into the sky using old muskets or muzzle-loading rifles The difficulty of the performance is in synchronizing the movement of the horses during acceleration of the charge, and especially in firing the guns simultaneously so that one single shot is heard. The horse is referred to as a fantasia horse and are of Arabian, Andalusian or Barb stock. More on Fantasia 


Edmund Aubrey Hunt, 1855-1922, was an active exhibitor. He was elected a member of the Society of British Artists in 1884, a society of which JW was President between 1886 and 1888.

JW greatly admired Hunt's work. In 1881 he wrote to Charles Deschamps: 'Now about Aubrey Hunt - I want Sir Coutts very much to see his picture - I am sure that it will be charming and really most important in the Grosvenor - His work is most brilliant and full of delightful quality - far more artistically rare than all the Ellis and Easts and Wyllies... put together'. Hunt was amongst those invited to a dinner organised by W. C. Symons to congratulate JW on becoming an Honorary Member of the Royal Academy of Munich, a dinner which was to be held at the Criterion in Piccadilly on 1 May 1889. More on Edmund Aubrey Hunt









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Thursday, September 13, 2018

01 Painting by the Orientalist Artists of the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 34

Henri Rousseau, 1875-1933, FRENCH
THE GAZELLE HUNT
Oil on canvas
54.5 by 73cm., 21 by 28in.
Private collection

Henri Rousseau Henry, Emilien Rousseau (Cairo 1875 - Aix-en-Provence in 1933) was an Orientalist painter. A pupil of Jean-Léon Gérôme at the Beaux Arts in Paris, he won the second Grand Prix de Rome in 1900 and a travel grant at the Salon of French Artists. He traveled to Belgium, the Netherlands, North Africa, Spain and Italy where he admired the great masters (Rubens, Rembrandt, Velasquez, Murillo, the Titian, Raphael etc ...)


After this initiatory journey, he settled in Versailles and set up his studio at the Villa des Arts in Paris. In 1919 he moved to Aix in Provence with his large family (seven children). Knight of the Legion of Honour in arts. His work  is dedicated to Tunisia, Algeria and especially Morocco, Provence and the Camargue remained its anchor points. His success was with a bourgeois and wealthy clientele, where he sold his work at numerous exhibitions in Paris, Brussels, Stockholm, Marseilles. More Henri Rousseau



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Tuesday, September 11, 2018

01 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 33

Alberto Pasini, 1826 - 1899, ITALIAN
MARKET IN CONSTANTINOPLE
Oil on canvas
38.5 by 46cm., 15¼ by 18¼in.
Private collection


It is common to think that the western terminus of the Silk Road was Rome in Italy. However, whilst Rome was indeed an important destination for Chinese silk during the first two or three centuries of the Silk Road (perhaps until 200 AD), from the 4th century onwards, the “Rome” to which all roads led in the Mediterranean world was “Eastern Rome” or Constantinople. Even in its long centuries of decline down to its conquest by the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the wealth of Constantinople was legendary, and its location ensured it a very important role in the trade with the East. Renamed Istanbul under the Turks, the city again became the capital of a great empire and played a central role in east-west cultural and economic exchange. More on the MARKET IN CONSTANTINOPLE

Alberto Pasini (Busseto, 3 September 1826 – Cavoretto, 15 December 1899) was an Italian painter. He was enrolled at the age of 17 years, in the Academy of Fine Art of Parma, studying landscape painting and drawing. In Parma, he was helped early on by Antonio Pasini, who painted for the local nobility and collaborated with the publishing house established by Giovanni Battista Bodoni. By 1852, he exhibited a series of thirty designs, made into lithographs, depicting various castles around Piacenza, Lunigiana and Parma. He was noticed by the artist Paolo Toschi, who encouraged Pasini to travel to Paris, where Pasini first joined the workshop of Charles and Eugène Ciceri, of the so-called School of Barbizon.

In 1853 his lithograph of The Evening gained him admittance to the Paris Salon, and to the workshop of the famous Théodore Chassériau. The eruption of the Crimean War offered a new opportunity, when in February 1855, this latter painter recommended Pasini to replace him on the entourage of the French plenipotentiary minister Nicolas Prosper Bourée to Persia. Pasini accompanied him, returning through the north of Persia and Armenia before reaching the port of Trebizond. In subsequent trips, he visited Egypt, the Red Sea, Arabia, Istanbul, and Persia. Pasini parlayed his exposures during this trip into numerous highly detailed paintings of orientalist subjects. He left again for Istanbul in October 1867, summoned by the French Ambassador Bourée. He returned to Turkey in 1876 to execute the four paintings commissioned by Sultan Abdul Aziz. He was about to return to Istanbul the next year, when his patron, the Sultan, died.


In 1865, he spent some time in Cannes, painted landscapes of the Riviera. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, he returned to Italy, settling in Cavoretto, on the hills around Turin. He continued to travel, closer to his home, with trips to Venice and two sojourns in Spain in 1879 and 1883. More Alberto Pasini 




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Saturday, September 8, 2018

01 Painting, Streets of Paris, by the artists of the time, Part 33 - With Footnotes

Ernst Josephson, 1851 - 1906, SWEDISH
14 JUILLET, c. 1883
Oil on canvas
90 by 119cm., 35½ by 47in.
Private collection

Bastille Day is the common name given in English-speaking countries/lands to the French National Day, which is celebrated on the 14th of July each year. In France, it is formally called la Fête nationale and commonly and legally le 14 Juillet.


The French National Day commemorates the first anniversary of Storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789, a turning point of the French Revolution, as well as the Fête de la Fédération which celebrated the unity of the French people on 14 July 1790. Celebrations are held throughout France. The oldest and largest regular military parade in Europe is held on the morning of 14 July, on the Champs-Élysées in Paris in front of the President of the Republic, along with other French officials and foreign guests. More on Bastille Day

Ernst Josephson (16 April 1851, Stockholm, Sweden – 22 November 1906) was a Swedish painter whose main work was done on portraits and paintings of folk life.

He did his art studies in Italy, France and the Netherlands, among others, and is reputed to have said at the age of 20: "I will become Sweden's Rembrandt or die."

However, his life was marred by illness. He contracted syphilis at a relatively young age, and in 1888 he became mentally ill during a visit to Brittany, having religious hallucinations and believing that he was God and Christ.

He was later taken to hospital in Uppsala and diagnosed with schizophrenia, but continued working throughout his disease, often while in a trance-like state.

He also wrote poetry, in the collections Svarta rosor (1888, Black Roses) and Gula rosor (1896, Yellow Roses). His main work, Näcken (1884, the Nix), was refused by the Swedish National Museum in Stockholm – however, Prince Eugén, Duke of Närke, bought the painting in fury over the decision.

Josephson's painting "Strömkarlen" shows the strong influence he has had on the current crop of Scandinavian figurative painters, most notably the Norwegian Odd Nerdrum. More on Ernst Josephson




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01 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 32

Victor Huguet, 1835 - 1902, FRENCH
Riders in a Ravine 
Oil on canvas
118 by 100cm., 46½ by 39¼in.
Private collection

Victor Pierre Huguet , born Lude the 1 st May 1835 and died in Paris August 16, 1902, was a French, landscape and genre painter.. He was a pupil of Emile Loubon in Marseille and received advice from Fromentin in Paris.

In 1852, aged 17, he traveled to Egypt, then to Crimea where he accompanied Durand-Brager before the siege of Sebastopol. He was profoundly influenced by the landscapes he passes through and that will influence his inspiration to Orientalism, where he soon made a name. Discovering Algeria a few years later, he drew from many sources of inspiration.

He exhibited at the Salons de Marseille and Paris in 1859 and the Salon of French Orientalist Painters at its inception in 1893. He was the leading Orientalist artists of Provence. More Victor Pierre Huguet





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Tuesday, September 4, 2018

01 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 30

Gyula Tornai (Hungarian, 1861-1928)
The new necklace 
Oil on canvas
53 3/4 x 83 3/4in (136.5 x 213cm)
Private collection

It is typically characteristic of Tornai to depict a crowded, richly furnished interior. The sensually stretched out woman, and several types of human characters are also typical of a Tornai composition. More on this painting

Harem a sacred inviolable place; for female members of the family. Harem properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations. Similar institutions have been common in other Mediterranean and Middle Eastern civilizations, especially among royal and upper-class families and the term is sometimes used in non-Islamic contexts. The structure of the harem and the extent of monogamy or polygamy has varied depending on the family's personalities, socio-economic status, and local customs. A harem may house a man's wife—or wives and concubines, as in royal harems of the past.


In the West, Orientalist imaginary conceptions of the harem as a fantasy world of forbidden sexuality where numerous women lounged in suggestive poses have influenced many paintings, stage productions, films and literary works. Several European Renaissance paintings dating to the 16th century defy Orientalist tropes and portray the women of the Ottoman harem as individuals of status and political significance. In many periods of Islamic history women in the harem exercised various degrees of political power. More on the Harem

Gyula Tornai (1861 in Görgő – 1928 in Budapest) was a Hungarian painter, now featured in the Hungarian National Gallery.

Gyula Tornai was a great Hungarian orientalist painter. Tornai studied painting at three different academies: Vienna, Munich, and Budapest. He then traveled to India, China, and Japan before settling in Morocco. He stayed in Tangier between 1890-1891. He participated in the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900, where he received a bronze medal. He died in Budapest in 1928. More on Gyula Tornai



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