Saturday, July 15, 2017

08 Orientalist Paintings by Artists from the 19th Century, with footnotes, 18

Edouard Frederic Wilhelm Richter,1844 - 1913 
Oil on canvas
Height: 151 cm (59.45 in.), Width: 211.5 cm (83.27 in.)
Private collection

Scheherazade is a character and the storyteller in One Thousand and One Nights. This book includes the tales of Aladdin, Ali Baba and many more.

The story goes that Shahryar found out one day that his first wife was unfaithful to him. Therefore, he resolved to marry a new virgin each day as well as behead the previous day's wife, so that she would have no chance to be unfaithful to him. He had killed 1,000 such women by the time he was introduced to Scheherazade, the vizier's daughter.

"Scheherazade had perused the books, annals and legends of preceding Kings, and the stories, examples and instances of bygone men and things; indeed it was said that she had collected a thousand books of histories relating to antique races and departed rulers. She had perused the works of the poets and knew them by heart; she had studied philosophy and the sciences, arts and accomplishments; and she was pleasant and polite, wise and witty, well read and well bred."

Edouard Frederic Wilhelm Richter,1844 - 1913 

Against her father's wishes, Scheherazade volunteered to spend one night with the king. Once in the king's chambers, Scheherazade asked if she might bid one last farewell to her beloved sister, Dunyazade, who had secretly been prepared to ask Scheherazade to tell a story during the long night. The king lay awake and listened with awe as Scheherazade told her first story. The night passed by, and Scheherazade stopped in the middle of the story. The king asked her to finish, but Scheherazade said there was no time, as dawn was breaking. So, the king spared her life for one day to finish the story the next night. The following night, Scheherazade finished the story and then began a second, even more exciting tale, which she again stopped halfway through at dawn. Again, the king spared her life for one more day so she could finish the second story.

And so the king kept Scheherazade alive day by day, as he eagerly anticipated the finishing of the previous night's story. At the end of 1,001 nights, and 1,000 stories, Scheherazade told the king that she had no more tales to tell him. During these 1,001 nights, the king had fallen in love with Scheherazade. He spared her life, and made her his queen. More on Scheherazade

Édouard Frédéric Wilhelm Richter , born on June 18, 1844 in Paris, where he died on March 4, 1913 to a Dutch mother and German father. His extensive artistic education took him to the Hague Academy, then to Antwerp and finally to the Académie de Beaux-Arts in Paris where he trained under Léon Bonnat. Richter first exhibited a still-life at the Salon in 1866 and received honourable mention. However for the following fifty years, he submitted a range of subject matter including portraits, historical genre scenes and more specifically Orientalist subjects. 

Richter's favourite subject was the female. Whether European or Middle Eastern, he illustrated dignified, yet languid beauties at the centre of his compositions. His Orientalist subjects demonstrate a certain studied theatricality in the gesture of the figures and the composition as seen in the present lot, as well as an exquisite handling of the textures and colours. The young woman dressed in elaborate clothes is posed in front of a window. The sunlight defines the silhouette of body and adds an ethereal halo. The delicacy of her placed fingers and the soft pink in her dress contrasts with the geometric and vibrant design of the mosaics encircling her. More on Édouard Frédéric Wilhelm Richter

Edouard Frederic Wilhelm Richter,1844 - 1913 
A Moorish Dancer, c. 1877
Oil on canvas
Height: 92 cm (36.22 in.), Width: 74 cm (29.13 in.)
Private collection

Edouard Frederic Wilhelm Richter,1844 - 1913, see above

John William Waterhouse, 1849 - 1917
Oil on canvas
46 by 27cm., 18 by 10½in
Private collection

John William Waterhouse (April 6, 1849 – February 10, 1917) was an English painter known for working in the Pre-Raphaelite style. He worked several decades after the breakup of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, which had seen its heyday in the mid-nineteenth century, leading to his sobriquet "the modern Pre-Raphaelite". Borrowing stylistic influences not only from the earlier Pre-Raphaelites but also from his contemporaries, the Impressionists, his artworks were known for their depictions of women from both ancient Greek mythology and Arthurian legend.
Born in Italy to English parents who were both painters, he later moved to London, where he enrolled in the Royal Academy of Art. He soon began exhibiting at their annual summer exhibitions, focusing on the creation of large canvas works depicting scenes from the daily life and mythology of ancient Greece. Later on in his career he came to embrace the Pre-Raphaelite style of painting despite the fact that it had gone out of fashion in the British art scene several decades before. More on John William Waterhouse

Léon François Comerre, 1850 - 1916
Femme au tambourin
oil on canvas
48 ½ x 30 3/8 in. (123 x 77 cm.)
Private collection

Léon François Comerre (10 October 1850 – 20 February 1916) was a French academic painter, famous for his portraits of beautiful women. Comerre was born in Trélon, in the Département du Nord, the son of a schoolteacher. He moved to Lille with his family in 1853. From an early age he showed an interest in art and became a student of Alphonse Colas at the École des Beaux-Arts in Lille, winning a gold medal in 1867. From 1868 a grant from the Département du Nord allowed him to continue his studies in Paris at the famous École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in the studio of Alexandre Cabanel. There he came under the influence of orientalism.

Comerre first exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1871 and went on to win prizes in 1875 and 1881. In 1875 he won the Grand Prix de Rome. This led to a scholarship at the French Academy in Rome from January 1876 to December 1879. In 1885 he won a prize at the "Exposition Universelle" in Antwerp. He also won prestigious art prizes in the USA (1876) and Australia (1881 and 1897). He became a Knight of the Legion of Honour in 1903.

Gustav Bauernfeind, German, 1848 - 1904
Market in Jaffa, c. 1887
Oil on canvas

Market in Jaffa, now a part of Tel Aviv, was painted by Gustav Bauernfeind in 1887. Bauernfeind was extremely brave to paint in cities like Jaffa and Damascus. Jaffa was frequently under quarantine for plague and westerners could be attacked in the streets of Damascus by religious zealots. Bauernfeind would show up in these cities in western dress with bulky photographic equipment and somehow survive and get his work done. More on Market in Jaffa

Gustav Bauernfeind (4 September 1848, Sulz am Neckar - 24 December 1904, Jerusalem) was a German painter, illustrator and architect. He is considered to be one of the most notable Orientalist painters of Germany.

After completing his architectural studies in Stuttgart, he worked in the architectural firm of Professor Wilhelm Bäumer and later in that of Adolph Gnauth, where he also learned painting. In his earlier paintings, Bauernfeind focused on local views of Germany, as well as motifs from Italy. During his journey to the Levant from 1880 to 1882, he became interested in the Orient and repeated his travels again and again. In 1896 he moved with his wife and son all the way to Palestine and subsequently settled in Jerusalem in 1898. He also lived and worked in Lebanon and Syria.

Gustav Bauernfeind, (German, 1848–1904)
The market in Jaffa, 1887
39 x 53 cm. (15.4 x 20.9 in.)
Private collection

His work is characterized primarily by architectural views of Jerusalem and the Holy Land. The paintings of Bauernfeind are mostly meticulously crafted, intricately composed and almost photographically accurate cityscapes and images of known sanctuaries in oil. In addition, he produced landscape scenes and watercolours. During his lifetime he was the most popular Orientalist painter of Germany, but soon fell into oblivion after his death. However, since the early 1980s, Bauernfeind was gradually rediscovered. At his birthplace in Sulz am Neckar, the life and work of the painter is commemorated by the Gustav Bauernfeind Museum with a large permanent exhibition. More Gustav Bauernfeind

Edward Lear, 1812-1888
The Cedars of Lebanon, c. 1861
Oil on canvas
68cm high x 113.50cm (44.69 inches)

The cedar of Lebanon was prized throughout the ancient Near East. The Palermo Stone indicates cedar was imported to Egypt in the reign of the 4th dynasty king Sneferu, ca. 2613-2589 BC. One of its primary uses was for boat construction.

Commonly referred to in Scripture as the cedars of Lebanon, this aromatic, durable wood was highly desirable for building in Iron Age Israel. David used in it building his palace, and Solomon used it in the construction of the temple and a palace for himself. More history of the Cedars of Lebanon.

Edward Lear, 1812-1888
The Cedars of Lebanon, c. 1858
A preliminary sketch for the painting (above)
Oatlands Park Hotel, Weybridge

Although Lear had travelled in the Middle East, and indeed undertook his most extensive tour there in 1858, his time was limited. As in the case of other pictures, he found he still needed a more leisurely contemplation in order to work up his landscapes: "Individual foreground details and studies of foliage were often painted from local sources". Thus, to complete a view of the Cedars of Lebanon that had so impressed him, he went looking for good specimens when home again in England. Fortunately, some such specimens were to be found within easy reach of London. Lear could hardly have done better than the ancient and famous cedar trees on the estate of the Oatlands Park Hotel in north Surrey. The most imposing one now has a sign on it, that reads, "This is one of the first Cedars of Lebanon imported into England. It is believed to have been planted here by Prince Henry Otelands, the youngest son of King Charles the First." More on The Cedars of Lebanon

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Wednesday, July 12, 2017

13 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, with Footnotes. # 23

Gustav Klimt  (1862–1918)
Portrait of Baroness Elisabeth Bachofen-Echt, c. 1914-1916
Oil on canvas
180 × 126 cm (70.9 × 49.6 in)
Private collection

Elisabeth Bachofen-Echt was the daughter of August and Serena Ledere (below), Klimt's most important patrons. The family's collection eventually grew to include some fifteen canvases by the artist, among them an 1899 portrait of Serena - described by those who knew her as the best-dressed woman in Vienna - and a 1915 painting of her mother, Charlotte Pulitzer, a relation of Joseph Pulitzer, founder of the famous prize for writing. More on Elisabeth Bachofen-Echt 

Gustav Klimt (Austrian, Baumgarten 1862–1918 Vienna)
Serena Pulitzer Lederer (1867–1943), Date:1899
Oil on canvas
75 1/8 x 33 5/8 in. (190.8 x 85.4 cm)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Serena (Szeréna) Lederer, born Pulitzer (* 20 May 1867 in Budapest; † 27 March 1943 ) was the spouse of the Industry Magnate August Lederer, close friend of Gustav Klimt and instrumental in the constitution of the collection of Klimt's art pieces.

Born into a wealthy family, (a relative of the U.S. journalist Joseph Pulitzer), Serena was known for being a beauty in her youth and later a Grande Dame. The family was resident at the castle Ledererschlössel in Weidlingau. In Vienna, one room of the flat was dedicated to Klimt works. The painting of Szeréna Lederer done in 1899 was the origin of a close friendship. On Klimt's recommendation, in 1912, Egon Schiele was introduced to the Lederer family and became friends with Erich Lederer, the youngest son. Szeréna Lederer was instrumental in the collection of Klimt's work. There are portraits of her mother, her daughter Elisabeth (above) and herself by the artist. It has been suggested Elisabeth was the biological daughter of Lederer and Klimt.

The Lederer collection was confiscated from Serena in 1940 and she fled to Budapest, where she died three years later. The Gestapo transferred the collection to Immendorf Castle, but the castle was set on fire in May, 1945 so that it would not fall into the hands of the Allies and the collection was destroyed. More on Serena (Szeréna) Lederer

Gustav Klimt, 1862 - 1918
Oil on board
20 1/2 by 20 1/2 in., 52 by 52 cm
Private collection

Dame im Fauteuil (Woman in Armchair) shows the artist’s affiliation with the Symbolist painters of the late nineteenth century. The female sitter, richly swathed in a matching red dress and hat, her narrow waist belted in a deep green, is seated in a patterned armchair against an abstracted background of brownish-red and taupe. The serenity and delicate pallor of her face is echoed in the ghostly quality of the two outlined heads in the upper left of the composition. More on Dame im Fauteuil 

Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objets d'art. Klimt's primary subject was the female body, and his works are marked by a frank eroticism. In addition to his figurative works, which include allegories and portraits, he painted landscapes. Among the artists of the Vienna Secession, Klimt was the most influenced by Japanese art and its methods.
Early in his artistic career, he was a successful painter of architectural decorations in a conventional manner. As he developed a more personal style, his work was the subject of controversy that culminated when the paintings he completed around 1900 for the ceiling of the Great Hall of the University of Vienna were criticized as pornographic. He subsequently accepted no more public commissions, but achieved a new success with the paintings of his "golden phase," many of which include gold leaf. More Gustav Klimt

Alfred Seifert (1850–1901)
Hypatia, c. 1901
Oil on panel
50.2 x 39.4 cm
Private collection

Hypatia of Alexandria (370-415 CE) was a scientist, inventor, and philosopher. She is also the first known female mathematician. Her death definitively ended the great era of ancient Greek mathematics and science. The Middle Ages came soon after.

Her father, Theon, was also a mathematician and philosopher, associated with the Musæum (a pagan temple-cum-philosophical school), and assisted her in getting started in her work. He personally taught her in the arts, literature, mathematics, science and philosophy.She was best known as a teacher, eventually becoming the head of the Alexandrian neo-Platonic school.

She was known for being very eloquent, very virtuous, and very beautiful, easily able to hold her own among men; the rationalist minister M. M. Mangasarian described her thus:
“”It appears that her beauty, which would have made even a Cleopatra jealous, was as great as her modesty, and both were matched by her eloquence, and all three surpassed by her learning."

Chronicles relate that around the time of Hypatia's death, the patriarch Cyril drummed up a large mob.  Hypatia was seen by the Christian population as being the cause of their continuing dispute and it was calumniously reported among the Christian populace, that it was she who prevented Orestes from being reconciled to the bishop. Some of them therefore, hurried away by a fierce and bigoted zeal, waylaid her returning home, and dragging her from her carriage, they took her to the church called Cæsareum, where they completely stripped and murdered her with tiles. More on Hypatia

SIR JAMES GUTHRIE P.R.S.A., H.R.A., R.S.W., L.L.D. (SCOTTISH 1859-1930) 
52cm x 62cm (20.5in x 24.5in)
Private collection

John Singer Sargent, 1856 - 1925
Oil on canvas
58 by 37 7/8 inches, (147.3 by 96.2 cm)
Private collection

Mrs Charles Alexander, née Harriet Crocker (1859-1935) was the daughter of Charles Crocker of San Francisco, one of the Big Four who built the Central Pacific Railroad across the Sierra Nevada Mountains to connect with the Union Pacific Railroad, then under construction westwards from Omaha. She married Charles Beatty Alexander, a distinguished New York lawyer, in 1887. They lived in a mansion on the site of the present Bergdorf Goodman department store, and were collectors and patrons of art.

Their wealth and style made them prominent figures in society, but they seemed to represent an older, more gracious New York that was passing. On the day of Alexander's funeral (9 February 1927), the art dealer René Gimpel wrote: 'His wife leads all society here. With him, a moment in American life comes to an end. More on Mrs Charles Alexander

John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was an American artist, considered the "leading portrait painter of his generation" for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury. During his career, he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and charcoal drawings. His oeuvre documents worldwide travel, from Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida.

His parents were American, but he was trained in Paris prior to moving to London. Sargent enjoyed international acclaim as a portrait painter, although not without controversy and some critical reservation; an early submission to the Paris Salon, his "Portrait of Madame X", was intended to consolidate his position as a society painter, but it resulted in scandal instead. From the beginning his work was characterized by remarkable technical facility, particularly in his ability to draw with a brush, which in later years inspired admiration as well as criticism for a supposed superficiality. His commissioned works were consistent with the grand manner of portraiture, while his informal studies and landscape paintings displayed a familiarity with Impressionism. In later life Sargent expressed ambivalence about the restrictions of formal portrait work, and devoted much of his energy to mural painting and working en plein air. He lived most of his life in Europe. More John Singer Sargent

John William Godward, R.B.A., 1861-1922, BRITISH
Oil on canvas
31 1/2 by 23 5/8 in., 80 by 60 cm
Private collection

The excavation of Pompeii in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries captivated the popular imagination, and Godward has emblazoned his model against a red ground that may reference the walls of the House of Julia Felix, a wealthy heiress, property owner, business woman and public figure in Pompeii.  Her villa was first discovered in 1775,  a richly decorated shrine was uncovered in 1912,  which Godward may have visited. Like his contemporary, Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Godward was an exacting researcher, sourcing every element of his paintings from the collection at the British Museum, or from photographs and objects that he collected. The table top, for example, is strewn with various objets de toilette from antiquity: including the Roman glass Pyxis, a cylindrical box used for storing cosmetics, the ivory and wood box, and a hand mirror with Etruscan motif handle. The model is dressed in a teal colored stola (the feminine form of the ancient Roman toga), drawn tightly at the waist with a palla (Roman shawl) of a deep wine color, and tied with an exquisitely-painted patterned yellow ribbon. Her hair is twisted into a long cascading braid, which she is arranging on top of her head using ivory hairpins. More on Julia

John William Godward (9 August 1861 – 13 December 1922) was an English painter from the end of the Neo-Classicist era. He was a protégé of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, but his style of painting fell out of favour with the arrival of painters such as Picasso. He committed suicide at the age of 61 and is said to have written in his suicide note that "the world is not big enough for myself and a Picasso".

His already estranged family, who had disapproved of his becoming an artist, were ashamed of his suicide and burned his papers. No photographs of Godward are known to survive. More John William Godward

John Singer Sargent, (1856–1925)
Portrait of Grace Curzon, Marchioness Curzon of Kedleston (1879-1958), c. 1925
Oil on canvas
127 × 92.7 cm (50 × 36.5 in)
Currier Museum of Art, Manchester, New Hampshire

Grace Elvina Curzon, Marchioness Curzon of Kedleston, GBE (1878 – 29 June 1958) was a United States-born British marchioness and the second wife of George Curzon, British parliamentarian, cabinet minister, and former Viceroy of India. She was born in Decatur, Alabama. Her first husband was Alfred Huberto Duggan of Buenos Aires, Argentina, with whom she had three children.

Grace Duggan was a wealthy woman after her husband's death, inheriting large estancias in South America. In 1916, Philip Alexius de László painted her as a widow in nurse's uniform. (below).

In 1917, aged 38, she became the second wife of Lord Curzon. In 1923, when Curzon was passed over for the office of Prime Minister partly on the advice of Arthur Balfour, Balfour joked that Curzon 'has lost the hope of glory but he still possesses the means of Grace".

Despite her fertility-related operations and several miscarriages, the couple did not produce a heir. This eroded their marriage, which ended in separation but not divorce. Letters from Curzon to Grace in the early 1920s indicate that they remained devoted to each other.

In 1925, soon before she was again widowed, her portrait was painted by the American artist John Singer Sargent (above). This oil on canvas painting was Sargent's last oil portrait. The painting was purchased in 1936 by the Currier Museum of Art in Manchester, New Hampshire.

She was named Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in the 1922 for "services rendered during the War to the British Red Cross Society, and to the Soldiers' and Sailors' Families Association, the Belgian -Soldiers' Club, and Queen Alexandra's Nursing' Association. More on Grace Elvina Curzon

John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) see above

Philip de László,  (1869–1937)
Grace Elvina Hinds, Marchioness Curzon of Kedleston (1877-1958), c. 1916
Oil on canvas
79.4 × 63.5 cm (31.3 × 25 in)
 National Trust, Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire

Philip Alexius de László, MVO (30 April 1869 – 22 November 1937) was a Hungarian painter known for his portraits of royal and aristocratic personages. In 1900, he married Lucy Guinness of Stillorgan, County Dublin, and became a British citizen in 1914. László was born in humble circumstances in Budapest as Laub Fülöp. He was apprenticed at an early age to a photographer while studying art, eventually earning a place at the National Academy of Art, where he studied. He followed this with studies in Munich and Paris. László's portrait of Pope Leo XIII earned him a Grand Gold Medal at the Paris International Exhibition in 1900. In 1903 László moved from Budapest to Vienna. In 1907 he moved to England and remained based in London for the remainder of his life

László's patrons awarded him numerous honours and medals. In 1909 he was invested MVO by Edward VII. In 1912 he was ennobled by King Franz Joseph of Hungary; his surname then became "László de Lombos", but he soon was using the name "de László".

Despite his British citizenship, his marriage and five British sons, de László was interned for over twelve months in 1917 and 1918 during the First World War. He was exonerated and released in June 1919. Due to overwork de László suffered heart problems for the last years of his life. In October 1937 he had a heart attack and died a month later at his home in Hampstead, London. More on Philip Alexius de László

Evelyn Pickering de Morgan, 1855 - 1919, BRITISH
CLYTIE, c. 1886-7
Oil on canvas
41 3/4 by 17 1/2 in., 106 by 44.5 cm
Private collection

In this painting, de Morgan interprets the story of the water nymph Clytie, the daughter of the King of Babylon.  As told by Ovid in his Metamorphoses, Clytie falls in love with the sun god, Apollo, and when he abandons her for another, she strips herself and sits naked on the rocks in the sun, nourished only by her tears. Each day from dawn to dusk, she stares at the chariot of the sun, driven by her erstwhile lover, as he journeys through the sky.  On the ninth day, she is transformed into a sunflower (a popular emblem of the Aesthetic movement), which turns its head to look longingly at the sun.  More on Clytie

Evelyn De Morgan (30 August 1855 – 2 May 1919) was an English painter whose works were influenced by the style of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. She was a follower of Pre-Raphaelist Edward Burne-Jones. Her paintings exhibit spirituality; use of mythological, biblical, and literary themes; the role of women; light and darkness as metaphors; life and death; and allegories of war.

She was born Mary Evelyn Pickering to upper middle class parents. Evelyn was educated at home and started drawing lessons when she was 15. She went on to persuade her parents to let her go to art school. At first they discouraged it, but in 1873 she was enrolled at the Slade School of Art. She was granted a scholarship at Slade which entitled her to three years of financial assistance. However, since the scholarship required that she draw nudes using charcoal and she did not care for this technique, she eventually declined it.

She was also a pupil of her uncle John Roddam Spencer Stanhope, who was a great influence on her works. Beginning in 1875, Evelyn often visited him in Florence where he lived. This also enabled her to study the great artists of the Renaissance; she was particularly fond of the works of Botticelli. This influenced her to move away from the classical subjects favored by the Slade school and to make her own style. She first exhibited in 1877 at the Grosvenor Gallery in London and continued to show her paintings thereafter. More on Evelyn De Morgan

Franz Xaver Winterhalter, (German, Menzenschwand 1805–1873 Frankfurt)
FLORINDA, c. 1853
Oil on canvas
70 1/4 x 96 3/4 in. (178.4 x 245.7 cm)
Royal Collection

The legend of the eighth-century Visigothic king Rodrigo of Hispania tells how Rodrigo’s seduction of the beautiful maiden Florinda ('La Cava') initiated the Arab conquest of Spain. In this scene Florinda (centre left) and her companions, all draped to varying degrees in luxurious Indian silks, prepare to bathe in the grounds of the castle near Toledo where she lives, unaware that they are being watched by King Rodrigo who hides in the bushes nearby. Rodrigo falls violently in love and seduces Florinda, to the anger of her father, Count Julian, who secretly meets with the Moors and encourages them to invade Spain. In the subsequent war Rodrigo is killed in battle by the invaders, who subject the country to their rule for two hundred years. More on this painting

Franz Xaver Winterhalter (20 April 1805 – 8 July 1873). Born in a small village in Germany's Black Forest, Franz Xaver Winterhalter left his home to study painting at the academy in Munich. Before becoming court painter to Louis-Philippe, the king of France, he joined a circle of French artists in Rome. In 1835, after he painted the German Grand Duke and Duchess of Baden, Winterhalter's international career as a court portrait painter was launched. Although he never received high praise for his work in his native Germany, the royal families of England, France, and Belgium all commissioned him to paint portraits. His monumental canvases established a substantial popular reputation, and lithographic copies of the portraits helped to spread his fame. 

Winterhalter's portraits were prized for their subtle intimacy, but his popularity among patrons came from his ability to create the image his sitters wished or needed to project to their subjects. He was able to capture the moral and political climate of each court, adapting his style to each client until it seemed as if his paintings acted as press releases, issued by a master of public relations. More on Franz Xaver Winterhalter 

William Edward Frost, SURREY 1810 - 1877 LONDRES, ÉCOLE ANGLAISE
Oil on canvas
70 x 86 cm ; 27 1/2 by 37 3/4 in.
Private collection

William Edward Frost (September 1810 – 4 June 1877) was an English painter of the Victorian era. Virtually alone among English artists in the middle Victorian period, he devoted his practice to the portrayal of the female nude.

Frost was educated in the schools of the Royal Academy, beginning in 1829; he established a reputation as a portrait painter before branching into historical and mythological subjects, including the subgenre of fairy painting that was characteristic of Victorian art. In 1839 he won the Royal Academy's gold medal for his Prometheus Bound, and in 1843 he won a prize in the Westminster Hall competition for his Una Alarmed by Fauns (a subject from Spenser's The Faerie Queene). He was elected an associate member of the Royal Academy in 1846, and a full member in 1870.

Frost is widely recognized as a follower of William Etty, who preceded him as the primary British painter of nudes in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Despite the prudishness of the Victorian era, Frost's relatively chaste nudes were popular, and his career was financially successful. More on William Edward Frost

School of Paul Emil Jacobs,  (1802–1866)
The Pasha's Favourite (Ali Pasha and Kira Vassiliki), c. 1844
Oil on canvas
102.5 × 123 cm (40.4 × 48.4 in)
Private collection

Vassiliki Kontaxi, nicknamed Kyra Vassiliki, Lady Vassiliki, 1789 – 1834) was an influential Greek woman brought up in the seraglio of the Ottoman ruler Ali Pasha. Vassiliki was born in the Greek village of Plisivitsa in Thesprotia. At the age of twelve she sought an audience with the local Ottoman ruler, Ali Pasha, to intercede for her father's life. Having granted her father pardon, Ali Pasha married Vassiliki in 1808 and she joined his harem. Being allowed to practice her Christian faith, she interceded on behalf of Greeks. During this period she undertook a number of charity initiatives. In 1819–20 she financed a number of restoration works in Mount Athos.

In January 1822, during the last stage of the siege of Ioannina by the Ottoman Sultan's forces, Vassiliki together with Ali Pasha and his private guard escaped to Ioannina Island. Ali Pasha was executed there on January 22 by an Ottoman delegation, having being declared an outlaw by the Sultan. Following Ali's death, Vassiliki was sent as a prisoner to the Ottoman capital, Constantinople. She was later pardoned and returned to Greece, which meanwhile gained its independence after the successful Greek War of Independence (1821–30). In 1830, the Greek state gave Vassiliki a medieval tower in Katochi, where she lived the rest of her life. She died in 1834. More on Kyra Vassiliki

Paul Emil Jacobs (August 20, 1802 in Gotha – January 6, 1866) was a German painter. Jacobs received his art training at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts and first became known for his painting of Mercury and Argus (from Classical mythology). In 1824 he went to Rome, where he attracted critical attention by painting "The Raising of Lazarus". In 1836 he made a series of historical paintings at the Welfenschloss in Hannover.

Jacobs was noted for his mastery of nudes, expressed particularly in the representation of such Orientalist themes as "A slave market" or of sleeping and waking boys. His image of Scheherezade from Arabian Nights is noted for its light effects. The famous Ali Pasha was depicted by Jacobs in a moment of relaxed intimacy with his favorite mistress (or wife) Kira Vassiliki (above).

Like many Europeans of his generation, Jacobs shared in the Philhellene sympathy for the Greek War of Independence, which took place when he was in the early stage of his artistic career. This was manifested in his painting very sympathetic pictures of "Greek Freedom Fighters".

Jacobs was also a portrait painter. Lithographed portraits by him include those of Goethe, Karl Gottlieb Bretschneider and Döring.

In 1844, Jacobs created the monumental altarpiece "Calvary", for St. Augustine's Church in Gotha. It was removed from St. Augustine's in 1939, and since 1998 the altarpiece has been located in the church of Hohenleuben. More on Paul Emil Jacobs

Acknowledgement: Sotheby's and others

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Sunday, July 9, 2017

09 Paintings of the Canals of Venice in the 18 & 19th Century, by the artists of the time, with foot notes. #7

Thomas Moran, 1837 - 1926
Oil on canvas
11 1/8 by 17 1/8 inches, (28.3 by 43.5 cm)
Private collection

Thomas Moran (February 12, 1837 – August 25, 1926) from Bolton, England was an American painter and printmaker of the Hudson River School in New York whose work often featured the Rocky Mountains. Moran and his family, wife Mary Nimmo Moran and daughter Ruth, took residence in New York where he obtained work as an artist. He was a younger brother of the noted marine artist Edward Moran, with whom he shared a studio. A talented illustrator and exquisite colorist, Thomas Moran was hired as an illustrator at Scribner's Monthly. During the late 1860s, he was appointed the chief illustrator for the magazine, a position that helped him launch his career as one of the premier painters of the American landscape, in particular, the American West.

Moran along with Albert Bierstadt, Thomas Hill, and William Keith are sometimes referred to as belonging to the Rocky Mountain School of landscape painters because of all of the Western landscapes made by this group. More on Thomas Moran

View of Venice, c. 1912
Oil on canvas laid down on panel 
18 by 24 inches (45.7 by 60.9 cm)
Private collection

Oliver Dennett Grover (1861 Earlville, Illinois – 1927 Chicago), was an American landscape and mural painter. Grover's family moved to Chicago early in his life. There he spent much of his time sketching at the Academy of Design. Showing great promise he was enrolled at Munich’s Royal Academy in 1879, where he studied under Frank Duveneck. At the age of 19 he exhibited at Munich’s International Exposition. Grover followed Duveneck to Venice and Florence, and then went on to study in Paris from 1883 to 1885 under Gustave Boulanger, Jean-Paul Laurens and Lefebvre.

He returned to Chicago in 1885 and was appointed as an instructor at the Art Institute of Chicago for five years, also opening a studio and founding the Western Art Association. Between 1887 and 1892 he served on the faculty of the Chicago Art Academy. Ada Walter Shulz was among his pupils.

Grover became an Associate of the National Academy of Design in 1913. During the last years of his life, he also became a board member of the Association of Arts and Industries which was a major influence in Chicago design in the 1920s and 1930s.  More on Oliver Dennett Grover

Martín Rico y Ortega, 1833 - 1908, SPANISH
Oil on canvas
27 1/2 by 19 in., 70 by 48.2 cm
Private collection

The rio di ( or San Barnaba) ( canal of San Barnabé ) is a canal of Venice in the Dorsoduro (Sestiere of Venice).  It connects the rio dell'Avogaria in the east with the Grand Canal. More on RIO SAN BARNABA

Martín Rico y Ortega (12 November 1833, El Escorial – 13 April 1908, Venice, Italy) was a Spanish painter of landscapes and cityscapes. Rico was one of the most important artists of the second half of the nineteenth century in his native country, and enjoyed wide international recognition.

Rico was born in Madrid and received his earliest formal training at the city’s Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, where he studied under Jenaro Pérez Villaamil, the Academy’s first professor of landscape painting. Under the tutelage of Pérez Villaamil, Rico’s earliest works show him influenced by Romanticism, the style for which his teacher was known. In 1860, having been awarded a government-sponsored scholarship, Rico moved to Paris to continue his studies.

His landscapes from this decade depict the French and Swiss countryside in a fully accomplished Realist style. Toward the end of 1870, due to political and social unrest caused by the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, Rico decided to leave France and return to his native Spain.

At the invitation of his good friend and colleague Marià Fortuny, Rico moved to the southern city of Granada, joining Fortuny and his wife Cecilia, as well as the painter Ricardo de Madrazo. The three artists worked closely during this period, with the styles of Rico and Fortuny overlapping so much that their watercolors—a specialty for both artists—were often confused for one another. It was during this time that, through Fortuny’s influence, Rico’s paintings began to reveal a newfound sense of luminosity and color. His time in Andalucía was, according to his memoirs, one of his happiest, and also one of his most artistically productive periods. More Ortega

Konstantin Ivanovich, (1876 Stavropol - 1945 Berlin) 
La Guidecca Venedig
Aquatint on opaque white over pencil on thin cardboard
32, 4 x 41, 7 cm
Private collection

Konstantin Ivanovich (1876 Stavropol - 1945 Berlin)  was a Russian post-impressionist painter. Gorbatov was born in Stavropol. He lived in Riga from 1896 to 1903, and studied civil engineering before painting. Gorbatov moved to St. Petersburg in 1904 and studied at the Baron Stieglitz Central School for Technical Draftsmanship. He initially entered the architecture department of the Imperial Academy of Arts before switching to paintin. Gorbatov received a scholarship and studied art in Rome and Capri. He returned to St. Petersburg and participated in the Peredvizhniki exhibitions.

Gorbatov left Russia permanently in 1922 following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and settled on the Italian island of Capri. He moved to Berlin in 1926, where he remained until his death. Gorbatov became a member of a Russian emgiree artistic circle. He became a well-known established artist. Gorbatov traveled throughout Europe during the late 1930s, visited Palestine and Syria in 1934 and 1935, and often came by Italy. Gorbatov's art became unneeded in the Nazi Germany and the family soon became impoverished. As a Russian émigré, he was forbidden to leave Germany during World War II. Gorbatov died shortly after the allied victory over Germany on 12 May 1945. 

Gorbatov bequeathed to the Academy of Arts in Leningrad. The works were delivered to the Moscow Regional Museum of history and Arts near the New Jerusalem Monastery, where they have since been exhibite. More on Konstantin Ivanovich

John Singer Sargent,  (1856–1925)
A Street in Venice, c. 1880-82
Oil on canvas
75.1 × 52.4 cm (29.6 × 20.6 in)
Clark Art Institute,  Williamstown, Massachusetts, United States

John Singer Sargent, American, 1856-1925, Florence, Italy, based in Paris & London. A popular society portraitist and landscape painter, John Singer Sargent was born in Florence to wealthy American parents. He studied painting in France, where he enjoyed both critical acclaim and important patronage. Although he spent most of his time in Europe, he frequently accepted commissions from collectors in the United States. Whether rendered in oil, watercolor, or charcoal, Sargent’s works are characterized by naturalism, lively mark-making, and a sense of immediacy. Influenced by his friendship with Claude Monet, Sargent loved working en plein air, depicting the various places he traveled, including Italy, rural England, Giverny, the Mediterranean, northern Africa, and the Alps. During his later years, Sargent completed several mural projects, as well as working as an artist-correspondent during World War I. More on John Singer Sargent

John Singer Sargent,  (1856–1925)
A Street in Venice, c. 1882
Oil on wood
45.1 x 53.9 cm (17 3/4 x 21 1/4 in.)
National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

John Singer Sargent , (1856–1925), see above

John Singer Sargent,  (1856–1925)
On the Canal, c. 1903 
Watercolor on paper 
34.29 x 49.53 cm (13.5 x 19.5 in)
Musée du Petit Palais, Paris, France 

John Singer Sargent,  (1856–1925), see above

Amédée Rosier, MEAUX 1831 - 1898
Oil on canvas
97,5 x 150 cm ; 38 3/8 by 59 in.
Private collection

Étienne Amédée Rosier, born on the 20 August 1831 in Meaux and died on November 1914 in  Boulogne-Billancourt was a  French orientaliste painter.  Rosier was the pupil of the painters Léon Cogniet and Carolus-Duran . His first painting presented to the Salon of 1857 was a painting of history, The Naval Combat in Sevastopol . He traveled extensively in Venice and Constantinople . It also crosses Egypt and North Africa .

He received a third-class medal at the Salon of 1876 with The Lagoon at night in Venice 4 . He was awarded a bronze medal at the 1889 World Exposition for Venice, the Grand Canal. More on Étienne Amédée Rosier

Francesco Guardi, (Venice 1712-1793)
Venice: the Rialto Bridge with the Palazzo dei Camerlenghi
Oil on canvas
47⅛ x 80½ in (119.7 x 204.3 cm)

The view of Venice, which has a rich exhibition history and featured most recently at the Canaletto and his Rivals  exhibition, had been offered for sale only once before. It was acquired in 1768 by an English MP, Chaloner Arcedeckne (c. 1743-1804), during his Grand Tour, and remained in the family until 1891. It was then sold privately via Christie’s, along with its pendant, for £3,850, to the great collector Sir Edward Cecil Guinness, later 1st Lord, and 1st Earl of Iveagh (1847–1927), in whose family it had remained. More on this painting

Rialto Bridge. The first dry crossing of the Grand Canal was a pontoon bridge built in 1181 by Nicolò Barattieri. It was called the Ponte della Moneta, presumably because of the mint that stood near its eastern entrance.

The development and importance of the Rialto market on the eastern bank increased traffic on the floating bridge, so it was replaced in 1255 by a wooden bridge.[2] This structure had two inclined ramps meeting at a movable central section, that could be raised to allow the passage of tall ships. The connection with the market eventually led to a change of name for the bridge. During the first half of the 15th century, two rows of shops were built along the sides of the bridge. The rents brought an income to the State Treasury, which helped maintain the bridge. More on the Rialto Bridge

Palazzo dei Camerlenghi is a Renaissance palace in Venice, northern Italy, located in the sestiere (quarter) of San Polo. It faces the Canal Grande, adjacent to the Rialto Bridge.

The palace was built from 1525 to 1528 under design by Guglielmo dei Grigi, who was inspired by the style of Mauro Codussi and Pietro Lombardo. It was the seat of several financial magistrates, including the Camerlenghi whom it takes its name from, the Consuls of the Traders and the Supra-Consuls of the Traders. Due to this function, the lower floor was used as a jail for the insolvents: the location nearby the crowded Rialto Bridge served as an admonition for the people passing there.

The palace currently houses the regional seat of the Italian Comptroller and Auditor General. More on Palazzo dei Camerlenghi 

Francesco Lazzaro Guardi (October 5, 1712 – January 1, 1793) was an Italian painter of veduta, nobleman, and a member of the Venetian School. He is considered to be among the last practitioners of the classic Venetian school of painting.

In 1735, Guardi moved to the workshop of Michele Marieschi, where he remained until 1743. His first certain works are from 1738, for a parish at Vigo d'Anuania, in Trentino. In this period he worked alongside his older brother.

His works in this period included both landscapes and figure compositions. In 1763 he worked in Murano, in the church of San Pietro Martire, finishing a Miracle of a Dominican Saint.

Francesco Guardi, (Venice 1712-1793)
Venice: the Rialto Bridge with the Palazzo dei Camerlenghi

Francesco Guardi's most important later works include the Doge's Feasts, a series of twelve canvases celebrating the ceremonies held in 1763 for the election of Doge Alvise IV Mocenigo. In circa 1778, he painted the severe Holy Trinity Appearing to Sts. Peter and Paul in the parish church of Roncegno.

In 1782 Guardi was commissioned by the Venetian government six canvases to celebrate the visit of the Russian Archdukes in the city, of which only two remain, and two others for that of Pope Pius VI. On September 12 of that year he was admitted to the Fine Art Academy of Venice.

Guardi died at Campiello de la Madona in Cannaregio (Venice) in 1793. More

Acknowledgement: Neumeister  , and others

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