Sunday, January 15, 2017

20 Artists imbedded at the Battle of Tripoli Harbor (1801–1805) - With Footnotes, #22

Michele Felice Cornè, (1752–1845)
Bombardment of Tripoli, 3 August 1804
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Academy Museum, Annapolis, Maryland.

Commodore Edward Preble's squadron engaging the Tripolitan gunboats and fortifications during the afternoon of 3 August 1804. U.S. Navy vessels shown in the foreground are, from left to right: schooner Enterprise, schooner Nautilus, brig Argus, brig Siren (or Syren), schooner Vixen, mortar boat Dent, gunboat Somers, frigate Constitution (Preble's flagship), mortar boat Robinson, and gunboat Blake.

Attacking the enemy flotilla in the center background are Lieutenant Stephen Decatur's three gunboats and a gunboat commanded by Lieutenant James Decatur, who was killed in this action.

Michele Felice Cornè (1752–1845) was an artist born in Elba who settled in the United States. He lived in Salem and Boston, Massachusetts; and in Newport, Rhode Island. He painted marine scenes, portraits, and interior decorations such as fireboards and murals.

Fleeing from the Napoleonic Wars, Cornè emigrated to the United States and settled in Salem, Massachusetts in 1800. Cornè moved to Boston in 1807 and lived and worked there until 1822. In 1810 he painted the wall murals at the Sullivan Dorr house in Providence, Rhode Island in 1810. After the historic battle of USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere on August 19, 1812, Cornè created a series of four paintings showing four key events in the battle. The paintings are in the collection of the United States Naval Academy.

In 1822 Cornè relocated to Newport, Rhode Island. His house in Newport still stands on Cornè Street. He lived there until his death in 1845 at the age of 93. More Cornè

After Alonzo Chappell, (1829-1887).
Stephen Decatur's Conflict with the Algerine at Tripoli on 3 August 1804.
Oil over print on canvas
30" by 25"
U.S. Naval Academy Museum 

Alonzo Chappel (1828–1887) Born in 1828 in the Bowery in Lower Manhattan, Alonzo Chappel began his illustrating career at the early age of nine. By the time he was twelve, Chappel was working the streets of Manhattan, charging between five and ten dollars for portraits. He dropped out of school at fourteen to study the arts of japanning and window-shade painting. Chappel took art lessons and was first exposed to European artistic conventions. His interests in these techniques were honed over the next few decades. Chappel practiced a form of portraiture in the “grand manner” based on the monumental style common to Benjamin West in England, Emanuel Leutze of the Dusseldorf school in Germany, and Paul Delaroche in Paris.

Chappel participated in gallery exhibitions at places such as the National Academy of Design where visitors paid for the privilege of viewing his paintings, but for the most part such commissions were not lucrative. Consequently, he supplemented his income by working as a book illustrator to provide promotional opportunities for the further marketing of his painted images.

By the 1850s, Chappel was so busy as a painter and book illustrator that he moved his operations to Long Island, where he hired a group of young artists to translate his oil paintings into lithographs for the pictorial book and print markets. Known as “Chappel’s factory,” this colony of artists was so prolific and yet inconsistent in its work.

Many of Chappel’s most outstanding oil paintings were never appreciated fully by American audiences, held as they were in the private collections of publishers and print makers who circulated numerous and sometimes inferior reproductions of such images in books and lithographs. Because so many of these originals were lost subsequently, Chappel’s reputation as a painter has rested largely on the inferior copies of original works that were engraved by his employees for pictorial markets. More Alonzo Chappel

William A.K. Martin, (1817-1867)
Stephen Decatur at Tripoli, c. 1851
during the boarding of a Tripolitan gunboat on 3 August 1803
Oil on canvas
29" by 39"
U.S. Naval Academy Museum 

It depicts Lieutenant Stephen Decatur in hand-to-hand combat with a Tripolitan.

William Martin  (1817 - 1867), was active/lived in Pennsylvania.  William Martin is known for marine, landscape, genre, portrait.

Since the 16th century, North Africa west of Egypt on was known as the Barbary Coast. Morocco was an independent country, but its three central states, Algiers, Tunis, and Triplitania were all vassals of the Ottoman Empire. By the 18th century they had grown relatively strong enough to manage their own affairs and became a substantial menace to trade on the Mediterranean. They engaged in many wars, not out of politics or religion but for economic gain. These conflicts largely consisted of naval actions with their privateers seizing enemy shipping, ransoming or enslaving their crews. Piracy was common on the Mediterranean since ancient times; one succeeding culture following in the tradition after the next. Most European powers found that bribes to the Pashas were enough to have their commerce left unmolested. More

Henry Alexander Ogden, (1856-1936)

Henry (Harry) Alexander Ogden aka H. A. Ogden (1856–1936) was an American illustrator particularly of historical and military subjects. It was at the Brooklyn Institute and the Brooklyn Academy of Design that he received his first training in art. At the age of 17, he began work with Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper. This allowed him to travel extensively around the United States and Europe.

In 1881 he set up as a free-lance artist, submitting numerous illustrations to various newspapers and magazines. A number of these were illustrations of historical scenes, and Ogden's interest in early America and the Revolutionary War led him to his most ambitious project, to record the uniforms of the United States Army. Between 1890 and 1907. The Quartermaster General of the army had been so impressed with Ogden's work that he commissioned the artist to prepare designs depicting the uniforms of the army since its inception. The artist began work on seventy paintings representing uniforms worn between 1774 and 1888. Ogden depicted five soldiers of different rank. For each completed plate, he received $100. In 1890, the first forty-seven plates were published, and subsequent plates covered the period from 1898 up to 1907.

Ogden was also a prolific illustrator for books. He was a member of the New York Historical Society and the Illustrators Society, and was considered one of the leading authorities on colonial costume. 

He died on 14 June 1936 at Englewood, New Jersey, at the age of 79. More Ogden

To the dey (governor) of Algiers the United States, like other powers, paid enormous tribute, and to fulfill one treaty it cost nearly $1,000,000. In 1798, having fallen behind In payments of tribute, sent four armed vessels to the dey for arrearages, and the consul, in presenting these gifts, was forced to kiss the hand of the piratical potentate.

Yusuf (ibn Ali) Karamanli, Caramanli or Qaramanli or al-Qaramanli (most commonly Yusuf Karamanli), (1766 – 1838) was the best-known Pasha (reigned 1795-1832) of the Karamanli dynasty (1711–1835) of Tripolitania (in present-day Libya). Karamanli, a member of the Karamanli dynasty, was originally of Turkish origin. His brother, Hamet Karamanli, was deposed in 1793 by Ottoman officer Ali Benghul; Benghul proceeded to restore Ottoman rule over Tripoli. In 1795 Yusuf returned to Tripoli, and with the aid of Hammuda Pacha (ruler) of Tunis, seized the throne, exiling Hamet and restoring Karamanli rule.

In 1801, Yusuf demanded a tribute of $225,000 from United States President Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson, confident in the ability of the new United States Navy to protect American shipping, refused the Pasha's demands, leading the Pasha to unofficially declare war in May 1801 by chopping down the flagpole before the American consulate.

The US Navy successfully blockaded Tripoli's harbors in 1803. After some initial military successes, most notably the capture of the USS Philadelphia, the pasha soon found himself threatened with invasion by American ground forces following the Battle of Derna and the reinstatement of his deposed brother, Hamet Karamanli, recruited by the American army officer William Eaton. He signed a treaty ending the war on June 10, 1805.

By 1819, the various treaties of the Napoleonic Wars had forced the Barbary states to give up corsair activity almost entirely, and Tripoli's economy began to crumble. Yusuf attempted to compensate for lost revenue by encouraging the trans-Saharan trade, but with abolitionist sentiment on the rise in Europe and to a lesser degree the United States, this failed to salvage Tripoli's economy. As Yusuf weakened, factions sprung up around his three sons; though Yusuf abdicated in 1832 in favor of his son Ali II, civil war soon resulted. Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II sent in troops ostensibly to restore order, but instead deposed and exiled Ali II, marking the end of both the Karamanli dynasty and an independent Tripoli. More Karamanli

AVELINE, Pierre-Alexandre, (1702 - 1760)
Tripoli, a considerable city in Africa on the Barbary Coast. It is at present under the protection of the Grand Turk, and serves as a haunt for pirates. It is governed by a type of republic. 

AVELINE, Pierre-Alexandre, (b. 1702, Paris, d. 1760, Paris) was part of a French family of engravers. Topographical representations were his speciality. He was a student of Jean-Baptiste de Poilly. His oeuvre consists of 123 prints. He worked with the burin on a previously etched base. In 1737 he was approved by the Académie Royale but was struck off in 1742, not having finished the portraits of Louis Galloche and Jean-François de Troy that had been set as his morceaux de réception. In 1753 he was once more approved but was never received as an academician.

 He is best known for his reproductions of works by Antoine Watteau, including L'Enseigne de Gersaint. He also supplied portraits, illustrations and many ornaments for books. He participated in two great printmaking enterprises: the engraving of Charles Le Brun's Galerie de Versailles after designs by Jean-Baptiste Massé, and the Fables of Jean de La Fontaine (1755-59) after Jean-Baptiste Oudry. More Aveline

The cost of buying freedom for ships from the Barbary powers had amounted In 1801 to more than $2,000, 000. The United States finally made up its mind that this was a condition which no longer could be endured. On the 14th of May, 1801, after repeated insults and demands, Yussuf Pascha of Tripolis had declared war on both the US and Sweden the traditonal Barbary way - by cutting the flag down from the legation of both countries in the city of Tripolis. Sweden sent the frigates HMS Thetis, HMS Fröja and HMS Camilla.

 Ange-Joseph Antoine Roux, 1765-1835
HMS Camilla, created in 1806
HM Brig Camilla was lost in a typhoon in the China seas on her voyage to Japan
Watercolor
The Mariners' Museum, Newport News, Virginia
United States

Ange-Joseph Antoine Roux, "Antoine Roux" (1765–1835) was a French fine art painter who specialised in maritime painting, sometimes referred to as marine art. Roux came from a family of artists and primarily worked in Marseille. Early in life he was apprenticed to his father, Joseph Roux (1752–93), an hydrographer as well as an artist in his own right, spending his leisure hours painting and drawing.He died of cholera in Marseille in 1835. More Roux


Slaves or captives among the Barbary pirates still retained the right to private property and could in theory save up to buy their own release. However, most were put to hard physical labour with inadequate hygiene. Being unsuited to the climate and the harsh sun, many of them took ill and succumbed. One man named Gillberg converted and stayed. Converts could become "slave soldiers" to the local ruler and often had access to a harem specifically assigned to the soldiers, very good food and other luxuries for their service. The Barbary rulers preferred to have such soldiers make up their personal guards, partially because it mimicked the prestige of their nominal overlord, the Ottoman Sultan and his Janissaries, partially because such soldiers could be loyal to him only, an important quality for a guardman in countries eith many clan and blood feuds as well as coups and revolts. Becoming a slave soldier for a Barbary ruler could be an inviting option for sailors with little attachement of family, wealth or property in their home countries. More Slaves

ROY CROSS, (born 23 April 1924) 
War Schooner USS ENTERPRISE in the Mediterranean, 1803
Acrylic on Board
16" x 23"  


Enterprise is known as the third USS Enterprise (1799). It was built by Henry Spence at Baltimore, MD, in 1799. Thr USS Enterprise was changed, repaired and rebilt many times during its career between 1799 and 1823. It changed from a 12-gun schooner to a 14-gun topsail schooner and eventually to a 16-gun brig. USS Enterprise was commanded by many famous officers in the US Naval history and won many victories at various sites.

In December, 1799, during the Quasi-War wth French, it went to Caribbean to protect United States merchantmen. "Enterprise captured 8 privateers and liberated 11 American vessels from captivity, achievements which assured her inclusion in the 14 ships retained in the US Navy after the Quasi-War." The Wikipedia dipicts it in more details.

In her career of 24, the third USS Enterprise engaged in many battles and never failed to capture her antagonist. It fought in the the Quasi-war with France, the Barbary Wars, the War of 1812, and against pirates, slavers and smugglers in US waters. In these duties the brig captured, defeated or recovered 3 dozen ships. Her most famous battle was that with the British brig Boxer off the Maine coast in 1813. On 9 July 1823 she ran aground and was lost. More Enterprise

Roy Cross (born 23 April 1924) RSMA GAvA was a British artist and aviation journalist best known as the painter of artwork used on Airfix kits from the 1960s. Airfix is a UK manufacturer of injection-moulded plastic scale model kits of aircraft and other objects.

Born in Southwark, London and mainly self-taught, he learned his craft at the Camberwell School of Art and as a technical illustrator for training manuals for Fairey Aviation during the second world war. He progressed from there to producing advertising art for the aircraft industry and other companies. He illustrated for The Aeroplane and the Eagle comic.


In 1952 he joined the Society of Aviation Artists. He started in 1964 with box art for Airfix's Do 217 and his last work for them was the box art for the German heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen (1974). He went into marine paintings. More Cross

Under Commodore Dale the Enterprise left Hampton Roads and arrived at Gibraltar at the beginning of July 1801. It appeared oft Tripoli and Tunis before the pirates of the Mediterranean had any thought of such a visitor.  The Enterprise met the Tripolltan corsair, the Tripoli, and left it, after an engagement of three hours, a complete wreck, having killed or wounded 20 of the men and escaping with every man of its own crew unharmed. President Jefferson was disinclined to engage further in hostilities without an act of congress notwithstanding Tripoli had declared war. Although something was done against the piratical powers In 1801 and 1802, nothing in the way of actual, elaborate war was again on until 1804, congress having passed an act two years before which was virtually a declaration of war. June 12, 1898, San Antonio Daily Express

 Artist, Warren, (attributed)
American Privateer GOSSAMER Captured by HMS EMULOUS, July 1812
Watercolor Painting, BW Photo

Nautilus was a schooner launched in 1799. The United States Navy purchased her in May 1803, renaming her the USS Nautilus; she thus became the first ship to bear that name. She served in the First Barbary War. She was altered to a brigantine. The British captured Nautilus early in the War of 1812 and renamed her HMS Emulous. After her service with the Royal Navy, the Admiralty sold her in 1817. More Nautilus

An ancient map of Tripoli Harbor with the castle and old city.

Unknown
The third USS Boston 

The third USS Boston was a 32-gun wooden-hulled, three-masted frigate of the United States Navy. Boston was built by public subscription in Boston under the Act of 30 June 1798. Boston was active during the Quasi-War with France and the First Barbary War. On 12 October 1800, Boston engaged and captured the French corvette Berceau. Boston was laid up in 1802, and considered not worth repairing at the outbreak of the War of 1812. She was burned at the Washington Naval Yard on 24 August 1814 to prevent her capture by British forces. More USS Boston 

USS Boston III, under Captain McNeill had been sent to Tripoli to blockade the port and prevent any ships from entering or leaving. Leaving for Tripoli in January she discovered that four Swedish ships had already begun a blockade of the port. Along with the Swedish vessels she attempted to chase down corsairs attempting to break the blockade with little success, as the Swedish vessels were quite large and cumbersome making it difficult for them to pursue the small Tripolitan galleys that darted in and out of the port's harbor.

Andries Van Eertvelt, 1590 - 1652
Algerian Corsair off a Barbary port, c. 17th century
Oil on panel
44 × 63.5 cm (17.3 × 25 in)
National Maritime Museum

Andries van Eertvelt (1590, Antwerp – 1652, Antwerp), was a Flemish painter, draughtsman and engraver who was one of the first Flemish artists to specialize in marine art. He was born in Antwerp and baptized in the Antwerp. There is no record of the masters with whom he trained. He was registered as a master in the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke in 1609. He travelled together with one of his pupils, Matthieu van Plattenberg, to Italy. Van Eertvelt is documented in Genoa from 1628–1630, where he lived with his compatriot Cornelis de Wael, who also practiced marine art, in particular the depiction of sea battles. Cornelis de Wael was a long-term resident of Genoa and arranged work for van Eervelt during his stay there.


Van Eertvelt had a very successful career as a marine artists and some of his works were exported to markets in Spain and Portugal. He also had an eager clientele in the Dutch Republic. He was remembered as a "son of the seas" by the Flemish 17th century biographer Cornelis de Bie. Van Eertvelt also appears to have engaged in diplomatic activity. He took some letters relating to a possible peace treaty between Spain and the Dutch Republic from Balthazar Gerbier, an Anglo-Dutch diplomat residing in Antwerp, to Constantijn Huygens, the secretary to the Prince of Orange, in the Dutch Republic. More

On May 16, Boston with the Swedish frigate Fröja managed to chase down a Tripolitan corsair, disabling it by forcing it to beach itself. Six other corsairs then sortied from the harbor in an attempt to screen the first one. The American and Swedish frigates managed to deter their attempts until another ship arrived in the harbor. The Swedish frigate began bombarding the harbor fortifications while Boston left to meet the new vessel. This gave the corsairs an opportunity to make another attempt at assisting the beached vessel. Shortly thereafter Boston realized that the newly arrived ship was merely another Swedish frigate. Realizing his mistake, Captain McNeil turned his ship around and engaged the Tripolitan ships once more firing several broadsides into them and damaging several. The action then concluded with the three frigates resuming their blockade stations having taken no damage while inflicting several losses on the enemy.

Richard Lane,  (American, 20th Century) 
The U.S. Mediterranean Squadron, including Constitution and Syren, bombarding Tripoli, 5th August 1804, c. 2006
Oil on canvas 
31 x 47½ in. (78.7 x 120 cm.

The U.S.S. Syren was a 16-gun brig built at Philadelphia and launched in August 1803. Sent straight out to the Mediterranean under the command of Lieutenant Charles Stewart, she took part in all the operations against Tripoli and stayed on in the area until the summer of 1806 when she returned home. Laid up for a time, she was back in action again during the Anglo-American War of 1812(-14) when she was captured by H.M.S. Medway on 12th July 1814 after an epic 11-hour chase. More


Gordon Grant
USF Constitution in the Harbor at Tripoli, 1803 during operations against the Barbary States.

USS Constitution is a wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy, named by President George Washington after the Constitution of the United States of America. Launched in 1797, Constitution was one of six original frigates built in the North End of Boston, Massachusetts, at Edmund Hartt's shipyard. Her first duties with the newly formed U.S. Navy were to provide protection for American merchant shipping during the Quasi-War with France and to defeat the Barbary pirates in the First Barbary War.


Constitution is most famous for her actions during the War of 1812 against the United Kingdom, when she captured numerous merchant ships and defeated five British warships: HMS Guerriere, Java, Pictou, Cyane, and Levant. The battle with Guerriere earned her the nickname of "Old Ironsides" and public adoration that has repeatedly saved her from scrapping. She continued to serve as flagship in the Mediterranean and African squadrons, and circled the world in the 1840s. During the American Civil War, she served as a training ship for the United States Naval Academy. She carried US artwork and industrial displays to the Paris Exposition of 1878. More

The action did little to prevent corsairs from using Tripoli as a base of operations. Besides this action, no other serious attempt was made by the blockading squadron to enforce the blockade. USS Constellation later arrived to bolster the attempt at denying the harbors use by the Tripolitans. The Swedish decided to make their own peace with Tripoli, leaving the two American frigates to enforce the blockade themselves, but the Americans soon ran short of provisions and also withdrew, thereby lifting the blockade and leaving the port open to the enemy.

USS Argus
The Library of Congress

The first USS Argus, originally named USS Merrimack, was a brig in the United States Navy commissioned in 1803. She enforced the Embargo Act of 1807 and fought in the First Barbary War – taking part in the blockade of Tripoli and the capture of Derna – and the War of 1812. During the latter inflict, she had been audaciously raiding British merchant shipping in British home waters for a month, when the heavier British Cruizer-class brig-sloop HMS Pelican intercepted her. After a sharp fight during which Argus's captain, Master Commandant William Henry Allen, was mortally wounded, Argus surrendered when the crew of Pelican were about to board. More USS Argus

Robert Sticker, American (1922 - 2011)
USS VIXEN
Oil on canvas 
20" x 22"
J. Russell Jinishian Gallery

USS Vixen was a schooner in the United States Navy during the First Barbary War. Vixen was one of four vessels authorized by Congress on 28 February 1803. She was built at Baltimore, Maryland, in the spring of 1803; and launched on 25 June, Lieutenant John Smith in command.

Designed especially for operations in the shoal waters off the coast of Tripoli, Vixen joined Commodore Edward Preble's squadron for duty in the First Barbary War (1801–1805) immediately upon her commissioning. Commodore Preble dispatched Vixen and the frigate Philadelphia in October to establish a blockade of Tripoli. However, Vixen soon departed in search of two Tripolitan warships and was not present when Philadelphia grounded and was captured on the 31st. Instead, she carried the dispatches announcing the loss of the frigate and the imprisonment of Captain William Bainbridge, his officers, and crew back to Gibraltar in December.


Retribution for this latest action by the Tripoli pirates came swiftly and dramatically. Vixen participated in all these actions, and performed tactical service by helping to coordinate the movements of the various American vessels. She was rerigged as a brig in September 1804, ostensibly to improve her sailing qualities, and was with the squadron, now under Commodore John Rodgers, in actions before Tunis in August 1805. The warship returned to the United States one year later in August 1806. More Vixen

Robert Sticker, American (1922 - 2011).  Growing up in Staten Island watching the incredible activity in New York Harbor sparked an interest in him for the maritime world that only intensified over the years. Stints as a naval aviator flying in World War II, and a career in the oil business, he finally began painting full time in 1963.

Equally adept in watercolor and oil, over the years he has created a body of work that is singularly compelling and dramatic. He is widely recognized throughout the artistic community for the accuracy of his research and his unique ability to depict the drama of the human aspect of life at sea with great compassion and poignancy. 


The recipient of an Award of Excellence at the 1991 Mystic International, his work is included in the corporate collections of IBM, Union Carbide and AT&T. He is a founding member of the American Society of Marine Artists. More Robert Sticker

Pier Francesco Mola, 1612 – 1666
Barbary Pirate with a Bow, c. 1650 
Oil on canvas 
Louvre, Paris.

Pier Francesco Mola, called Il Ticinese (9 February 1612 – 13 May 1666) was an Italian painter of the High Baroque, mainly active around Rome. Mola was born at Coldrerio (now in Switzerland). At the age of four, he moved to Rome with his father Giovanni Battista, a painter. With the exception of the years 1633–40 and 1641–47, during which he resided in Venice and Bologna, respectively, he lived for the rest of his life in Rome.

His masterpiece as a fresco painter is widely considered to be the fresco in the gallery of Alexander VII in the Quirinal Palace Gallery, entitled Joseph making himself known to his Brethren (1657). However, Mola is considered to have been better as a painter of small pictures, especially landscapes.

He was elected Principe of the Accademia di San Luca, the Roman artists' professional association, in 1662, but his last years were neither profitable nor prolific. With his looser style and handling, more naturalistic palette, and interest in exploring landscape elements, Mola differs from the prevailing, highly-theoretical classicism of such leading 17th-century Roman painters as Andrea Sacchi. More Pier Francesco Mola

The Second Battle of Tripoli Harbor, was a naval action during a naval blockade which took place in Tripoli Harbor in 1804. The battle is part of the First Barbary War between forces of the United States and the forces of Tripoli.

After Rembrandt Peale, 1778 – 1860
Commodore Edward Preble, painted before 1807
U.S. Naval Academy Museum Collection

Rembrandt Peale (February 22, 1778 – October 3, 1860) was an American artist and museum keeper. A prolific portrait painter Peale's style was influenced by French Neoclassicism after a stay in Paris in his early thirties. Peale was born in Pennsylvania, on February 22, 1778. The father, Charles, also a notable artist. His father also taught all of his children, including Raphaelle Peale, Rubens Peale and Titian Peale, to paint scenery and portraiture, and tutored Rembrandt in the arts and sciences. 

In July 1787, Charles Willson Peale introduced his son Rembrandt to George Washington, and the young aspirant artist watched his father paint the future president. In 1795, at the age of 17, Rembrandt painted an aging Washington, making him appear far more aged than in reality. The portrait was well received, and Rembrandt had made his debut.

In 1822, Peale moved to New York City where he embarked on an attempt to paint what he hoped would become the "standard likeness" of Washington. He studied portraits by other artists. His resulting work Patriae Pater, completed in 1824, depicts Washington through an oval window, and is considered by many to be second only to Gilbert Stuart's iconic Athenaeum painting of the first president. In 1826 he helped found the National Academy of Design in New York City.


Peale went on to create over 70 detailed replicas, including one of Washington in full military uniform that currently hangs in the Oval Office. Peale continued to paint other noted portraits, such as those of the third president Thomas Jefferson while he was in office (1805), and later on a portrait of Chief Justice John Marshall. More Peale

Commodore Edward Preble had assumed command of the U.S. Mediterranean Squadron in 1803. By October of that year Preble had begun a blockade of Tripoli harbor. Edward Preble (15 August 1761 – 25 August 1807) was a United States naval officer who served with great distinction during the 1st Barbary War, leading American attacks on the city of Tripoli and forming the officer corps that would later lead the U.S. Navy in the War of 1812.

The first significant action of the blockade came on 31 October when USS Philadelphia ran aground on an uncharted coral reef.

Barbary pirate ships swarm USS PHILADELPHIA.

E. J. Pinkerton, American, ac. 19th century
The U.S. Frigate Philadelphia on the rocks off Tripoli
(From the U.S. Military Magazine Army and Navy, Vol. II)
Lithograph colored by hand
23.6 x 29 cm (9 5/16 x 11 7/16 in.)
Yale University Art Gallery

USS Philadelphia was commanded by William Bainbridge and on 31 October, 1803, due to a major error on his part, was captured by the corsairs in Tripoli harbor; she had run aground and essentially the Tripolitan gunboats took her without her firing a shot, as Bainbridge had ordered her guns heaved overboard to lighten the ship in hopes of refloating her. He also ordered her foremast chopped down, thinking that would do the trick. It did not. More American frigate USS Philadelphia, in Tripoli

The Tripolitan Navy was able to capture the ship along with its crew and Captain William Bainbridge. Philadelphia was turned against the Americans and anchored in the harbor as a gun battery.

Gilbert Stuart, (1755–1828)
William Bainbridge (1774-1833), circa 1813
USS Constitution Museum, Boston, Massachusets, USA

William Bainbridge (May 7, 1774 – July 27, 1833) was a Commodore in the United States Navy. During his long career in the young American Navy he served under six presidents beginning with John Adams and is notable for his many victories at sea. He commanded several famous naval ships, including USS Constitution and saw service in the Barbary Wars and the War of 1812. Bainbridge was also in command of USS Philadelphia when she grounded off the shores of Tripoli in North Africa, resulting in his capture and imprisonment for many months. In the latter part of his career he became the U.S. Naval Commissioner. More Bainbridge

Gilbert Charles Stuart (born Stewart; December 3, 1755 – July 9, 1828) was an American painter from Rhode Island. Heis widely considered one of America's foremost portraitists. His best known work is the unfinished portrait of George Washington that is sometimes referred to as The Athenaeum, begun in 1796 and never finished. Stuart retained the portrait and used it to paint 130 copies which he sold for $100 each. The image of George Washington featured in the painting has appeared on the United States one-dollar bill for over a century, and on various U.S. postage stamps of the 19th century and early 20th century.

Throughout his career, Gilbert Stuart produced portraits of over 1,000 people, including the first six Presidents of the United States. His work can be found today at art museums throughout the United States and the United Kingdom, most notably the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Frick Collection in New York City, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the National Portrait Gallery, London, Worcester Art Museum in Massachusetts, and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. More Stuart

Unknown
Enterprise, captures a Barbary pirate ketch, which is entered into the US Navy logs as the USS Intrepid.

On the night of 16 February 1804, a small contingent of U.S. Marines in a captured Tripolitan ketch rechristened USS Intrepid and led by Lieutenant Stephen Decatur, Jr. were able to deceive the guards on board Philadelphia and float close enough to board the captured ship. 

 Dennis Malone Carter, 1820 - 1881
Decatur Boarding the Tripolitan Gunboat off Tripoli in August 1804
Oil on Canvas
Navy Art Collection, Washington, DC.

It depicts Lieutenant Stephen Decatur (lower right center) and Midshipman Thomas Macdonough in action during the boarding of the Tripolitan vessel.

Dennis Malone Carter (c. 1820 - 1881) was an Irish-American painter. Carter's birth date is variously listed as 1818, 1820, and 1827. Born in Ireland, he immigrated to the United States with his parents in 1839. He settled in New York City, painting portraits and historical settings, More Carter

Decatur's men stormed the vessel and decimated the Tripolitan sailors standing guard. To complete the daring raid, Decatur's party set fire to Philadelphia, denying her use to the enemy. 

Paul Garnett
Burning of the Frigate Philadelphia 

Paul Garnett. A native of Massachusetts, marine artist Paul Garnett is entirely self-taught. For seven years he served as the shipwright on Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer’s tall ship replica of the famous ‘Bounty” that was built for the 1962 production of “Mutiny on the Bounty” starring Marlon Brando.

His artwork has been featured in Nautical World magazine, Marine Art Quarterly and Sea History magazine. His paintings have also appeared on A & E’s “Sea Tales”, as well as The History Channel’s program “History’s Mysteries”. Mr. Garnett’s paintings have also been featured as the covers of the trilogy by naval historian William H. White about the War of 1812 – “A Press of Canvas”, “A Fine Tops’l Breeze,” and “The Evening Gun”. His latest book cover was done for White’s “The Greater the Honor,” a tale of the Barbary Wars.

Both the Constitution Museum in Charlestown and the Marine Museum in Fall River Massachusetts have permanent exhibits of his work. The artist is also a longtime member of the National Maritime Historical Society and a member of the International Society of Marine Painters. More Garnett

 F. Kearney, 1785–1837
Burning of the Frigate Philadelphia in the Harbour of Tripoli, 16th Feb. 1804, c. 1808
Aquatint engraving

Francis Kearney (1785–1837), aka Francis Kearny, was an American engraver and lithographer, active in Philadelphia and New York. He was born and died in Perth Amboy, New Jersey. More

Nicolino Calyo, (1799 ­ 1884)
Burning of Frigate Philadelphia in Tripoli Harbor in 1804
Tempera
The Mariners Museum in Newport News, Va

Nicolino Calyo, (1799 ­ 1884) was born in Naples, where he studied at the Royal Academy. He raveled through Europe, and lived briefly in Malta and Spain. He immigrated to the United States in 1834 and set up a studio in Baltimore. On June 16, 1835, the Baltimore Republican reported that Calyo was on his way north to paint views of Philadelphia and New York. He arrived in the latter city in time to record the damage of the Great Fire of December 1835, and two of these paintings were reproduced in aquatint by William James Bennett (1789­1844). From 1838 to 1855 Calyo is listed in the New York City directories as a “portrait and landscape painter” or “professor of painting.” In the late 1840s he was working with his Italianborn son John A. Calyo (1818­1893) as “N. Calyo & Son,” historical painters and teachers. During this period, his home in New York became a gathering place for exiled Europeans, including the future Napoleon III (1808­1873). Calyo revisited Spain briefly and worked as Court painter to Queen Maria Cristina (1806­1878), but in 1874 returned to New York, where he remained for the rest of his life. He showed paintings in the exhibitions of the American Society of Painters in Watercolor in New York from 1867 to 1869.

Calyo painted scenes of the Mexican War of 1846­ - 48 and a forty ­foot panorama of the Connecticut River, but he is better known for his watercolor and gouache views of Baltimore, New York, Philadelphia, and the areas surrounding these cities. His Italian training “dominates his method . . . conditioning his liberal use of gouache, which imparts an opaque, slightly chalky surface to his work, setting it apart from the ‘English’ style of transparent watercolor more familiar to American artists of that period. More Calyo

Edward Moran, (1829–1901)
Burning of the Frigate Philadelphia in the Harbor of Tripoli, c. 1897
Oil on canvas
60 × 42 in (152.4 × 106.7 cm)
U.S. Naval Academy Museum Collection

It depicts USS Philadelphia, previously captured by the Tripolitans, ablaze after she was boarded by Stephen Decatur and 60 men and set afire, making their escape in the ketch Intrepid, depicted in the foreground.

USS Philadelphia, a 1240-ton, 36-gun sailing frigate, was the second vessel of the United States Navy to be named for the city of Philadelphia. Originally named City of Philadelphia, she was built in 1798–1799 for the United States government by the citizens of that city. She was laid down about November 14, 1798, launched on November 28, 1799, and commissioned on April 5, 1800, with Captain Stephen Decatur, Sr. in command. She is perhaps best remembered for her burning after being captured in Tripoli. More USS Philadelphia

Edward Moran (August 19, 1829 in Bolton, Lancashire, England – June 8, 1901 in New York City) was an American artist of maritime paintings. Moran was born in England on August 19, 1829. Following in the footsteps of his father's profession, he learned to operate a hand-loom at a young age, though he would often be found sketching with charcoal on the white fabric instead of plying the shuttle. His family first emigrated to Maryland in 1844, and then to Philadelphia a year later.

It was in Philadelphia around 1845 that Edward apprenticed under James Hamilton and landscape painter Paul Weber; Hamilton guided Moran specifically in the style of marine paintings. In the 1850s Moran began to make a name for himself in the Philadelphia artistic scene; working in the same studio as his younger brother, famous American painter Thomas Moran, Edward received commissions and even completed some lithographic work. In 1862, he traveled to London and became a pupil in the Royal Academy. 

In 1885, at the height of his career, Moran began on what would be considered his most important work - a series of 13 paintings representing the Marine History of the United States. He chose to have thirteen paintings in the series because of the significance of the number in American history (13 colonies, 13 stars and stripes on the original US flag, etc.). The subjects include Leif Ericsson, Christopher Columbus, Hernando de Soto, Henry Hudson, and Admiral Dewey, among others.[3] Not long after their completion, the series was displayed at the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago. More

Decatur's bravery in action made him one of the first American military heroes since the Revolutionary War. The British Admiral Horatio Nelson, himself known as a man of action and bravery, is said to have called this "the most bold and daring act of the age." Even Pope Pius VII stated, "The United States, though in their infancy, have done more to humble the anti-Christian barbarians on the African coast than all the European states had done..." This statement is not true, but was created by of one of Decatur's biographers back in 1844.

John Bachman, 1814–1896
THE ATTACK MADE ON TRIPOLI ON THE 3RD OF AUGUST 1804, BY THE COMMODORE EDWARD PREBLE, 1805

John Bachmann, Sr. (1814–1896) was a Swiss-born lithographer and artisty. He was a journeyman lithographic artist in Switzerland and Paris until 1847. His first known American print appeared in 1848, a view from an imagined point above Union Square. In 1849 and 1850, he created and published a series of American views. Both directly copied and used as a primary source by other lithographers at home and in Europe..

Although best known for his views of New York, his name is attached to a variety of prints, including the well-known "Bird's Eye View of the Seat of War" series produced during the American Civil War, which show the theater of war in six sections, each a perspective view of entire states or sets of states.

Most of his views of New York City manage to sneak in his home neighborhood in Jersey City. His last known work, a view of Havana, is now in the collection of the Library of Congress. The one other known painting by Bachmann, a version of one of his views of Philadelphia, hangs in the Free Library of Philadelphia. More Bachmann. More Bachmann

Preble attacked Tripoli outright on 14 July 1804 in a series of inconclusive battles, including a courageous but unsuccessful attack by the fire ship USS Intrepid under Master Commandant Richard Somers. Intrepid, packed with explosives, was to enter Tripoli harbor and destroy itself and the enemy fleet; it was destroyed, perhaps by enemy guns, before achieving that goal, killing Somers and his crew.

Destruction of the Intrepid


The actions against Tripoli harbor continued to prove indecisive until September when Commodore Samuel Barron assumed command of the Mediterranean Squadron and focused the fleet's attention on supporting William Eaton's attack on Derne.

 C.h. Waterhouse, 1924 – 2013
U.S. MARINES CAPTURE THE BARBARY PIRATE FORTRESS AT DERNA, TRIPOLI, 27TH APRIL 1805

Charles Waterhouse (September 22, 1924 – November 16, 2013) was an American painter, illustrator and sculptor renowned for using United States Marine Corps historical themes as the motif for his works. His art spans subjects from Tun Tavern, the birthplace of the U. S. Marines to present day topics.

Waterhouse served as a Private First Class in the 5th Marine Division from 1943 until 1946 and landed on Iwo Jima during the Pacific campaign of World War II. During the battle, he sustained wounds as a result of enemy action and subsequently received the Purple Heart medal. Despite nerve damage to his left hand from injuries to his neck and shoulder, Waterhouse formally studied art after the war at the Newark School of Fine and Industrial Arts in New Jersey, and graduated in 1950.] During the Vietnam War, he served three tours in Vietnam as a civilian combat artist. While participating in a Bicentennial project for the Marine Corps History Division, he received a commission as a major in the Marine Reserves. In 1992, the Marines awarded Waterhouse the title "USMC Artist in Residence", thus becoming the first and only person to earn such recognition. At the same time, the Marines promoted him to colonel and he retired at that rank on 19 February 1991. Morte Charles Waterhouse

A mixed force of US marines and Greek, Arab, and Berber mercenaries marched across the desert from Alexandria, Egypt to assault and to capture the Tripolitan city of Derna. This was the first time the United States flag was raised in victory on foreign soil. The capturing of the city gave American negotiators leverage in securing the return of hostages and the end of the war.

Wearied of the blockade and raids, and now under threat of a continued advance on Tripoli proper and a scheme to restore his deposed older brother Hamet Karamanli as ruler, Yusuf Karamanli signed a treaty ending hostilities on 10 June 1805. Article 2 of the treaty reads:


"The Bashaw of Tripoli shall deliver up to the American squadron now off Tripoli, all the Americans in his possession; and all the subjects of the Bashaw of Tripoli now in the power of the United States of America shall be delivered up to him; and as the number of Americans in possession of the Bashaw of Tripoli amounts to three hundred persons, more or less; and the number of Tripolino subjects in the power of the Americans to about, one hundred more or less; The Bashaw of Tripoli shall receive from the United States of America, the sum of sixty thousand dollars, as a payment for the difference between the prisoners herein mentioned".

Artists: Michele Felice Cornè, Alonzo Chappell, William A.K. Martin, Henry (Harry) Alexander Ogden, AVELINE, Ange-Joseph Antoine Roux, Andries Van Eertvelt, Richard Lane,  Gordon Grant, Robert Sticker, Pier Francesco Mola, Rembrandt Peale, Gilbert Stuart, Dennis Malone Carter, Paul Garnett,  F. Kearney, Nicolino Calyo, Edward Moran, John Bachman,  C.h. Waterhouse, 




Acknowledgement: Wikipedia,


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