Thursday, January 26, 2017

19 Orientalist Paintings by Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 9

Orientalism is a term that is used for the depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern cultures. It refers to the works of the Western artists on Oriental subjects, produced from their travels in Western Asia, during the 19th century. Depictions of Islamic "Moors" and "Turks" can be found in Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque art. A creative apprehension of a completely different world with its own laws, customs, special attitude towards life and death, love, feelings, and beauty. Wikipedia/Yana Naumovna Lukashevskaya

Rubens Santoro (Italian, 1859-1942)
Repos (Orient)
Oil on canvas
13 x 9 3/4 in. (33.0 x 24.7 cm)
Private collection

Rubens Santoro (October 26, 1859 in Mongrassano, Province of Cosenza, Calabria – 1942 in Naples) was an Italian painter. He moved to Naples at 10 years of age, to study literature, but his inclination was painting. He only briefly enrolled at the Neapolitan Academy, instead, real life was his model. His first work was a small and simple genre piece: A Girl who Laughs, exhibited at the Promotrice. Domenico Morelli took note and encouraged him.

Santoro continually changed his vistas, painting in Torre Annunziata, Castellammare di Stabia, Procida, the Amalfi Coast, and Resina. During the long trips to the open countryside, he distracted himself by playing the mandolin. Many of his Amalfi landscapes were bought by the Goupil Gallery. Two were displayed at the 1877 Exposition at Naples: Marina di Maiuri and Grotta degli Zingari.  He moved to Paris, and after an excursion in England, returned to Naples even more prolifict. His painting Verona, exhibited at 1911 exhibition of Barcelona was awarded a Silver medal. More

Mariano Fortuny y Marsal (1838-1874)
Arab Market, c.  1862
Oil on wood panel
26.5 x 52 cm (21x11 inches) 
Private collection

Mariano Fortuny y Marsal (1838-1874) is one of the notable artists of the Spanish school of the XIXth century. A fervent admirer of Goya, he had an incontestable influence on the Spanish and Italian painters of his epoch. Following a stay in Morocco in 1860, his topics evolve towards Orientalist subjects.

Mariano Fortuny's was not only an accomplished painter, but also a very good engraver and designer. The museum Goya, thanks to a donation of the stepdaughter of the artist in 1951 and regular purchases, has eighty-seven of his writings on paper drawings and watercolors, engravings. As part of this exhibition, this whole fund of graphic art is introduced to the public, illustrating his talent for design. More Mariano Fortuny y Marsal

Mariano Fortuny y Marsal (1838-1874)
Odalisque, c. 1861
Oil on cardboard
23 1/2 x 31 7/8 inches (60 x 81 cm)
Private collection

Mariano Fortuny y Marsal (1838-1874), see above

Mariano Fortuny y Marsal (1838-1874)
Moroccan Man/Un Marocain, c. 1869
Watercolor on paper
32 x20cm
Private collection

("...this watercolour serves as a sort of preview of the brilliant luminosity that wll be seen in the works executed after the painter´s visit to Granada in 1870...The figure is shown leaning against a light coloured wall...Fortuny´s mastery in the representation of varied textile as well as in the flesh tones of the figure is clearly manifest in this piece...this composition can be considered among the masterpieces of the Catalan painter in watercolour medium." Source: Joan Miquel Llodrá Grandes Genios del Arte 

Mariano Fortuny y Marsal (1838-1874), see above

Mariano Fortuny y Marsal (1838-1874)
The Cafe of the Swallows, c. 1868
Watercolor on paper
Size:20 × 24 inch
Private collection

Mariano Fortuny y Marsal (1838-1874), see above

Mariano Fortuny y Marsal (1838-1874)
Arabian Rider in Tangiers, c. 1867
Oil on canvas
Size:20 × 24 inch
Private collection

Mariano Fortuny y Marsal (1838-1874), see above

Franz Xaver Kosler
An Oriental Beauty
oil on panel
14 ¼ x 8 ¼ in. (36.2 x 21 cm.)
Private Collection

Franz Xavier Kosler, Vienna 16 August 1864 – 15 December 1905was born in Austria and is accepted in the class of general painting at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts in 1881. He then completes his education at the Special School with the most famous Austrian orientalist painter Léopold Carl Müller. The master will have a great influence on the pictorial choices of Kosler, and more particularly in his genre scenes works and his young Arab people portraits.

In 1886 he undertakes a study tour in Dalmatia (actual Croatia), Montenegro and Albania, then in 1882, at the instigation of Müller, leaves for Egypt for the first time. He second trip to the country is subsidized by the Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria who has been portrayed twice by the artist. The same year, he carries out his first exhibition in Cairo and meets a great success; commissions for portraits pour in, and among them Prince Said Halim Pacha, grandson of Mohammed Ali and future Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. The Prince purchases two more paintings, including "Fellah Woman and child".He settles in Cairo during winters and meets there wealthy English purchasers who help him exhibit two paintings at the Royal Academy of London: "Vegetable sellers, Cairo" and "The Blind beggar".

He first exhibits in 1895 at the Küntlerhaus of Vienna and is appointed member of the Society of Painters in 1901. He regularly takes part in Viennese Salons in the followings years and also exhibits at the Glaspalast of Munich in 1899. As a very popular painter among the English society, the Royal Academy of London organizes a retrospective of his works shortly after his death in 1906. More Franz Xaver Kosler

Alberto Pasini
The Carpet Seller
Oil on canvas
14 x 10 5/8 in. (35.3 x 27 cm.)
Private Collection

Alberto Pasini (Busseto, 3 September 1826 – Cavoretto, 15 December 1899) was an Italian painter. He was enrolled at the age of 17 years, in the Academy of Fine Art of Parma, studying landscape painting and drawing. In Parma, he was helped early on by Antonio Pasini, who painted for the local nobility and collaborated with the publishing house established by Giovanni Battista Bodoni. By 1852, he exhibited a series of thirty designs, made into lithographs, depicting various castles around Piacenza, Lunigiana and Parma. He was noticed by the artist Paolo Toschi, who encouraged Pasini to travel to Paris, where Pasini first joined the workshop of Charles and Eugène Ciceri, of the so-called School of Barbizon.

In 1853 his lithograph of The Evening gained him admittance to the Paris Salon, and to the workshop of the famous Théodore Chassériau. The eruption of the Crimean War offered a new opportunity, when in February 1855, this latter painter recommended Pasini to replace him on the entourage of the French plenipotentiary minister Nicolas Prosper Bourée to Persia. Pasini accompanied him, returning through the north of Persia and Armenia before reaching the port of Trebizond. In subsequent trips, he visited Egypt, the Red Sea, Arabia, Istanbul, and Persia. Pasini parlayed his exposures during this trip into numerous highly detailed paintings of orientalist subjects. He left again for Istanbul in October 1867, summoned by the French Ambassador Bourée. He returned to Turkey in 1876 to execute the four paintings commissioned by Sultan Abdul Aziz. He was about to return to Istanbul the next year, when his patron, the Sultan, died.

In 1865, he spent some time in Cannes, painted landscapes of the Riviera. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, he returned to Italy, settling in Cavoretto, on the hills around Turin. He continued to travel, closer to his home, with trips to Venice and two sojourns in Spain in 1879 and 1883. More Alberto Pasini 

Georges Washington (1827-1901)
Fantasia
Oil on canvas
45 x 57 3/8 in. (114.3 x 145.7 cm.)
Private Collection

George Washington, born 15 September 1827 in Marseille and died November 19, 1901 in Douarnenez, was a French Orientalist painter. Like most aspiring artists, the young Georges Washington moved to Paris, where he trained at the Ecole des Beaux Arts under François-Edouard Picot (1786-1868). The artist’s exotic style was also indebted to Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863). Washington’s art conveys a similar feeling to the work of Eugène Fromentin (1820-76) who often painted naturalistic Middle Eastern scenes of rural and nomadic life. Washington’s love of the Middle East and its customs was further enhanced and encouraged by his father-in-law, the military and Orientalist painter Henri-Félix-Emmanuel Philippoteaux (1815-1884), whose daughter Anne-Léonie Philippoteaux married Washington in Paris on 6th August 1859.

Not long after finishing his training at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Washington embarked on the first of a number of trips to Algeria and based on close observation of its inhabitants, their dress and customs in 1857 he made his Paris debut at the Salon des Artistes Français with a view of nomads titled Plaine du Hoiina (Sahara Algérien). From then up until 1901 Washington continued to be a popular exhibitor at the Salon; one of his first works shown there to gain critical acclaim was Nomades dans le Sahara en Hiver. In addition to Paris, Washington also showed his work in Moscow in 1881 and was later posthumously honoured when four of his paintings were included in the Exposition Coloniale de Marseille in 1906.

Georges Washington, (1827-1901)
An Arab Cavalry Skirmish
Oil on canvas
17.5×23.8in (44.5 cm x 60.5 cm)
Private Collection

Following two commissions from a Belgian company, he travelled to Morocco and then subsequently visited Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey, which were to inspire his varied subjects including battle scenes and cavalry skirmishes. His travels also took him to America for the unveiling in Philadelphia of a cyclorama (a monumental 360° panoramic view) of the Battle of Gettysburg by his brother-in-law Paul-Dominique Philippoteaux (1846-1923).

Following the death of his wife he retired to live with his daughter and son-in-law at Douarnenez on the Brittany coast, where he died shortly after on 19th November 1901. More George Washington

Victor Huguet, 1835 - 1902
The Caravan
Oil on canvas
29 x 38 ¼ in. (73.6 x 97.2 cm.)
Private Collection

Victor Pierre Huguet , born Lude the 1 st May 1835 and died in Paris August 16, 1902, was a French, landscape and genre painter.. He was a pupil of Emile Loubon in Marseille and received advice from Fromentin in Paris.

In 1852, aged 17, he traveled to Egypt, then to Crimea where he accompanied Durand-Brager before the siege of Sebastopol. He was profoundly influenced by the landscapes he passes through and that will influence his inspiration to Orientalism, where he soon made a name. Discovering Algeria a few years later, he drew from many sources of inspiration.
He exhibited at the Salons de Marseille and Paris in 1859 and the Salon of French Orientalist Painters at its inception in 1893. He was the leading Orientalist artists of Provence. More Victor Pierre Huguet

Fabio Fabbi
Dancing the Raks Baladi on a Terrace, Egypt
Oil on canvas
25 7/8 x 33 7/8 in. (65.7 x 86 cm.)
Private Collection

Fabio Fabbi was born in Bologna, Italy in 1861. As a young man, he enrolled at the Accademia Di Belle Arti in Florence and studied sculpture and painting in the 1880s, winning prizes in both categories. After his studies, he travelled to Paris, Munich, and Egypt, which was the inspiration for his Orientalist subjects. 

Upon his return to Italy, he dedicated himself solely to painting and was honoured with the distinction of professorship at the Accademia.

Fabbi's depictions of odalisques and bazaars which were well-received by the public, and his output was prolific. From 1884 onward, Fabbi regularly contributed to exhibitions in Turin, Milan and Florence. More

Elie Anatole Pavil, ODESSA 1873 - 1948 RABAT, RUSSIAN SCHOOL
DAYDREAMING ON A TERRACE IN RABAT
Oil on canvas
90 x 121.5 cm; 35 1/2 by 48 in
Private Collection

Elie Anatole Pavil, ODESSA 1873 - 1948 RABAT, RUSSIAN SCHOOL. Born in Odessa, Pavil moved to Paris in 1892. He became a member of the International Society of watercolor, and exhibited at the Salon painters of Paris in 1910. After the death of his wife, he moved to Morocco where he painted street scenes, portraits of craftsmen, or women on their terrace in Fez, Marrakech and Rabat. More Pavil

Otto Pilny, 1866 - 1936
An Oriental Beauty dancing, c. 1913
Oil on canvas
70 ½ x 47 ½ in. (179 x 120.6 cm.)
Private Collection

The dancer is a particularly virtuoso representation of one of the artist's favourite themes. The work is a fine example of the luminosity which is so typical of Pilny's work. As the sun sets, the silhouette of the dancer and her audience become clearer. The orange tones, unique to the desert sun, were of particular interest to the artist. Pilny retells the simplicity of Bedouin life by illustrating the enjoyment of the viewers. He also invites us to watch the almost life-size dancer by creating a direct line of sight to the performance without any obstructions. 

Otto Pilny was a Swiss painter. He was born in 1866 in Budweis and died in 1936 in Zürich. He began his artistic education in Prague and lived in Vienna for a time before ultimately settling in Zurich. He travelled to Egypt twice, making his first visit in 1875 where he stayed for two years. He was so captivated by the landscape, people and their mores that he spent the rest of his career painting Orientalist works. He was particularly taken by the Bedouin customs and often travelled with them into the desert where he could sketch the evening entertainment which he would later use on his massive canvases. His second visit to the East was from 1889 to 1892. It was at this time that his work pleased the King of Egypt, Abbas II, and he was asked to decorate the order of the Medjidije. More Otto Pilny 

FRANZ ALEKSEEVICH ROUBAUD (RUSSIAN 1856-1928)
The Rider, c. 1897
Oil on canvas
74 x 89.5 cm (29 1/8 x 35 1/4 in.)
Private Collection

Franz (François) Roubaud was born on 3/15 June 1856 in Odessa. Franz was the fourth of five children in a Catholic family; his father was a bookseller and stationer, originally from Marseille. He studied at the Odessa Drawing School. In 1877 Roubaud went to Munich and studied at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts.

Franz settled in Saint Petersburg, working in the Imperial Academy of Arts and painting huge panoramas of historical battles. In 1904-12 Roubaud taught at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts as a professor. 

He became renowned thanks to the giant panorama paintings he executed during his lifetime. Roubaud's works were so large that they required specially built pavilions to exhibit them. These paintings are one of the few panoramas still extant of a popular 19th century genre. The viewer stands in the centre of the circular panorama, and observes the various scenes whilst walking around and observing the panorama from different viewing angles.

In 1913 Roubaud left Russian Empire for Germany, settling in Munich, where he lived for the rest of his life. He died on 13 March 1928. More

FRANZ ALEKSEEVICH ROUBAUD (RUSSIAN 1856-1928)
The Ambush
Oil on canvas
74 x 89.5 cm (29 1/8 x 35 1/4 in.)
Private Collection

FRANZ ALEKSEEVICH ROUBAUD, see above

 Philippe-Jacques van Bree
Odalisque, c. 1868
Oil on canvas
30 3/8 x 37 ¼ in. (77.2 x 94.6 cm.)
Private Collection

Philippe-Jacques van Bree (1786 - 1871), scholar of his brother Mattheas, was born at Antwerp in 1786. He studied at Antwerp, in Paris (where he became a scholar of Girodet), and at Rome; and also visited Germany and England. He employed himself on historical, fancy, and architectural subjects. Of the last, the Belgian Government purchased his 'View of the Interior of the Church of St. Peter at Rome,' and presented him with a gold medal in addition to the price. He was made conservator of the Museum at Brussels, where he died in 1871. More

Laurent Gsell, 1860 - 1944, FRENCH
ODALISQUE
Ooil on canvas
92 by 73cm., 36¼ by 28¾in.
Private Collection

Laurent Gsell  (1860 - 1944)  was active/lived in France.  Gsell became best known for his impressionist genre scenes many of them painted in Arab countries. He also created cartoons.

He studied with Alexandre Cabanel and exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1887 and 1889. He was a member of the Artistes Francaises from 1893-on. More

Philippe-Jacques van Bree
GIOVANNI BELLINI IN MAHOMET II'S COURT
Oil heightened with gold on panel
58,5 x 73,5 cm ; 23 by 29 3/4 in
Private Collection

Philippe-Jacques van Bree (1786 - 1871), scholar of his brother Mattheas, was born at Antwerp in 1786. He studied at Antwerp, in Paris (where he became a scholar of Girodet), and at Rome; and also visited Germany and England. He employed himself on historical, fancy, and architectural subjects. Of the last, the Belgian Government purchased his 'View of the Interior of the Church of St. Peter at Rome,' and presented him with a gold medal in addition to the price. He was made conservator of the Museum at Brussels, where he died in 1871. More






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