Saturday, May 27, 2017

10 Orientalist Paintings by Artists from the 19th Century, with footnotes, 16

Orientalism is a term that is used for the depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern cultures. It refers to the works of the Western artists on Oriental subjects, produced from their travels in Western Asia, during the 19th century. Depictions of Islamic "Moors" and "Turks" can be found in Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque art. A creative apprehension of a completely different world with its own laws, customs, special attitude towards life and death, love, feelings, and beauty. Wikipedia/Yana Naumovna Lukashevskaya

Léon François Comerre (10 October 1850 – 20 February 1916)
An Eastern Beauty
oil on canvas
44 x 28 ¾ in. (111.8 x 73 cm.)
Private Collection

Léon François Comerre (10 October 1850 – 20 February 1916) was a French academic painter, famous for his portraits of beautiful women. Comerre was born in Trélon, in the Département du Nord, the son of a schoolteacher. He moved to Lille with his family in 1853. From an early age he showed an interest in art and became a student of Alphonse Colas at the École des Beaux-Arts in Lille, winning a gold medal in 1867. From 1868 a grant from the Département du Nord allowed him to continue his studies in Paris at the famous École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in the studio of Alexandre Cabanel. There he came under the influence of orientalism.

Comerre first exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1871 and went on to win prizes in 1875 and 1881. In 1875 he won the Grand Prix de Rome. This led to a scholarship at the French Academy in Rome from January 1876 to December 1879. In 1885 he won a prize at the "Exposition Universelle" in Antwerp. He also won prestigious art prizes in the USA (1876) and Australia (1881 and 1897). He became a Knight of the Legion of Honour in 1903.

Francisco de Goya,  (1746–1828)
The Second of May 1808 or The Charge of the Mamelukes, c. 1814
Oil on canvas
266 × 345 cm (104.7 × 135.8 in)
Prado Museum

May 02, 1808. Francisco de Goya witnessed first hand the French occupation of Spain in 1808, when Napoleon used the pretext of reinforcing his army in Portugal to seize the Spanish throne, leaving his brother Joseph in power. Attempts to remove members of the Spanish royal family from Madrid provoked a widespread rebellion. This popular uprising occurred between the second and third of May 1808, when suppressed by forces under Maréchal Joachim Murat. In this image: The Second of May 1808, also known as The Charge of the Mamelukes, a painting by the Spanish master Francisco de Goya. More

Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes[A] (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker. He is considered the most important Spanish artist of late 18th and early 19th centuries and throughout his long career was a commentator and chronicler of his era. Immensely successful in his lifetime, Goya is often referred to as both the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns. He was also one of the great portraitists of modern times. More on Francisco José de Goya

John Reinhard Weguelin,  (1849–1927)
The Obsequies of an Egyptian Cat, c. 1886
Oil on canvas
994 x 1425 x 85 mm

A priestess offers gifts of food and milk to the spirit of a cat. On an altar stands the mummy of the deceased, and the tomb is decorated with frescoes, urns of fresh flowers, lotus blossoms, and statuettes. The priestess kneels as she wafts incense smoke toward the altar. In the background, a statue of Sekhmet or Bastet guards the entrance to the tomb. More this painting

In 1889 eight illustrations by J R Weguelin, although not this image, were published in The Cat of Bubastes: A Tale of Ancient Egypt, by the popular and prolific historical novelist G A Henty. The plot turns on the accidental killing of a sacred cat:

So esteemed were even the most common animals of the cat tribe that, if a cat happened to die in a house, the inhabitants went into mourning and shaved their eyebrows in token of their grief; the embalmers were sent for, the dead cat made into a mummy, and conveyed with much solemnity to the great catacombs set aside for the burial of the sacred animals. More Egyptian Cat

John Reinhard Weguelin,  (1849–1927)
The Bath, c. 1890
Oil on canvas
20 × 10 in (50.8 × 25.4 cm)
Private Collection

John Reinhard Weguelin RWS (June 23, 1849 – April 28, 1927) was an English painter and illustrator, active from 1877 to after 1910. He specialized in figurative paintings with lush backgrounds, typically landscapes or garden scenes. Weguelin emulated the neo-classical style of Edward Poynter and Lawrence Alma-Tadema, painting subjects inspired by classical antiquity and mythology. He depicted scenes of everyday life in ancient Greece and Rome, as well as mythological subjects, with an emphasis on pastoral scenes. Weguelin also drew on folklore for inspiration, and painted numerous images of nymphs and mermaids. 

Although his earliest work was in watercolour, all of Weguelin's important works from 1878 to 1892 were oil paintings. 

Weguelin's work was exhibited at the Royal Academy and a number of other important London galleries, and was highly regarded during his career. However, he was forgotten following the first World War, as his style of painting fell out of fashion. More John Reinhard Weguelin

Oil on panel
61 x 49 cm ; 24 by 19 1/4 in.
Private Collection

Rudolf Ernst (14 February 1854, Vienna - 1932, Fontenay-aux-Roses) was an Austro-French painter, printmaker and ceramics painter who is best known for his orientalist motifs. He exhibited in Paris under the name "Rodolphe Ernst".

He was the son of an architect and, encouraged by his father, began studies at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna at the age of fifteen. He spent some time in Rome, copying the old masters, and continued his lessons in Vienna with August Eisenmenger and Anselm Feuerbach.

In 1876, he settled in Paris. The following year, he participated in his first artists' salon. He later made trips to Spain, Morocco, Egypt and Constantinople to study and document what he saw there.

In 1905, he moved to Fontenay-aux-Roses where he set up a shop to produce faience tiles with orientalist themes. He decorated his home in Ottoman style and lived a reclusive life. His exact date of death was apparently not recorded. More Rudolf Ernst 


Stephan Sedlacek, 1868 - 1936, AUSTRIAN
Oil on canvas
82 by 129cm., 32 by 50½in.
Private Collection

Stephan Sedlacek : Czech, b. 1868 – d. 1936, a Victorian artist. Full detailed biography have been difficult to collect.

Sedlacek appears to have had quite a close understanding of the upper classes, with a few images of lower classes visiting fortune tellers, and a series on visiting an oriental harem, but for the most part Sedlacek seems to focus on capturing the opulence of the social activities of the elite. The people are small, wrapped in the finery of their fashion and surroundings, basking in the fortune that has smiled upon them. The scenes are calm, peaceful and very refined. An embodiment of the ideals of the era. More Stephan Sedlacek

Gustav Bauernfeind, 1848 - 1904, GERMAN
A WELL IN JAFFA, c. 1880 
Watercolour and pencil on paper
35.5 by 48cm., 14 by 19in.
Private Collection

The present work dates from Bauernfeind's first visit to Palestine in 1880. Although Jaffa was the main port of entry for travelers to Jerusalem, Bauernfeind was one of the few Orientalist artists to depict the city. More Jaffa

Jaffa is an ancient port city in Palistine. Jaffa is famous for its association with the biblical stories of Jonah, Solomon and Saint Peter as well as the mythological story of Andromeda and Perseus.

The town was mentioned in Egyptian sources and the Amarna letters as Yapu. Mythology says that it is named for Japheth, one of the sons of Noah, the one who built it after the Flood. The Hellenist tradition links the name to Iopeia, or Cassiopeia, mother of Andromeda. An outcropping of rocks near the harbor is reputed to have been the place where Andromeda was rescued by Perseus. Pliny the Elder associated the name with Iopa, daughter of Aeolus, god of the wind. The Arab geographer al-Muqaddasi referred to it as Yaffa. More Yaffa

Gustav Bauernfeind, 1848 - 1904, GERMAN
Market at Jaffa, 1877
Oil on canvas
Private Collection

Gustav Bauernfeind (4 September 1848, Sulz am Neckar - 24 December 1904, Jerusalem) was a German painter, illustrator and architect. He is considered to be one of the most notable Orientalist painters of Germany.

After completing his architectural studies in Stuttgart, he worked in the architectural firm of Professor Wilhelm Bäumer and later in that of Adolph Gnauth, where he also learned painting. In his earlier paintings, Bauernfeind focused on local views of Germany, as well as motifs from Italy. During his journey to the Levant from 1880 to 1882, he became interested in the Orient and repeated his travels again and again. In 1896 he moved with his wife and son all the way to Palestine and subsequently settled in Jerusalem in 1898. He also lived and worked in Lebanon and Syria.

Gustav Bauernfeind, 1848 - 1904, GERMAN
Oil on panel
24 by 32cm., 9½ by 12½in.
Private Collection

His work is characterized primarily by architectural views of Jerusalem and the Holy Land. The paintings of Bauernfeind are mostly meticulously crafted, intricately composed and almost photographically accurate cityscapes and images of known sanctuaries in oil. In addition, he produced landscape scenes and watercolours. During his lifetime he was the most popular Orientalist painter of Germany, but soon fell into oblivion after his death. However, since the early 1980s, Bauernfeind was gradually rediscovered. At his birthplace in Sulz am Neckar, the life and work of the painter is commemorated by the Gustav Bauernfeind Museum with a large permanent exhibition. More Gustav Bauernfeind 

The Temple Mount, "Mount of the House [of God, known to Muslims as the Haram esh-Sharif,  "the Noble Sanctuary", is a hill located in the Old City of Jerusalem, is one of the most important religious sites in the world. It has been venerated as a holy site for thousands of years by Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The present site is dominated by three monumental structures from the early Umayyad period: the al-Aqsa Mosque, the Dome of the Rock and the Dome of the Chain, as well as four minarets. Herodian walls and gates with additions dating back to the late Byzantine and early Islamic periods cut through the flanks of the Mount. Currently it can be reached through eleven gates, ten reserved for Muslims and one for non-Muslims, with guard posts in the vicinity of each. More on The Temple Mount

The view is through the Bab as-Silsileh (Chain Gate) in the Temple Mount's western wall, with the Dome of the Rock beyond.

Jacques-Joseph Eeckhout, ANVERS 1793 - 1861 PARIS, ÉCOLE BELGE
Oil on canvas
57,5 x 48 cm ; 22 5/8 by 18 7/8 in.
Private Collection

Jacobus Josephus Eeckhout (2 June 1793 – 25 December 1861) was a Flemish painter. He was born at Antwerp, and studied first at the Academy of that city. He painted historical and genre subjects, and portraits, and in 1829 he was elected a member of the Academies of Amsterdam, Antwerp, Brussels, and Rotterdam. He settled at the Hague in 1831, and in 1839 became director of the Academy in that city, and after staying at Mechlin and Brussels he went to live in Paris in 1859. He imitated Rembrandt with some skill, and may be considered one of the most distinguished painters of the modern Dutch school. His compositions are expressive and lively, and the colouring vigorous. More on Jacobus Josephus Eeckhout 

Acknowledgement: Sotheby's, and others

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Sunday, May 21, 2017

15 Classic Works of Art, Marine Paintings - With Footnotes, #29

Henri Le Sidaner, 1862 - 1939
Oil on wood panel
6 1/4 by 10 1/2 in., 15.9 by 26.7 cm
Painted in 1885.
Private Collection

Étaples or Étaples-sur-Mer is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. It is a fishing and leisure port on the Canche river.During the ninth century the coast was subject to raids and settlement by Norsemen. From their point of view, this off-shore site, protected by mud flats and marsh, was ideal as a base from which to conduct raids elsewhere, assemble the booty and ship it home.  More on Étaples

Henri Eugène Augustin Le Sidaner (7 August 1862 – July 1939) was an intimist painter. Sidaner was born to a French family in Port Louis, Mauritius. In 1870 he and his family settled in Dunkirk. Le Sidaner received most of his tutelage from the École des Beaux-Arts under the instruction of Alexandre Cabanel but later broke away due to artistic differences.

Between 1885 and 1894 Le Sidaner lived the year round at the Etaples art colony and was joined there by his childhood friend Eugène Chigot (1860–1923), who shared his interest in atmospheric light. Later Le Sidaner traveled extensively throughout France. He also visited many cities around the globe, as well as villages throughout Europe. He exhibited at the Salon, the Galeries Georges Petit in Paris and the Goupil Gallery in London, and settled in Gerberoy.

Marcel Proust's mention of Le Sidaner's work in his novel In Search of Lost Time confirms its later reputation. In Sodom and Gomorrah, the narrator mentions that an eminent barrister from Paris had devoted his income to collecting the paintings of the "highly distinguished" but "not great" Le Sidaner. More on Henri Eugène Augustin Le Sidaner

Montague Dawson, RMSA, FRSA (1890–1973) 
Brisk Weather off the Needles, Isle of Wight
oil on canvas
24 x 36 in. (61 x 91.4 cm.)
Private Collection

The Needles is a row of three distinctive stacks of chalk that rise about 30m out of the sea off the western extremity of the Isle of Wight, United Kingdom, close to Alum Bay. The Needles Lighthouse stands at the outer, western end of the formation. Built in 1859, it has been automated since 1994.[5]

The formation takes its name from a fourth needle-shaped pillar called Lot's Wife, that collapsed in a storm in 1764.[6] The remaining rocks are not at all needle-like, but the name has stuck. More on The Needles 

Montague Dawson RMSA, FRSA (1890–1973) was a British painter who was renowned as a maritime artist. His most famous paintings depict sailing ships, usually clippers or warships of the 18th and 19th centuries. Montague was the son of a keen yachtsman and the grandson of the marine painter Henry Dawson (1811–1878), born in Chiswick, London. Much of his childhood was spent on Southampton Water where he was able to indulge his interest in the study of ships. For a brief period around 1910 Dawson worked for a commercial art studio in Bedford Row, London, but with the outbreak of the First World War he joined the Royal Navy. Whilst serving with the Navy in Falmouth he met Charles Napier Hemy (1841–1917), who considerably influenced his work. In 1924 Dawson was the official artist for an Expedition to the South Seas by the steam yacht St.George. During the expedition he provided illustrated reports to the Graphic magazine.

After the War, Dawson established himself as a professional marine artist, concentrating on historical subjects and portraits of deep-water sailing ships. During the Second World War, he was employed as a war artist. Dawson exhibited regularly at the Royal Society of Marine Artists, of which he became a member, from 1946 to 1964, and occasionally at the Royal Academy between 1917 and 1936. By the 1930s he was considered one of the greatest living marine artists, whose patrons included two American Presidents, Dwight D Eisenhower and Lyndon B Johnson, as well as the British Royal Family. Also in the 1930s, he moved to Milford-Upon-Sea in Hampshire, living there for many years. Dawson is noted for the strict accuracy in the nautical detail of his paintings which often sell for six figures.

The work of Montague Dawson is represented in the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich and the Royal Naval Museum, Portsmouth. More

Kamel Mustafa Mohamed, (b 1917 – d 1982)
Untitled (The Fisherman)
Oil On Panel
25 cm x  35 cm
Private Collection

Kamel Mustafa, (b 1917 – d 1982)graduated from the Faculty of Fine Art in 1941. Also in 1950, he had a diploma in restoration technique of oil painting. He was Professor and Head of Painting Department at the Faculty of Fine Arts, Alexandria then Dean of the Faculty from 1969 to 1977, thus preserving the liberated values spread by the late artist Ahmad Othman, who established the college.

He was an Impressionist painter who leaned towards academic realism. He belonged to the second generation of Modern Egyptian artists. From 1936, the artist spent ten years working in Cairo painting a wide-range of subjects, including traditional scenes from the city and rural life.

Kamel Mustafa Mohamed, (b 1917 – d 1982)
Oil On Panel
: 25 cm x  20 cm
Private Collection

Between 1946 and 1950 Mustafa travelled to Italy for further study. There he was exposed to various trends, including post-impressionism. By the beginning of the 1950s his work passed through a distinctly modernist phase, where composition and execution were carefully controlled.

He drew the attention of critics when he exhibited his works at Alexandria Biennale (two sessions) and Venice Biennale (three sessions). He was the Guest of Honor of 19th Alexandria Biennale in 1997. Kamel Mustafa also exhibited his works in Italy, Warsaw, Poland; and Berlin, Germany. More Kamel Mustafa

François Gall, 1912 - 1987
Signed F.Gall and inscribed Trouville (lower right)
Oil on canvas
10 1/8 by 18 1/8 in., 25.7 by 46 cm
Private Collection

Trouville-sur-Mer, commonly referred to as Trouville, is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. Trouville-sur-Mer borders Deauville. This village of fishermen is a popular tourist attraction in Normandy. More on Trouville

François Gall (1912–1987) was a Hungarian painter. He became an impressionist painter in the pure French tradition after he moved to Paris in 1936. He was born in Kolozsvar in the former region of Transylvania on March 22, 1912 and began studying all media at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Rome while working menial jobs to secure a living. In 1939, the Hungarian government awarded Gall with a scholarship for his artistic merit.

Six years later, Francois Gall established himself in Paris and became a student of Devambez at the National Academy of Fine Arts. He greatly admired the first generation of Impressionists and adopted their concepts for his own interpretations. Parisian scenes and and portrayals of women engaged in typically feminine activities were amoung his preferred subjects. Francois was a modern impressionist, bringing his own unique personality to this most enduring style.

Gall participated in various Salon exhibitions in Paris and became a favorite with the public. In 1963, he was honoured with the Francis Smith Prize. He died in 1987. More on François Gall

EDWARD MORAN, American, (1829-1901)
Sailing in the Moonlight
Oil on canvas
20 x 30 inches
Private Collection

Edward Moran (August 19, 1829 in Bolton, Lancashire, England – June 8, 1901 in New York City) was an American artist of maritime paintings. Moran was born in England on August 19, 1829. Following in the footsteps of his father's profession, he learned to operate a hand-loom at a young age, though he would often be found sketching with charcoal on the white fabric instead of plying the shuttle. His family first emigrated to Maryland in 1844, and then to Philadelphia a year later.

It was in Philadelphia around 1845 that Edward apprenticed under James Hamilton and landscape painter Paul Weber; Hamilton guided Moran specifically in the style of marine paintings. In the 1850s Moran began to make a name for himself in the Philadelphia artistic scene; working in the same studio as his younger brother, famous American painter Thomas Moran, Edward received commissions and even completed some lithographic work. In 1862, he traveled to London and became a pupil in the Royal Academy. 

In 1885, at the height of his career, Moran began on what would be considered his most important work - a series of 13 paintings representing the Marine History of the United States. He chose to have thirteen paintings in the series because of the significance of the number in American history (13 colonies, 13 stars and stripes on the original US flag, etc.). The subjects include Leif Ericsson, Christopher Columbus, Hernando de Soto, Henry Hudson, and Admiral Dewey, among others. Not long after their completion, the series was displayed at the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago. More

Three Sailing Boats, 1933
Watercolour and Indian ink on paper
8 7/10 × 11 1/2 in, 22.1 × 29.1 cm
Private Collection

Though originally from New York, Lyonel Feininger spent a great deal of his career in Germany and is closely associated with the German Expressionist movement as well as the Bauhaus, where he was an active teacher and practitioner. Early Cubism and Futurism acted as significant sources of inspiration in the development of Feininger’s personal style, characterized by angular lines and transparent intersecting planes. When the Bauhaus was dissolved by the Nazi party in the late 1930s, Feininger returned to his native New York, adding a series of skylines and seascapes to his already prolific body of work.

T. Lux Feininger (June 11, 1910 Berlin — July 7, 2011 Cambridge) was an American painter, avant-garde photographer, author, and art teacher who was born in Berlin to Julia Berg and Lyonel Charles Feininger, an American living in Germany from the age of sixteen. His father was the first faculty appointment made to the Bauhaus in Weimar by its founder, Walter Gropius, in 1919. He had two older full brothers, including Andreas Feininger, and two half sisters, even older, by Clara Fürst and his father (from his first marriage). More Lyonel Feininger 

Frank Myers Boggs, American, 1855-1926 
Harbor Scene 
Oil on canvas 
25 x 34 1/2 inches 
Private Collection

Frank Myers Boggs (* 6. December 1855 in Springfield , Ohio ; † August 8, 1926 in Meudon , Hauts-de-Seine )  was active, and naturalized in France .  He was a painter of urban landscapes, marine. Watercolorist , engraver , draftsman.

Mixing tonalist and impressionist elements, Frank Myers Boggs forged a novel artistic style at the juncture of fin-de-siècle American and European traditions. Born in Ohio, Boggs trained at the École des Beaux-Arts under Jean Léon Gerôme and spent the majority of his life in Paris. There, he accomplished the rare feat of gaining prominence in both the French and American art worlds. By the end of his life, Boggs had essentially transformed himself into a French impressionist: he became a French citizen in 1923 and earned the French Legion of Honor three years later. 

Frank Myers Boggs, American, 1855-1926 
In Port
Oil on canvas 
38.1 cm (15 in.), Width: 54.93 cm (21.63 in.)
Private Collection

Boggs won a prize from the American Art Association in 1884 and silver medals from the Paris Universal Exposition of 1889 and the Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893. His paintings are now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum of Art, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, as well as the Réunion des Musées Nationaux of Paris, Luxembourg Museum, and Museum of Nantes in France. More on Frank Myers Boggs

David Davidovich Burliuk, American/Russian Federation, 1882-1967 
Florida Fishing 
Oil on canvas 
12 x 16 inches 
Private Collection

David Davidovich Burliuk (Ukrainian and Russian: Дави́д Дави́дович Бурлю́к; 21 July 1882 – 15 January 1967) was born on the farmstead of Semirotovshchina in the Kharkov province (now Ukraine) in 1882. Died in Long Island, USA in 1967. This artist is a member of the well-known Burliuk art dynasty. He was a painter and poet, an art critic, and one of the theoreticians of Russian Futurism. He studied at the Kazan and Odessa art schools, at Aschbe’s school and the Royal Academy in Munich, in Cormon’s studio in Paris, and at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. He was the organizer of numerous exhibitions and the “Gilea” group. He was a member of the German “Sturm” and “Blaue Reiter” (Blue Rider) associations of artists. In 1920, he immigrated to Japan via Siberia, and from 1922 lived in the USA. In addition to landscapes, he painted portraits, still life, and allegoric compositions in his own invariable impasto style. More on David Davidovich Burliuk

Claude Monet, French, 1840 - 1926
The Rocks at Pourville, Low Tide, 1882
Oil on canvas
25 5/16 in. x 31 in. (64.29 cm x 78.74 cm)
Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Rochester

In Rocks at low tide, Pourville writhing contours form abstract rocks. Monet’s mobile brushstrokes create a sense of the rock forms beneath the water by suggesting the movement of water around them. More on Rocks at low tide, Pourville

A former fishing village, became Pourville-sur-Mer the early nineteenth century, a popular resort in Normandy. The village, depending on Hautot-sur-Mer, near Dieppe, has also attracted many talented painters in his time, like Claude Monet who made several landscapes.
After a significant development in the interwar period, the station was indeed one of the favorite destinations of the Parisian art world, thanks to the presence of a casino and other luxury hotels. Surrounded by cliffs, the village of Pourville-sur-Mer also impresses with its pebble and sand, overlooking the English Channel, as well as its breathtaking view of Dieppe and its surroundings. More on Pourville-sur-Mer

Oscar-Claude Monet (14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting. The term "Impressionism" is derived from the title of his painting Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which was exhibited in 1874 in the first of the independent exhibitions mounted by Monet and his associates as an alternative to the Salon de Paris.

Monet's ambition of documenting the French countryside led him to adopt a method of painting the same scene many times in order to capture the changing of light and the passing of the seasons. From 1883 Monet lived in Giverny, where he purchased a house and property and began a vast landscaping project which included lily ponds that would become the subjects of his best-known works. In 1899 he began painting the water lilies, first in vertical views with a Japanese bridge as a central feature, and later in the series of large-scale paintings that was to occupy him continuously for the next 20 years of his life. More Oscar-Claude Monet

Wael Abdel Sabour
The Harbor, c. 2010
Mixed Media on paper
90x120 cm
Private Collection

I could not find any useful information on Wael Abdel Sabour.

Hamed Said, (Egypt, 1908-2006)
Women along a beach, circa early 1940s
Oil on panel
60 x 120cm (23 5/8 x 47 1/4in).
Private Collection

Hamed Said, Egypt, 1908-2006, was considered an intellectual and theoretical figure within the Egyptian Fine Art movement.

He obtained a state scholarship to England between 1936 and 1939, studying at the Chelsea College of Arts. 

In 1946 he founded the "Art & Life Group" which focused in boosting the awareness of the relationship between art and everyday life in the aim of reviving Egyptian identity. The group achieved great success in the seven exhibitions it held and participated in the 
Venice Biennale in 1956 . The famous British writer and art critic Herbert Read praised the groups "sincerity and independence ". In 1981 he he received a State Award for his contribution to the arts. More Hamed Said

Eugene-Marie Salanson, (French, 1864-1892)
The fisher girl 
Oil on canvas
53 1/2 x 31 3/4in (136 x 80.5cm)
Private Collection

Eugénie Alexandrine Marie Salanson (15 December 1836, Albert - 23 July 1912, Saint-Pair-sur-Mer) was a French painter in the Academic style. Her father came from Ispagnac to Albert to serve as a tariff collector. The family later moved to Saint-Valery-sur-Somme, where her twin sisters were born, then on to Saint-Omer, where her father had been appointed Receiver (head tax collector).

It was near there, in Calais, that she took her first art lessons from a local artist named Crocher. She then went to Paris to continue her studies but, at that time, the École des Beaux-arts did not accept female applicants, so she attended the Académie Julian, where she studied with William Bouguereau. Later, she took private lessons from Léon Cogniet. In 1877, she exhibited her portrait of Cogniet at the Salon, which brought her numerous commissions. The following year, she participated in the Exposition Universelle.

Soon, she was exhibiting throughout France and abroad. In 1882 she, Camille Claudel, Jessie Lipscomb and others set up their own studio on the Rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs.

By the end of the 1880s, she was able to acquire the "Villa Saint-Joseph" in the growing seaside resort of Saint-Pair-sur-Mer. This inspired her to create her best known paintings, depicting the young fisherwomen who worked nearby. Her painting "A marée basse" (Low tide) was one of the works featured in Women Painters of the World by Walter Shaw Sparrow (1905); one of the first books that treated female artists as worthy of serious attention..

She divided her time between Paris and her villa, and died there at the age of seventy-five. Most of her works are in private collections. More on Eugénie Alexandrine Marie Salanson

Sir William Russell Flint, RA, PRWS (British, 1880-1969)
The shrimper 
Watercolor on paper
19 1/8 x 26 3/16in (48.5 x 66.5cm)
Private Collection

Sir William Russell Flint (4 April 1880 – 30 December 1969) was a Scottish artist and illustrator who was known especially for his watercolour paintings of women. He also worked in oils, tempera, and printmaking. He was born in Edinburgh then educated at Daniel Stewart's College and Edinburgh Institution. From 1894 to 1900 Flint apprenticed as a lithographic draughtsman while taking classes at the Royal Institute of Art, Edinburgh. From 1900 to 1902 he worked as a medical illustrator in London while studying part-time at Heatherley's Art School. He furthered his art education by studying independently at the British Museum. 

Flint was elected president of Britain’s Royal Society of Painters in Watercolours (now the Royal Watercolour Society) in 1936 to 1956, and knighted in 1947. More on Sir William Russell Flint

Acknowledgement: Bonhams   , and others

Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others

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Friday, May 12, 2017

11 Paintings, Streets of Paris, by its Artists from 1850-1910 - Part 8 - With Footnotes

Paris, France's capital, is a major European city and a global center for art, fashion, gastronomy and culture. Its 19th-century cityscape is crisscrossed by wide boulevards and the River Seine. Beyond such landmarks as the Eiffel Tower and the 12th-century, Gothic Notre-Dame cathedral, the city is known for its cafe culture and designer boutiques along the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré. Wikipedia

Claude Monet, (1840-1926)
The Rue Montorgueil in Paris. Celebration of 30 June 1878, c. 1878
Oil on canvas
H. 81; W. 50 cm
Grand Palais (Musée d'Orsay), Paris

The Rue Montorgueil, like its twin painting The Rue Saint-Denis (below), is often thought to depict a 14 July celebration. In fact it was painted on 30 June 1878 for a festival declared that year by the government celebrating "peace and work". This was one of the events organised for the third Universal Exhibition in Paris a few weeks after it opened, and intended to be a symbol of France’s recovery after the defeat of 1870. As well as demonstrating nationalist enthusiasm, the celebrations of 30 June 1878 were also an opportunity to strengthen the position of the Republican regime, still fragile only a few months after the major confrontations of 1876-1877 between its supporters and the conservatives. It was only two years later, in 1880, that 14 July was designated the French National Day.

This painting proposes a distanced vision of an urban landscape by a painter who did not mix with the crowd, but observed it from a window. The three colours vibrating in Monet's painting are those of modern France. More Rue Montorgueil

Claude Monet, (1840-1926)
Rue Saint Denis, fête 30 juin 1878, c. 1878
Oil on canvas
H. 81; W. 50 cm
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen

The chroniclers noted the enthusiasm of this day of Sunday 30 June when the tricolor flag triumphs in the streets of Paris. According to Goncourt, even the hearses taking their dead to the cemetery were flagged. 

The street is shown, stormed by the jubilant people of Paris, into a plunging view, with a strong perspective, the dark triangle of the crowd rising towards the inverted triangle of the sky. Set with a quick touch, in flames of pure colors, the flags float, slam, Twist and become masters of space.  More Rue Saint Denis

Oscar-Claude Monet (14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting. The term "Impressionism" is derived from the title of his painting Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which was exhibited in 1874 in the first of the independent exhibitions mounted by Monet and his associates as an alternative to the Salon de Paris.

Monet's ambition of documenting the French countryside led him to adopt a method of painting the same scene many times in order to capture the changing of light and the passing of the seasons. From 1883 Monet lived in Giverny, where he purchased a house and property and began a vast landscaping project which included lily ponds that would become the subjects of his best-known works. In 1899 he began painting the water lilies, first in vertical views with a Japanese bridge as a central feature, and later in the series of large-scale paintings that was to occupy him continuously for the next 20 years of his life. More Oscar-Claude Monet

Theo Tobiasse
Paris est un théâtre
Oil on canvas
51 x 62 cm
Private collection

Theo Tobiasse was born in Palestine in 1927 to Lithuanian parents. Due to financial difficulty, at a young age, Tobiasse was forced to move to Kovno then Paris, where his father attempted to find work as a typographer. These moves greatly affected Tobiasse, and the themes of exile and displacement are often found in his works. 

Tobiasse began his formal artist training at the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs in Paris, but his education was cut short during World War II when discriminatory laws forced him to leave school for confinement in his family’s apartment for two years. When the war was over, Tobiasse had amassed a plethora of drawings that helped him launch a career in design and advertising, which he did for fifteen years in Paris and Nice. Tobiasse devoted himself entirely to painting in 1962 after a successful exhibition in Nice.

Theo Tobiasse lived and worked in Saint-Paul de Vence. He died on November 3, 2012. More Théo Tobiasse

Camille Pissarro, 1930 - 1903
La Place du Théâtre-Français et l’avenue de l’Opéra, effet de pluie, 1898. 
Huile sur toile
73, 6 x 91, 4 cm
Minneapolis, Institute of Art, fonds 

Camille Pissarro (10 July 1830 – 13 November 1903) was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas (now in the US Virgin Islands, but then in the Danish West Indies). His importance resides in his contributions to both Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. Pissarro studied from great forerunners, including Gustave Courbet and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. He later studied and worked alongside Georges Seurat and Paul Signac when he took on the Neo-Impressionist style at the age of 54.
In 1873 he helped establish a collective society of fifteen aspiring artists, becoming the "pivotal" figure in holding the group together and encouraging the other members. Art historian John Rewald called Pissarro the "dean of the Impressionist painters", not only because he was the oldest of the group, but also "by virtue of his wisdom and his balanced, kind, and warmhearted personality".  More Camille Pissarro

Luigi Loir, (French/Austrian, 1845-1916)
Devant la Musee
Gouache, chalk and graphite on cardboard
10" x 14"
Private collection

Luigi Loir, (French/Austrian, 1845-1916), was born in Austria of French parents employed by the French Royal Court in exile. In 1847 the family relocated to the Duchy of Parma, where the young man was to enter l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts at the astonishing age of 9. Upon the completion of his studies, Loir moved to France to train under Jean Amable Amedee Pastelot (1810-1870). He had his debut at the Paris Salon in 1865; though he did not receive any medals, his work caught the attention of critics and patrons, and he spent several lucrative years working as a muralist, ceiling painter, and illustrator before deciding to concentrate on landscapes in 1870. Enthralled by the vigorous urban progress of Belle Epoque France, Loir soon tuned his meticulous attentions to the architecture and denizens of Paris. One of the first to concentrate on such scenes of the bustling and energetic city, Loir influenced such later artists as Eugene Galien-Laloue (1854-1941) and Edouard Cortes (1882-1969). Considered the official painter of the boulevards of Paris, his depictions of his adopted city were admired for their authenticity and attention to architectural detail. Loir's technique included meticulous underdrawings that he frequently allowed to come through the paint surface. The success of this technique, and the impression of immediacy it creates, can be seen in the stunning painting offered here where Loir has intentionally rendered the central building - ostensibly the main subject - in graphite and chalk, with only hints of additional pigment. While such an approach was unusual for the period, it has the effect of immediately drawing the viewer's eye into the complexity of the composition. This effect is only enhanced by the masterful juxtaposition of the linear draftsmanship of the colonnade and the painterly impasto of the sky. Loir received numerous awards and accolades, including a gold medal at the Paris Salon of 1889, was named to the prestigious and influential Office d'Academie in 1889, and made a Chevalier of the Legion d'Honneur in 1898. More Luigi Loir

Giuseppe De Nittis, 1846 - 1884, ITALIAN
Oil on canvas
53 by 40.5cm., 21 by 16in.
Private collection

In this quintessential evocation of the Belle Epoque, De Nittis captures a couple out on their morning ride along the Avenue Foch. Dressed in the latest Parisian fashions, they canter at a leisured pace, their destination perhaps the Bois de Boulogne, the vast green recreational expanse to the west of Paris. More on this painting

Giuseppe De Nittis (February 25, 1846 – August 21, 1884) was an Italian painter whose work merges the styles of Salon art and Impressionism. De Nittis was born in Barletta, where he first studied under Giovanni Battista Calò. In 1863 he launched his career with the exhibition of two paintings at the 1864 Neapolitan Promotrice. De Nittis came into contact with some of the artists known as the Macchiaiol.

In 1867 he moved to Paris. After gaining some visibility by exhibiting at the Salon he returned to Italy where he produced several views of Vesuvius.

In 1872 De Nittis returned to Paris and achieved a success at the Salon with his painting Che freddo! (Freezing!) of 1874. In that same year he was invited to exhibit at the first Impressionist exhibition, held at Nadar's. De Nittis was not accepted by all of the Impressionists, and did not participate in their subsequent exhibitions.

Giuseppe De Nittis,  (1846–1884)
La place des Pyramides, c. 1875
Medium oOht: 92.3 cm (36.3 in). Width: 75 cm (29.5 in).
Musée d'Orsay

A trip to London resulted in a number of Impressionistic paintings. In 1875 De Nittis took up pastels, which became an important medium for him in his remaining years and which he helped popularize. Back in Paris, he executed pastel portraits of sitters including De Goncourt, Zola, Manet and Duranty. 

De Nittis exhibited twelve paintings in The Exposition Universelle of 1878, and was awarded a gold medal. In that same year he received the Légion d’honneur.

In 1884, at the age of 38, De Nittis died suddenly of a stroke at Saint-Germain-en-Laye. More De Nittis

Built between 1806 and 1836, the Arc de Triomphe was commissioned by Napoleon I and based on the Arch of Titus in Rome. Following damage in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, the Arch underwent restoration work in the mid 1870s (fig. 1). In his celebrated views of Paris at this time, De Nittis was particularly drawn to subjects which represented the city reborn, rising Phoenix-like from its troubled recent past. Painted the same year as the present work, La Place des Pyramides juxtaposes Frémiet's new gilded bronze sculpture of Joan of Arc against the reconstruction of the west wing of the Louvre, following arson during the Commune of 1871. More on this painting

Edmond Grandjean, 1844 - 1908, FRENCH
Oil on canvas
77 by 126cm., 30 by 49½in.
Private collection

While the Haussmanian architecture and wide tree-lined boulevard remains recognisable today, the buildings to the right of the scene were subsequently demolished to connect the top of the Boulevard des Italiens to the Boulevard Haussmann, which was not completed until 1922. A number of the boulevard’s celebrated cafés disappeared in the 20th century to be replaced by banks, however the Café du Cardinal visible on the left remains to this day, its entrance then as now surmounted by a bust of Cardinal Richelieu. More Boulevard des Italiens

Edmond Grandjean, 1844 - 1908, FRENCH

Edmond Grandjean, 1844 - 1908, FRENCH, was a painter of genre scenes, portraits, animated landscapes and town views. 

Pupil of the Paris School of Fine Arts (1862). He studied under Adolphe Yvon, Emile Signol and Isidore Pils. He exhibited at the Paris Salon and from 1865 till 1906 at the 'Salon des Artistes Français'. He was awarded an Honourable Mention in 1881, received a Third Class Medal in 1888, a Second Class Medal in 1898 and another Honourable Mention in 1900 at the 'Exposition Universelle'. 

He mostly painted genre scenes and animated landscapes with horses. More Edmond Grandjean

Max Beckmann, b. 1884, Leipzig, Germany; d. 1950, New York City
Paris Society, c. 1931
Oil on canvas
43 x 69 1/8 inches (109.2 x 175.6 cm)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York

Paris Society is Max Beckmann’s portrait of émigrés, aristocrats, businessmen, and intellectuals engaged in disjointed festivity on the eve of the Third Reich. Beckmann painted the work on an invitation from the German embassy in Paris.

Guests nclude the central figure, Beckmann’s friend Prince Karl Anton Rohan; the Frankfurt banker Albert Hahn, at the far right; the music historian Paul Hirsch, seated at the left; the German ambassador Leopold von Hoesch, at the lower right, with his head in his hands; and possibly Paul Poiret, the French couturier, standing at the left. But why they are together in this scene and what their peculiar postures denote remain a matter of speculation. More Paris Society

Giovanni Boldini, (1842-1931)
Celebration also known as Celebration at the Moulin Rouge, Circa 1889
(with familiar faces in the background!)
Oil on canvas
H. 96,8; W. 104,7 cm
Musée d'Orsay,

Here, Boldini is certainly depicting the Moulin-Rouge just after it opened in 1889. The establishment quickly became one of the hot spots of Parisian nightlife. The vigorous and dynamic brushstrokes and the liveliness of the red recreate the feeling of fun and freedom, sweeping along diners and dancers alike in a brilliantly rendered composition.
Before the Musée d'Orsay acquired it in 2010, this painting, certain parts of which remain as in sketch form, had only ever been exhibited once, in 1933 in New York. More the Moulin-Rouge

Giovanni Boldini (31 December 1842 in Ferrara, Italy – 11 July 1931 in Paris, France) was an Italian genre and portrait painter. According to a 1933 article in Time magazine, he was known as the "Master of Swish" because of his flowing style of painting. Boldini was born in Ferrara, the son of a painter of religious subjects, and in 1862 went to Florence for six years to study and pursue painting. He only infrequently attended classes at the Academy of Fine Arts, but in Florence, met other realist painters known as the Macchiaioli, who were Italian precursors to Impressionism. 

Moving to London, Boldini attained success as a portraitist. He completed portraits of premier members of society. From 1872 he lived in Paris, where he became a friend of Edgar Degas. He also became the most fashionable portrait painter in Paris in the late 19th century. He was nominated commissioner of the Italian section of the Paris Exposition in 1889, and received the Légion d'honneur for this appointment.

A Boldini portrait of his former muse Marthe de Florian, a French actress, was discovered in a Paris flat in late 2010, hidden away from view on the premises that were unvisited for 70 years. The portrait has never been listed, exhibited or published and the flat belonged to de Florian's granddaughter who went to live in the South of France at the outbreak of the Second World War and never returned. A love-note and a biographical reference to the work painted in 1888, when the actress was 24, cemented its authenticity. The full length portrait of the lady in the same clothing and accessories, but less provocative, hangs in the New Orleans Museum of Art. More

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