16 Classic Marine Paintings - With Footnotes, #21

Harry Hudson Rodmell, (1896–1984)
Gale Force 8: Trawler in a Rough Sea, mid-20th C–late 20th C
Oil on paper marouflage on board
457 x 55.9 cm
National Maritime Museum, London

A trawler is fishing vessel that uses a trawl, a conical net that snares fish by being dragged through the water or along the bottom.

Harry Hudson Rodmell (28 May 1896 – 3 March 1984) was an English painter and Commercial artist, specialising in marine art. He studied at Hull School of Art before enlisting in the Royal Engineers during World War I. After demobilisation, he was recruited by Ronald Massey, a London agent seeking nautical illustrations for publicity material. Subsequently he produced work for many of the major shipping lines including P & O, Canadian Pacific and the British India Line. His longest running commission was a series of calendars for the tugboat company William Watkins Ltd.

After serving with the Royal Observer Corps during World War II, his graphic design work was largely replaced by commissioned oil paintings of new vessels. These were often produced from plans so that a painting could be completed before the vessel was launched. More Rodmell

Harry Hudson Rodmell, (1896–1984)
Tramp Steamer
Oil on canvas
64 x 55 cm
Sewerby Hall Museum and Art Gallery, Bridlington, England

Tramp steamer, one of the two principal types of merchant ships as classified by operating method (the other is the ocean liner). The tramp steamer, in contrast to the liner, operates without a schedule, going wherever required to deliver its cargoes. The tramp is a descendant of the early merchant ships whose masters (who were also their owners) loaded them with cargo at home to sell abroad, and vice versa. Tramps are used mainly for carrying bulk commodities or homogeneous cargoes in whole shiploads, with each voyage separately negotiated between the ship’s owner and the shipper, usually through a broker. More on Tramp steamers

Harry Hudson Rodmell (28 May 1896 – 3 March 1984), see above

Arthur John Trevor Briscoe, (1873–1943)
Clewing Up the Mainsail in Heavy Weather, c. 1925
Oil on canvas
66 x 101.8 cm
National Maritime Museum

The waist of a ship, looking forward, is depicted in a heavy sea. The mainmast intersects the image to the left, with two bare-footed figures in rolled-up shirt-sleeves hauling on the mainsail clew-line, while on the far left another man in boots looks aloft, probably to men working on the unseen main yard above. The viewer is looking down on the action from the height of a deckhouse roof and the image is off-centre and at an angle to create a sensation of a heaving deck. The sky is light to the top right and the sea is shown coming over the lee gunwale, in this demonstration of all the actions associated with a sailing ship in a heavy sea. More on this painting

Arthur John Trevor Briscoe (1873–1943), see below

Edward Moran, 1829 - 1901
“First Recognition of the American Flag by a Foreign Government” 
Oil on canvas
U.S. Naval Academy

First Recognition of the American Flag by a Foreign Government, 14 February 1778 Painting in oils by Edward Moran, 1898. It depicts the Continental Navy Ship Ranger, commanded by Captain John Paul Jones, receiving the salute of the French fleet at Quiberon Bay, France, 14 February 1778. Earlier in the month, after receipt of news of the victory at Saratoga, France recognized the independence of the American colonies and signed a treaty of alliance with them. More on First Recognition of the American Flag

Andrew Doria was a brig purchased by the Continental Congress in November 1775. She is most famous for her participation in the Battle of Nassau—the first amphibious engagement by the Continental Navy and the Continental Marines—and for being the first United States vessel to receive a salute from a foreign power. More on The Andrew Doria

Edward Moran (August 19, 1829 in Bolton, Lancashire, England – June 8, 1901 in New York City) was an American artist of maritime paintings. Moran was born in England on August 19, 1829. Following in the footsteps of his father's profession, he learned to operate a hand-loom at a young age, though he would often be found sketching with charcoal on the white fabric instead of plying the shuttle. His family first emigrated to Maryland in 1844, and then to Philadelphia a year later.

It was in Philadelphia around 1845 that Edward apprenticed under James Hamilton and landscape painter Paul Weber; Hamilton guided Moran specifically in the style of marine paintings. In the 1850s Moran began to make a name for himself in the Philadelphia artistic scene; working in the same studio as his younger brother, famous American painter Thomas Moran, Edward received commissions and even completed some lithographic work. In 1862, he traveled to London and became a pupil in the Royal Academy. 

In 1885, at the height of his career, Moran began on what would be considered his most important work - a series of 13 paintings representing the Marine History of the United States. He chose to have thirteen paintings in the series because of the significance of the number in American history (13 colonies, 13 stars and stripes on the original US flag, etc.). The subjects include Leif Ericsson, Christopher Columbus, Hernando de Soto, Henry Hudson, and Admiral Dewey, among others.[3] Not long after their completion, the series was displayed at the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago. More on Edward Moran

Constantinos Volanakis, (Crete 1837 -. Piraeus June 29, 1907) 
The burning of a Turkish frigate
Oil on canvas
92 x 135 cm. (36.2 x 53.1 in.)
Private collection

"The Burning of a Turkish Frigate" depicts a strategic battle scheme used by Greek revolutionary fighters to attack their Turkish oppressors which eventually lead to the liberation of Greece. The tactic of attaching a small boat laden with explosives to the side of a frigate was used by maritime heroes such as Canaris, Papamanolis and Barbatsis. One of the most famous of such ambushes was the destruction of the 'Mansourija'. On the evening of 27 May 1821 the thirty-three-year-old freedom fighter Dimitris Papamanolis sailed his small vessel up to the port side of the frigate and set it ablaze. The devastating fire spread throughout the Turkish ship killing 600 sailors. More on this painting

Konstantinos Volanakis (1837, Heraklion - 29 June 1907, Piraeus) was a Greek painter who became known as the "father of Greek seascape painting". He completed his basic education on Syros in 1856. Afterward, urged on by his brothers, he went to Trieste and became an accountant for a family of Greek merchants who were related to his family by marriage. While there, he made sketches of ships and harbors in his account books. Rather than dismiss him, the family recognized his artistic talent, and made arrangements for him to study at the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich, under Karl von Piloty, joining a group of Greek students. His instructors discouraged any sort of landscape painting, because it was "in decline", so he concentrated on portraits.

His break came in 1869, three years after the Battle of Lissa, when Emperor Franz Joseph held a drawing competition to memorialize the event. Volanakis won the contest, receiving 1000 gold Florins and free travel cruises with the Austrian navy for three years. He took full advantage of this, producing numerous canvases and sketches. He married in 1874. Nine years later he returned to Greece and settled in Piraeus, where his family had a pottery factory.

From then until 1903, he was a teacher at the Athens School of Fine Arts. He also operated his own private school. In 1889, he was awarded the Silver Cross of the Order of the Redeemer. He was, however, very poor in his later years, due to his very large family and declining interest in his art. In an effort to increase his income, he reversed the usual method of painting first, then framing, by working with a group of framers who would make luxurious carved frames first, then creating paintings to fit them.

He died from complications related to a major hernia. Most of his works are in private collections. More Volanakis

Arthur Briscoe, (1873-1943)

Arthur John Trevor Briscoe (1873–1943) studied at the Slade School and at Julien's in Paris. He was a keen sailor and lived aboard his yacht for some years with his first wife and young son. He also sailed in square-riggers that were the inspiration for many of his paintings. He was a brilliant etcher as well as being successful in oils and watercolours. He was also a first-class cartoonist, his work regularly illustrated in 'Yachting Monthly', and he exhibited at the Royal Academy. More on Arthur John Trevor Briscoe

Thomas Devany Forrestall, b. 1936
14.0 x 18.7 in
Private Collection

Thomas DeVany Forrestall, painter (b at Middleton, NS 11 Mar 1936)After graduating in 1958 from MOUNT ALLISON UNIVERSITY, Tom Forrestall was assistant curator at the Beaverbrook Art Gallery in Fredericton (1959), but became a full-time painter the following year. His realistic works, often done in egg tempera, convey his ideas of the East Coast landscape and its dwellings. From the early 1960s, Forrestall experimented with panels shaped from triangles to T-forms, each chosen to fit his painterly ideas. He has also painted a large number of out-of-doors watercolours which express much the same ideas as his egg tempera works, but in a more relaxed and joyous mood. His watercolours, in contrast to his more metaphysical and individual canvases, form one long series and deal with a sense of place. He became an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1986. More on Thomas DeVany Forrestall

Marc-Aurèle Fortin, 1888 - 1970
Watercolour and charcoal
26.6 x 42.3 in
Private Collection

Marc-Aurèle Fortin (March 14, 1888 – March 2, 1970) was a Québécois painter, born in 1888 in Ste-Rose, Quebec. He studied art in Montreal and worked at the Montreal Post Office, and at an Edmonton bank. He studied art abroad. He was known for painting watercolour landscapes of the St. Lawrence Valley. He travelled around the St. Lawrence Valley by bicycle. Fortin believed that "Canadian artists should take their inspiration from the countryside and progress towards a national art... We should excel in landscapes, exactly as the French do".

He was part of the first Atelier exhibition at Henry Morgan Galleries in April 1932 together with Atelier founder John Goodwin Lyman, André Biéler, and Edwin Holgate. Fortin was exhibited by Galerie L'Art français from the 1940s.

His works are displayed at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts in Montreal. He was a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. He died in 1970. More Marc-Aurèle Fortin

Fritz Brandtner, 1896 - 1969
Coloured inks
7.9 x 8.1 in
Private Collection

Friedrich Wilhelm Brandtner (28 July 1896 – 1969), known during his life as Fritz Brandtner, was a German-Canadian artist and art instructor. At one time or another he worked as painter, printmaker, graphic artist, illustrator, muralist, and set designer.

Brandtner emigrated to Canada from Germany in 1928. Following a short stay in Winnipeg he settled in Montreal in 1934. A prolific artist and thinker, he actively participated in the cultural life of Canada. He was a member of the Contemporary Arts Society in Montreal, serving as its first secretary. He was also a passionate art-educator. More on Friedrich Wilhelm Brandtner

 William "St. Thomas" Smith
27.1 x 41.3 in
Private Collection

William "St. Thomas" Smith (1862-1947) was born in Belfast, Ireland and died at St. Thomas, Ontario. His family emigrated to Canada when he was a child and settled at Beaverton, Ontario. He received his art training at the Ontario College of Art and reputedly it was there he received the nickname of "St. Thomas" to differentiate him from another art student also named "William Smith". Later he worked in the studio of J. W. L. Forster and formed a close friendship with Curtis Williamson. Their choice of Barbizon subjects influenced his early paintings. After marrying a local artist and teacher, Smith settled permanently in St. Thomas, Ontario and by 1887, was part of the art staff at Alma College. He traveled widely in Canada, Great Britain and Europe during his long career. Most of his work was in the medium of watercolour usually choosing landscape and seascapes as subjects. St. Thomas Smith was one of the early impressionistic painters and specialized in using a watercolour wet paper technique to achieve atmospheric effects. His art was exhibited at the Ontario Society of Artists, the Royal Canadian Academy, the Toronto Industrial Exhibition and many commercial galleries. Smith’s career was highlighted by an honorary degree from the University of Western Ontario in 1940 and a retrospective by our institution in 1947. More on William St. Thomas Smith

Dominic Serres, R.A. (Auch 1722 - 1793 London)
Oil on canvas
25 by 47 7/8 in.
Private Collection

The painting depicts an important action during the Revolutionary War, shortly after the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Having defeated the Continental Army at the Battle of White Plains, General Howe ordered a small squadron of British war ships, under the command of Captain Hyde Parker in H.M.S. Phoenix, to occupy the Hudson River and prevent the remaining Continental troops on Manhattan Island from receiving supplies in preparation for his assault on Fort Washington. Serres illustrates the Phoneix, together with H.M.S. Roebuck, under the command of Captain A.S. Hammond, H.M.S. Tartar, commanded by Captain George Jackson, and three smaller vessels forcing their way through a cheval-de-frise, comprised of artificial barriers and sunken vessels defending the north part of the river. 

Dominic Serres, R.A. (Auch 1722 - 1793 London)
Oil on canvas
25 by 47 7/8 in.
Private Collection

Dominic Serres, R.A. (Auch 1722 - 1793 London)

On the right lies Fort Washington, on a large outcrop at the northern end of Manhattan, with its several shore batteries engaging the enemy at close range, whilst from the left the British forces are bombarded by the guns of Fort Lee, sitting atop the New Jersey Palisades. Despite the heavy bombardment Captain Parker and his fleet passed successfully through, capturing two gunboats in the process, and he was subsequently knighted in 1779 for his heroic efforts.

Dominic Serres the Elder RA (1722 - 1793)
English Frigates in the Channel, c. 1789
Pen and grey ink and watercolour on a laid paper
124 mm x 181 mm
Royal Academy of Arts

In the 18th century, Frigate referred to ships that were usually as long as a ship of the line and were square-rigged on all three masts (full rigged), but were faster and with lighter armament, used for patrolling and escort. In the definition adopted by the British Admiralty, they were rated ships of at least 28 guns, carrying their principal armaments upon a single continuous deck — the upper deck — while ships of the line possessed two or more continuous decks bearing batteries of guns. More on Frigates

Dominic Serres RA (1722–1793), also known as Dominic Serres the Elder, was a French-born painter strongly associated with the English school of painting, and with paintings with a naval or marine theme. Such were his connections with the English art world, that he became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768, and was later briefly (from 1792 until his death) its librarian.

Born in Auch, Gascony, he was initially expected to train as a priest but instead travelled to Spain and became a ship's captain, sailing to Cuba. He was taken prisoner by the British navy towards the end of the 1740s and eventually settled in London in about 1758, where it is believed he trained as a painter in Northamptonshire and later in London under Charles Brooking. If Serres did not settle in London until 1758, however, he could not have studied for long under Charles Brooking, since Brooking was buried on 25 March 1759.

Reflecting his early career, many of his paintings have naval themes. Working for a publisher documenting the events in the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), he painted a series of depictions including the capture of Havana in 1762. He also painted events in the American Revolutionary War, such as the disastrous Penobscot Expedition launched by the Americans in 1779. In 1780, he was appointed Marine Painter to King George III.

Serres died in 1793, and was buried at St. Marylebone Old Church. His eldest son John Thomas Serres (1759–1825) also became a prolific marine artist. More on Dominic Serres

Robert Salmon (1775 - c. 1845)
STORMY SEAS, c. 1827
Oil on panel
12 1/4 by 17 3/4 in.
Private Collection

Robert SalmonAmerican, born England, 1775 - c. 1845, was born in Whitehaven, a port situated on the northwest coast of England. Although his artistic beginnings are unknown, his career can be divided into two periods. Between 1800 and 1828 he lived in England and Scotland, and his work faithfully recorded the environs of Liverpool and Greenock. Salmon's style at this time reflected the influence of Dutch maritime painters. In many of his paintings, he adopted the low horizon and clear, sparkling light effects typical of Dutch seascapes.

After 1828 Salmon moved to Boston. Although he was regarded as an eccentric, solitary man, he was highly thought of as an artist, and he soon became a leading maritime painter in the area. His paintings were admired for their detailed panoramic views of Boston's wharves and shorelines. While in Boston, Salmon also worked in the lithography studio of William S. Pendleton with Fitz Hugh Lane, during which time his maritime paintings became a model for Lane's work. More on Robert Salmon

Robert Salmon, (1775 - c. 1845)
Oil on panel
23.5 x 29.21 cm. (9.3 x 11.5 in.)
Private collection

Acknowledgement: WADDINGTONS, Sotheby's

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07 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, #11

Orientalism is a term that is used for the depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern cultures. It refers to the works of the Western artists on Oriental subjects, produced from their travels in Western Asia, during the 19th century. Depictions of Islamic "Moors" and "Turks" can be found in Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque art. A creative apprehension of a completely different world with its own laws, customs, special attitude towards life and death, love, feelings, and beauty. Wikipedia/Yana Naumovna Lukashevskaya

Henri Emilien Rousseau, French, 1875-1933 
Cavalier des Ouled Sidi-Cheikh/ Rider of the Ouled Sidi-Cheikh
Oil on board 
6 3/8 x 4 3/4 inches
Private collection

Sidi Sheikh Ben Abu Bekr was a holy marabout, descending in direct line from Abu Bakr , the companion of the Prophet Muhammad, the first caliph of Islam, and his descendants in their genealogy, uninterrupted, go up to Adam . It would be seen very badly, in the Algerian Sahara, if this ancient and venerable nobility were disputed.

Sidi Sheikh according to legend, was a person of exemplary piety and holiness, with the gift of performing miracles, which he passed on to his posterity and especially to the eldest of his descendants. He had an immense influence over all the populations between the border of Morocco and Jebel Amour. More on Sidi Sheikh Ben Abu Bekr

Henri Rousseau Henry, Emilien Rousseau (Cairo 1875 - Aix-en-Provence in 1933) is an Orientalist painter. A pupil of Jean-Léon Gérôme at the Beaux Arts in Paris, he won the second Grand Prix de Rome in 1900 and a travel grant at the Salon of French Artists. He traveled to Belgium, the Netherlands, North Africa, Spain and Italy where he admired the great masters (Rubens, Rembrandt, Velasquez, Murillo, the Titian, Raphael etc ...)

After this initiatory journey, he settled in Versailles and set up his studio at the Villa des Arts in Paris. In 1919 he moved to Aix in Provence with his large family (seven children). Knight of the Legion of Honour in arts. His work  is dedicated to Tunisia, Algeria and especially Morocco, Provence and the Camargue remained its anchor points. His success was with a bourgeois and wealthy clientele, where he sold his work at numerous exhibitions in Paris, Brussels, Stockholm, Marseilles. More Henri Rousseau

Anders Zorn, (1860–1920)
Oil on canvas
Private collection

Quay rowers , also known as Turkish rowers in the port of Constantinople , is a watercolor painting by Anders Zorn from 1886 that is available in four versions. The first two are owned by public institutions, the Zorn collections in Mora and the National Museum in Stockholm , while the latter two are part of private collections.

It was in Constantinople that Zorn laid the foundation for his interest in water surfaces. He was also fascinated by the slender rowing boats called kaik, its rowers and the lively shimmering city buildings that loom in the background of the picture. "I soon began to paint on the water," he writes in his memoirs, thus revealing that he was sitting in the stern of the boat, from where he was able to study the whole muscular rower's muscle game.

On the first version, the Mora version, Zorn has written "Constantinople Jan 86" in the lower right corner. The second (slightly smaller) version, which the National Museum calls a Turkish rower in the port of Constantinople , is also made in Constantinople. However, the third and possibly also the fourth are painted in Paris. The Mora version focuses on the quay rowing and the power of his movements. In the background of the image, the contours of Topkapi Palace on Seraljudden are glimpsed. In the second version, more details have been added, including an oncoming quay and a larger sailing ship in the background. The two later paintings are slightly larger and contain an image composition similar to the painting at the National Museum. The version available in the National Museumcollections were bequeathed to the museum in 1892 by Gustaf Maurits Lamm , cousin of Emma Zorn. More on this painting

Anders Leonard Zorn (18 February 1860 – 22 August 1920) was one of Sweden's foremost artists. He obtained international success as a painter, sculptor and etcher. From 1875 to 1880 Zorn studied at the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts in Stockholm. Members of Stockholm society approached him with commissions. Zorn traveled extensively to London, Paris, the Balkans, Spain, Italy and the United States, becoming an international success as one of the most acclaimed painters of his era. It was primarily his skill as a portrait painter that gained Zorn international acclaim based principally upon his incisive ability to depict the individual character of his model. At 29, he was made a Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur at the Exposition Universelle 1889 Paris World Fair. More Anders Leonard Zorn

Georges Washington, (French, 1827-1910)
The hunt 
Oil on panel
22 x 41cm (8 11/16 x 16 1/8in)
Private collection

George Washington, born 15 September 1827 in Marseille and died November 19, 1901 in Douarnenez, was a French Orientalist painter. The young Georges Washington moved to Paris, where he trained at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. The artist’s exotic style was  indebted to Eugène Delacroix. Washington’s love of the Middle East and its customs was further enhanced and encouraged by his father-in-law, the military and Orientalist painter Henri-Félix-Emmanuel Philippoteaux (1815-1884), whose daughter Anne-Léonie Philippoteaux married Washington in Paris on 6th August 1859.

Not long after finishing his training at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Washington embarked on the first of a number of trips to Algeria and based on close observation of its inhabitants, their dress and customs in 1857 he made his Paris debut at the Salon des Artistes Français with a view of nomads titled Plaine du Hoiina (Sahara Algérien). From then up until 1901 Washington continued to be a popular exhibitor at the Salon; one of his first works shown there to gain critical acclaim was Nomades dans le Sahara en Hiver. In addition to Paris, Washington also showed his work in Moscow in 1881 and was later posthumously honoured when four of his paintings were included in the Exposition Coloniale de Marseille in 1906.

Following two commissions from a Belgian company, he travelled to Morocco and then subsequently visited Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey, which were to inspire his varied subjects including battle scenes and cavalry skirmishes. His travels also took him to America for the unveiling in Philadelphia of a cyclorama  of the Battle of Gettysburg by his brother-in-law Paul-Dominique Philippoteaux (1846-1923).

Following the death of his wife he retired to live with his daughter and son-in-law at Douarnenez on the Brittany coast, where he died shortly after on 19th November 1901. More George Washington

Alexander M. Rossi, (British, 1840-1916)
Reflection, c. 1896
Oil on canvas
77.5 x 55.5cm (30 1/2 x 21 7/8in)
Private collection

Alexander Mark Rossi (1840 – 9 January 1916) was a successful British artist specializing in genre works who flourished in the late 19th century. He was born on the Greek Island of Corfu, the son of Dr Mark Rossi, an Italian who was one of the three judges presiding over the Ionian Islands during the time of British rule. On a visit to Preston, England in 1866, Rossi met and later married Jane Gillow. He remained in the United Kingdom thereafter. In the 1870s he moved to London.

Between 1871 and 1903, Rossi exhibited 66 works at the Royal Academy and was also a member of the Hogarth Club. Many of his paintings were of children and young adults, the models often being members of his own family. He died in Golders Green, London on 9 January 1916. More on Alexander Mark Rossi 

HOVSEP PUSHMAN, 1877 - 1966
Guardian of the Seraglio (the women's apartments (harem))
Oil on canvas
43 1/4 by 25 1/4 inches (109.8 by 64.1 cm)
Private collection

Hovsep Pushman, 1877 - 1966, a naturalized American citizen, was born in Armenia in 1877. At age 11, he held a scholarship at the Constantinople Academy of Art. By 17, he had gone to the United States and started teaching art in Chicago. He studied the culture of China, immersing himself in oriental art and perhaps philosophy. He then studied in Paris. He exhibited his work at the Salon des Artistes Francais in Paris, winning a bronze medal in 1914 and a silver medal in 1921. He also was awarded the California Art Club’s Ackerman Prize in 1918.

Pushman’s artistic identity began to take shape after he opened his own studio in 1921. Thereafter, Pushman’s career was devoted to one subject, oriental mysticism, and one form, the still life. His paintings typically featured oriental idols, pottery and glassware, all glowing duskily as if illuminated by candlelight. They were symbolic, spiritual paintings, and were sometimes accompanied by readings, which help explain their allegorical significance. 

Pushman died in 1966 in New York City. More on Hovsep Pushman

Oil on cardboard
35 x 24,1 cm ; 13 3/4 by 9 3/8 in.
Private collection

José Cruz Herrera (1 October 1890 – 11 August 1972) was a Spanish painter who concentrated principally on genre works and landscape art. He worked in Spain, Uruguay, Argentina, France and especially Morocco, where he lived for much of his life in Casablanca.

His talent was soon apparent and he began formal training in Cádiz. He continued his studies at the School of Fine Arts in Madrid before being awarded a grant to study in Paris and Rome in 1915. He subsequently received several more awards. He concentrated on genre works and landscapes, but he is best known as an orientalist painter, with a particular faculty for producing atmospheric depictions of scenes of everyday life in Morocco.

Cruz Herrera travelled to Montevideo in Uruguay and Buenos Aires in Argentina in 1922. He went to Morocco in 1929. He subsequently established a studio at Neuilly-sur-Seine, just outside Paris, and contributed to collective exhibitions in 1934, 1935 and 1936 at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. He also exhibited solo at various times in Madrid, Barcelona and London in 1912, Antwerp in 1931, Casablanca in 1933, and Paris in 1934.

 After the end of the Spanish Civil War in 1939, he returned to Morocco. The following year Spain awarded Cruz Herrera a Knight's Cross in the Order of Isabella the Catholic, followed by a knighthood in the Civil Order of Alfonso X, the Wise in 1958. He died on 11 August 1972 in Casablanca but his remains were transferred back to La Línea to be buried there. More on José Cruz Herrera 

Alberto Pasini, (Italian, 1826-1899)
Landscape with Arab horsemen , c. 1857
Oil on canvas
66 x 41cm (26 x 16 1/8in)
Private collection

Alberto Pasini (Busseto, 3 September 1826 – Cavoretto, 15 December 1899) was an Italian painter. He was enrolled at the age of 17 years, in the Academy of Fine Art of Parma, studying landscape painting and drawing. In Parma, he was helped early on by Antonio Pasini, who painted for the local nobility and collaborated with the publishing house established by Giovanni Battista Bodoni. By 1852, he exhibited a series of thirty designs, made into lithographs, depicting various castles around Piacenza, Lunigiana and Parma. He was noticed by the artist Paolo Toschi, who encouraged Pasini to travel to Paris, where Pasini first joined the workshop of Charles and Eugène Ciceri, of the so-called School of Barbizon.

In 1853 his lithograph of The Evening gained him admittance to the Paris Salon, and to the workshop of the famous Théodore Chassériau. The eruption of the Crimean War offered a new opportunity, when in February 1855, this latter painter recommended Pasini to replace him on the entourage of the French plenipotentiary minister Nicolas Prosper Bourée to Persia. Pasini accompanied him, returning through the north of Persia and Armenia before reaching the port of Trebizond. In subsequent trips, he visited Egypt, the Red Sea, Arabia, Istanbul, and Persia. Pasini parlayed his exposures during this trip into numerous highly detailed paintings of orientalist subjects. He left again for Istanbul in October 1867, summoned by the French Ambassador Bourée. He returned to Turkey in 1876 to execute the four paintings commissioned by Sultan Abdul Aziz. He was about to return to Istanbul the next year, when his patron, the Sultan, died.

In 1865, he spent some time in Cannes, painted landscapes of the Riviera. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, he returned to Italy, settling in Cavoretto, on the hills around Turin. He continued to travel, closer to his home, with trips to Venice and two sojourns in Spain in 1879 and 1883. More Alberto Pasini 

Please visit my other blogs: Art CollectorMythologyMarine ArtPortrait of a Lady, The OrientalistArt of the Nude and The Canals of VeniceMiddle East Artists365 Saints and 365 Days, also visit my Boards on Pinterest

Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others. Some Images may be subject to copyright

I don't own any of these images - credit is always given when due unless it is unknown to me. if I post your images without your permission, please tell me.

I do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

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Thank you for visiting my blog and also for liking its posts and pages.

Please note that the content of this post primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.