Monday, March 26, 2018

01 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 15

Edmund Berninger, (1843 Arnstadt - 1910 Munich)
Bedouin rest in the desert
24 x 32 cm
Private collection

Partly unfinished desert view with a group of Bedouins resting near the mountains under blue sky in the sunshine.

Edmund Berninger (1843 Arnstadt - 1910 Munich) was a landscape painter and watercolourist. Berninger was born in Thüringia and abandoned an early career as a pharmacist in favour of training as an artist in Weimar under Theodor Hagen. Settling in Munich in 1874, he then spent several years travelling around Europe, North Africa and the Near East. He produced paintings, oil sketches and watercolours of sites in England, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Greece, Constantinople, Egypt (where he is thought to have lived for several years), Palestine, Algeria and Tunisia. He painted views of Jerusalem and Cairo, as well as richly coloured landscapes and scenes of Oriental markets and caravans. Berninger also worked as an illustrator, and painted a number of large-scale public works in the form of panoramas (including Egyptian landscapes and battle scenes) and dioramas. More on Edmund Berninger

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Sunday, March 25, 2018

10 Ancient Egyptian Engravings & Carvings- With footnotes - 7

Egyptian Tomb Model of Bakery and Brewery
Middle Kingdom
 8.1" L x 11" W (20.6 cm x 27.9 cm)

Ancient Egypt, Middle Kingdom, late 11th Dynasty to early 12th Dynasty, ca. 2060 to 1900 BCE. A wooden and plaster model made for a tomb showing two men sealing and stoppering beer jars and a third kneading bread dough. The figures are wood and their components are a hard, white plaster, painted in shades of red. They are mounted on a piece of wood that likely came from an old box or chest recycled by the artist.

Egyptian Tomb Model of Bakery and Brewery

During the Sixth Dynasty, it became common to place wooden models of lifelike scenes in Egyptian tombs; by the Middle Kingdom, they were placed in the tomb chamber, around the coffin, although some very rich tombs had a separate chamber just for wooden models. 

Egyptian Tomb Model of Bakery and Brewery

Baking and brewing were frequent subjects of tomb models, symbolizing the range of food offerings that would have been described on the stelae and tomb reliefs that led to the main tomb chamber. These figures were also made to work throughout the afterlife, creating the bread and beer that the deceased would need. More

Egyptian Polychrome Temple Fragment of Woman
Middle Kingdom
2.3" W x 6.3" H (5.8 cm x 16 cm)

Egypt, Middle Kingdom, ca. 2050 to 1640 BCE. A pottery temple fragment showing a standing woman in relief with remains of orange and red pigment especially on its lower half that give us a clue to how brightly it would have originally been painted. 

The woman is depicted facing forward with her hands at her sides. Her torso and head are well proportioned and graceful, but her feet, arms, and hands in particular are too large for her body. Middle Kingdom sculpture often emphasized hands and feet; when originally painted, this statue probably had fingernails and toenails. During the Middle Kingdom, we see statues of women who are portrayed very similarly to this one - small breasts and the symmetrical face with the large wig, all beauty standards of the time. These idealized forms probably corresponded to a desire to depict people as they would like to be resurrected. More

Egyptian Painted Wood Sarcophagus Panel of Nut
Late Period, ca. 715 to 330 BCE
62" L x 16" H (157.5 cm x 40.6 cm), with case 66-3/4"H x 20-1/4"W (169.5 cm x 51.4 cm).

Egypt, Late Period, ca. 715 to 330 BCE. Painted wood panel from the back of a sarcophagus depicting the goddess Nut, with bright colors, especially the deep red. Professionally mounted in wood case with glass cover. Case includes brackets for wall mounting. 

Nut (also Nunut, Nuit) was the goddess and personification of the Sky and the celestial realm. She is regarded as the barrier separating the ordered cosmos of the world from the forces of chaos. In some depictions, Nut was portrayed as a woman arched on her toes and fingertips over the earth; her sacred body representing a star-filled sky. Nut's fingers and toes as such were believed to touch the four cardinal directions: north, south, east, and west. According to Egyptian mythology, Nut is a daughter of Shu ("he who rises up" or the personification of air) and Tefnut (goddess of moisture, dew, and rain); her husband and brother is Geb (god of the earth, father of snakes, whose laughter could bring about earthquakes and fertile crops), and she has four children: Osiris, Set, Isis, and Nephthys. Nut was also granddaughter of Ra or Atum, the creator god. The Coffin Texts describe Nut as "she of the braided hair who bore the gods". In one fascinating myth, Nut gives birth to the Sun-god each day, and he passes over her body during the day only to be swallowed at night and reborn the next morning. More

Egyptian Pottery Jarlet - Protective God Bes
Late Period, Dynasties 26 to 31, ca. 664 to 332 BCE
3.25" W x 3.75" H (8.3 cm x 9.5 cm)

Egypt, Late Period, Dynasties 26 to 31, ca. 664 to 332 BCE. A fine brownware pottery molded juglet depicting the head of Bes, a protector deity, with small perforated lug or handle to the left side of his head. Bes is depicted as a dwarf with a lion's mane, his tongue extended in an open 'bearded' mouth. 

Bes, the bandy-legged leonine dwarf god, was an apotropaic deity, the protector of the home, children, and women in pregnancy and childbirth. In his role as protector of the home he was thought to dispel bad dreams, and by increasing virility in men and fertility in women, he was seen as a symbol of fecundity.When depicted in full form, he is generally depicted nude, wearing a lion's mane, a plumed headdress, and a tail. He is also seen dancing, brandishing a sword, or frightening off evil spirits by playing music. Bes continued to be a popularly depicted protective deity well into the Graeco-Roman Period. More Bes

Ptolemaic Egyptian Terracotta - Probably Serapis
Greco-Roman/Ptolemaic period, from Alexandria, ca. 323 to 30 BCE
2.85" W x 5.2" H (7.2 cm x 13.2 cm)

Egypt, Greco-Roman/Ptolemaic period, from Alexandria, ca. 323 to 30 BCE. This is an interesting and fairly unique terracotta figure, depicting a bearded man's face in the body of what may be a knotted phallus. Atop the man's head is a modius, a flat-topped cylindrical headdress that probably represents a grain measure, symbolizing fertility. The figure is clearly mold-made from two pieces, with fine details.

Serapis or Sarapis is a Graeco-Egyptian god. The cult of Serapis was introduced during the 3rd century BC on the orders of Ptolemy I of Egypt as a means to unify the Greeks and Egyptians in his realm. The god was depicted as Greek in appearance, but with Egyptian trappings, and combined iconography from a great many cults, signifying both abundance and resurrection. A serapeum was any temple or religious precinct devoted to Serapis. The cultus of Serapis was spread as a matter of deliberate policy by the Ptolemaic kings, who also built an immense serapeum in Alexandria.

Bust of Serapis. Marble
Early 3rd century AD, found in Carthage, Tunisia.
H. 62 cm (2 ft. ¼ in.)
Louvre Museum

However, there is evidence which implies that cult of Serapis existed before the Ptolemies came to power in Alexandria. The common assertion that Ptolemy "created" the deity is derived from sources which describe him erecting a statue of Sarapis in Alexandria: this statue enriched the texture of the Sarapis conception by portraying him in both Egyptian and Greek style. Though Ptolemy I may have created the cult of Sarapis and endorsed him as a patron of the Ptolemaic dynasty and Alexandria, Sarapis was a syncretistic deity derived from the worship of the Egyptian Osiris and Apis and also gained attributes from other deities, such as chthonic powers linked to the Greek Hades and Demeter, and benevolence linked to Dionysus.

Serapis continued to increase in popularity during the Roman period, often replacing Osiris as the consort of Isis in temples outside Egypt. In 389, a Christian mob led by the Patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria destroyed the Alexandrian serapeum, but the cult survived until all forms of pagan religion were suppressed under Theodosius I in 391. More Serapis

Romano-Egyptian Plaster Mummy Bust
1st century BCE to 1st century CE
14" W x 15.75" H (35.6 cm x 40 cm)

Ancient Egypt, Romano-Egyptian Period, ca. 1st century BCE to 1st century CE. A large plaster bust of a young man, painted brightly; he wears a well-depicted chiton/tunica painted a dark red; above that, his face is sensitive, with the huge eyes so characteristic of Egyptian art, a long, straight nose, and a small mouth. His hair is black, with a low hairline, and pulled back in tight lines. 

This piece was created for a funerary monument, designed to be placed up against a surface. Made of plaster, this type of monument, similar to a mummy mask, was reserved for elites. They also represented a dramatic change, departing from centuries of tradition. For the first time in the Roman period, Egyptian mummies were buried with lifelike representations rather than the mummiform masks seen in previous periods. To the Roman viewer, this piece may also have had similarities to gods like Apollo - an idealized image of the young man in death, created at great expense to memorialize him and for those who mourned him. More

Egyptian Alexandrian Terracotta Figure of Nude Isis
1st century BCE to 1st century CE
7.875" H (20 cm); 8.875" H (22.5 cm)

Egypt, Alexandria, 1st century BCE to 1st century CE. An alluring terracotta figure depicting the goddess Isis, standing in the nude with arms at her sides, presenting a beautiful visage with naturalistic features and long tresses cascading past her shoulders, topped with an Isis crown comprised of a solar disk framed by cow horns, her chief attribute. Nice remains of red, white, and blue pigments. 

Isis is oftentimes depicted in a sheath dress, but in this example the artist elected to depict her in the nude, revealing the ideal of Egyptian womanhood with all her feminine grace. Isis was daughter to Geb, god of the Earth, and Nut, goddess of the Sky, and wife of Osiris. Oftentimes shown as the mother of Horus, she is also known as a protector of children. In addition to being revered as the ideal mother and wife, Isis was revered as the patroness of magic and nature, a supporter of sinners, slaves, and artisans as well as a friend to rulers and the wealthy. More Isis

Romano-Egyptian Terracotta Votive - Jupiter w/ Eagle
 30 BCE to 2nd century CE
3.6" W x 5" H (9.1 cm x 12.7 cm) 

Egypt, Romano-Egyptian period, ca. 30 BCE to 2nd century CE. This hollow terracotta figural shows Jupiter (Zeus) seated with an eagle. This is the Aetos Dios, a giant golden eagle that served as the king of the gods' personal messenger and companion. These two together were a powerful symbol in Romanized Egypt, and indeed had been since the Ptolemies (Ptolemy III used this symbol on coinage). A plaque like this was made for votive purposes, to be given as an offering in a temple. More

Acknowledgement: Artemis Gallery,  Invaluable

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Monday, March 19, 2018

13 Ancient Egyptian Artefacts - With footnotes - 5 - With footnotes

Romano-Egyptian, ca. 1st century BCE to 1st century CE. Heavy gold foil formed into the likeness of a Nile crocodile. Incredibly detailed with open mouth exposing rows of deadly teeth, almond-shaped eyes and rows and rows of scaley scutes with pronounced central dorsal ridge. Size: 6.875" L (17.5 cm), 37.1 grams of 97% pure gold.

Sobek was a Crocodile god venerated at Crocodilopolis in the Faiyum, which was an important oracular centre during the Graeco-Roman Period, and, together with Haroeris (Horus the Elder), in the twin-temple at Kom Ombo where a crocodile necropolis was discovered. Seti I referred to him as Lord of Silsileh where he had a temple during the 19th dynasty. As god of the water he created the Nile from his sweat and caused plants to be lush and green, one of the traditional roles of Osiris. More

Egyptian blue composition head of a man, Roman Period

An Egyptian blue composition head of a man, Roman Period, c. 1st Century AD, perhaps a pharaoh or emperor, wearing tight-fitting headdress with uraeus, his face quite handsome, his ears outside the headdress. H: 2 ½ in (6.4 cm).

Ancient Egyptian Wooden Boatman with Articulated Arms

Ancient Egypt, Middle Kingdom, ca. 2040 to 1802 BCE. A hand-carved, three-dimensional wooden boatman, with classic Egyptian face (large, dark-outlined eyes), a cropped haircut, and a white loincloth. He is in a seated position, with long, articulated arms, which probably would have been raised to hold oars in his original placement. During the Sixth Dynasty, it became common to place wooden models of lifelike scenes in Egyptian tombs; by the Middle Kingdom, they were placed in the tomb chamber, around the coffin, although some very rich tombs had a separate chamber just for wooden models. Two ships are found in almost all tombs that have models from this time period, and those ships are, during the Middle Kingdom, staffed by boatmen like this one. This boatman was made to be a servant in the afterlife, ready to row the deceased upon the eternal Nile, as real boatmen would have done in life. Size: 2.6" W x 6.6" H (6.6 cm x 16.8 cm) 

Egyptian Wooden Boatman with Articulated Arms

Ancient Egypt, Middle Kingdom, ca. 2040 to 1802 BCE. A hand-carved, three-dimensional wooden boatman, with a painted face, a cropped haircut, painted reddish skin, and a white loincloth. Size: 2.3" W x 7.8" H (5.8 cm x 19.8 cm) 

Large Egyptian Pottery Astarte Figure

Egypt, New Kingdom or earlier, ca. 1543 to 1292 BCE. A large hollow pottery figure of a female goddess with a voluptuous body and a large headdress. She wears jewelry and very little clothing. Her hair is long, straight, and painted black; atop her head is a massive headdress topped by what appears to be four ostrich feathers. Although the figure is painted, it also has the look of being a mold for a bronze statue; it may have served a dual purpose. Astarte is the goddess who is also known as Ishtar in some parts of Mesopotamia. During the 18th Dynasty, she arrived in Egypt, brought by contact with Semitic people. She was worshipped in Egypt as a warrior goddess and often paired with the violent war goddess Anat. Size: 5.25" W x 18.3" H (13.3 cm x 46.5 cm) 

Egyptian Deep Blue Faience Amulet of Sekhmet

Egypt, New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, Amarna Period, ca. 1353 BCE. A small faience amulet in the shape of a bust of Sekhmet. The goddess, a fierce hunter, is depicted as a lioness wearing a traditional Egyptian crown (the uraeus has broken off). She was prayed to as a protector of pharaohs and led them in warfare. Size: 0.55" W x 0.95" H (1.4 cm x 2.4 cm) 

Egyptian Faience Thoth Baboon Amulet

Egypt, Third Intermediate Period to Late Dynastic Period, ca. 1070 to 332 BCE. A highly-detailed faience amulet of the god Thoth in his baboon form. Thoth was the god of writing, accounting, and other intellectual pursuits, associated with the ibis and the baboon. 0.75" W x 1.6" H (1.9 cm x 4.1 cm) 

Egyptian White Faience Ushabti

Egypt, probably Memphis, New Kingdom, Ramesside period, Dynasty XIX, ca. 1279 to 1193 BCE. Mummiform votive ushabti, white faience with transparent glaze, details in black, wearing a short wig with sidelock (wick of youth) and a small goatee, adorned with a broad usekh collar, holding agricultural implements in each hand, seed sack on the back and a column of hieroglyphic inscriptions on front naming “Rema” as the owner. Translation is "The iIluminated one, the Osiris, Sem Priest of Ptah, r m a."   Size: 5.625" H (14.3 cm)

Egyptian terracotta figure of Harpokrates on horseback

A large Egyptian terracotta figure of Harpokrates on horseback, Roman, c. 1st - 2nd Century AD, dressed in a short tunic and wears a large bound wreath and a Double Crown, his left hand on the horse’s head, right hand on its flank. H: 9 in (23cm), W: 6 4/5 in (17.3cm). 

Silver statuette representing Harpocrates
Greco-Roman, Dynasty Ptolemaic , 350-30 BC

Harpokrates. In late Greek mythology as developed in Ptolemaic Alexandria, Harpocrates is the god of silence, secrets and confidentiality. Harpocrates was adapted by the Greeks from the Egyptian child god Horus. To the ancient Egyptians, Horus represented the newborn Sun, rising each day at dawn. When the Greeks conquered Egypt under Alexander the Great, they transformed the Egyptian Horus into their Hellenistic god known as Harpocrates. More

 Isis (on the left, holding a sistrum), Sarapis (wearing a modius), the child Harpocrates (holding a cornucopia) and Dionysos (holding the thyrsus). Marble relief, last quarter of the 2nd century CE, found at Henchir el-Attermine, Tunisia.
H. 1.92 m (6 ft. 3 ½ in.), W. 83 cm (32 ½ in.)
Louvre Museum

Louvre Museum

Nefertem was, in Egyptian mythology, originally a lotus flower at the creation of the world, who had arisen from the primal waters. Nefertem represented both the first sunlight and the delightful smell of the Egyptian blue lotus flower, having arisen from the primal waters within an Egyptian blue water-lily, Nymphaea caerulea. 

Nefertem the child comes from his earth father Nun's black primordial waters, and his sky mother is Nut. When he matures, he is Ra.

Nefertem was eventually seen as the son of the Creator god Ptah, and the goddesses Sekhmet and Bast were sometimes called his mother. In art, Nefertem is usually depicted as a beautiful young man having blue water-lily flowers around his head. As the son of Bastet, he also sometimes has the head of a lion or is a lion or cat reclining. The ancient Egyptians often carried small statuettes of him as good-luck charms. More

God Shu holding the sky above his head
Cairo Museum

Shu (Egyptian for "emptiness" and "he who rises up") was one of the primordial Egyptian gods, a personification of air, one of the Ennead of Heliopolis. Shu was the father of Nut and Geb and grandfather of Osiris, Isis, Set and Nephthys. His great-grandsons are Anubis and Horus. More

Acknowledgement: Artemis GalleryAncient Resource

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1606 - 1669
Etching with engraving and drypoint, circa 1631, a good impression of this scarce print, the rare second state (of five), a previously unrecorded state between New Hollstein's fourth and fifth state (of ten), before the lengthening of the hair sheet: 63 by 56mm 2½ by 2¼in

1606 - 1669
(B., HOLL. 17; NEW HOLL. 120; H. 108)
Etching, 1633, a very good impression of the second (final) state, New Hollstein's second state (of five), before the wear usually seen in this print, framed plate: 132 by 103mm 5¼ by 4 1/8 in sheet: 136 by 108mm 5 3/8 by 4¼in

1606 - 1669
(B., HOLL. 18; NEW HOLL. 134; H. 109)
Etching with engraving, 1634, a good though slightly later impression of the second (final) state, with only slight wear in the right cheek, framed, plate: 124 by 102mm 5 by 4in, sheet: 140 by 116mm 5½ by 4½in

1606 - 1669
(B., HOLL. 220; NEW HOLL. 218; H. 206)
Etching, 1644, a good, early impression of this rare print, the only state, with scratches in the sky and sulphur-tinting in the sky, printing with burr in the foliage at right plate: 95 by 68mm 3¾ by 2 5/8 in

1606 - 1669
(B., HOLL. 81 II); NEW HOLL. 119; H. 103)
Etching with engraving, 1633, a good impression of the third state (of five), New Hollstein's fourth state (of eight), on paper with a Heraldic watermark, possibly Arms of Bern, sheet: 525 by 407mm 20 5/8 by 16in

1606 - 1669
 (B., HOLL. 44; NEW HOLL. 125; H. 120)
Etching with engraving and drypoint, 1634, a good impression of the third (final) state, New Hollstein's third state (of six), with touches of burr on the angel's face, sheep and elsewhere, on paper with a Foolscap watermark
sheet: 256 by 218mm 10 1/8 by 8 5/8 in.

1606 - 1669
(B., HOLL. 67; NEW HOLL. 298; H. 256)
Etching with drypoint, circa 1657, a very fine 'black sleeve' impression of the only state, New Hollstein's first state (of two), printing with rich, velvety burr on Christ's robe, the beard of the man at upper left and on the sleeve of the man at lower left, on Japan paper, sheet: 155 by 206mm 6 1/8 by 8 1/8 in

1606 - 1669
(B., HOLL. 94; NEW HOLL. 312; H. 301)
Etching with drypoint, 1659, a very fine, rich impression of the second state (of four), New Hollstein's second state (of six), printing with rich burr and vertical wiping scratches in the sky, on laminated Japan paper
plate: 180 by 214mm 7 by 8 3/8 in,. sheet: 186 by 221mm 7 3/8 by 8¾in

1606 - 1669
(B., HOLL. 236; NEW HOLL. 252; H. 239)
Etching with drypoint, 1650, a fine impression of the second (final) state, with rich burr, framed, sheet: 83 by 107mm 3¼ by 4¼in

1606 - 1669
(B., HOLL. 172; NEW HOLL. 47; H. 16)
Etching, circa 1630, a very good impression of this scarce subject, fifth state (of six), New Hollstein's eighth state (of nine), printing with delicate plate tone, plate: 92 by 66mm 3 5/8 by 2 5/8 in, sheet: 98 by 75mm 3 7/8 by 3in

1606 - 1669
(B., HOLL. 262; NEW HOLL. 92; H. 92)
Etching, circa 1631, the third (final) state, a strong, later impression on smooth wove paper; B. 262: sheet: 155 by 134mm 6 1/8 by 5¼in

1606 - 1669
(B., HOLL. 351; NEW HOLL. 121; H. 107)
Etching, 1633, a very good impression of this scarce portrait, printing with plate tone, the second (final) state, New Hollstein's second state (of three), sheet: 42 by 41mm 1¾ by 1 5/8 in

1606 - 1669
(B., HOLL. 354; NEW HOLL. 5; H. 1)
Etching, 1628, a fine, early impression of this rare subject, an intermediary state between the first and second state (before the reduction of the plate but with the bust completed), New Hollstein's second state (of four), printing with plate tone, with inky plate edges and the burr clearly visible, sheet: 67 by 64mm 2¾ by 2½in

1606 - 1669
(B., HOLL. 343; NEW HOLL. 91; H. 52)
Etching, circa 1631, a very good impression of the second state (of three), before the straightening of the outline of the nose, with touches of burr on the mouth, the nose and the hands, on paper with an indistinct countermark (possibly PDB), framed, plate: 148 by 130mm 5¾ by 5 1/8 in, sheet: 150 by 132mm 5 7/8 by 5¼in

1606 - 1669
(B., HOLL. 259; NEW HOLL. 175; H. 169)
Etching, circa 1639, a fairly good impression of the only state, New Hollstein's first state (of three), on paper with part of a Heraldic watermark, plate: 137 by 114mm 5 3/8 by 4½in, sheet: 142 by 119mm 5 5/8 by 4¾in

1606 - 1669
(B., HOLL. 273; NEW HOLL. 301; H. 291)
Etching, circa 1657, a Basan impression, tenth (final) state, New Hollstein's eleventh state (of twelve), on paper with part of a Proprietary watermark, sheet: 158 by 208mm 6¼ by 8¼in

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Sunday, March 18, 2018

10 Works, The Gunpowder Plot: the conspirators' last stand at Holbeach House, Guy Fawkes

The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, or the Jesuit Treason, was a failed assassination attempt against King James I of England and VI of Scotland by a group of provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby.

Ernest Crofts, R.A. (1847-1911)
On the track of a fugitive, c. 1910
oil on canvas
48 x 36 in. (121.9 x 91.4 cm.)

Ernest Crofts (15 September 1847 – 19 March 1911) was a British painter of historical and military scenes. Born in Leeds, Ernest studied at Rugby School, for several years, and then headed to Berlin where he developed his interest in art and decided upon a career as a painter. His first acquaintance with war was made in 1864 when he accompanied a Prussian doctor in the Schleswig-Holstein War, and the operations around Düppel.

He returned to London and became a pupil under A. B. Clay, but was back in Germany a few years later, this time in Düsseldorf which was the center for historical painting in Europe. In 1874, he exhibited Retreat, representing an episode in the Franco-Prussian War during the Battle of Gravelotte, and in the same year, another scene from the same conflict, One touch of nature makes the whole world kin which won him the Crystal Palace prize medal.

Ernest Crofts, RA (British, 1847-1911) The Gunpowder Plot: the conspirators' last stand at Holbeach House 51 x 72in (129.5 x 182.8cm)
Ernest Crofts, RA (British, 1847-1911)
The Gunpowder Plot: the conspirators' last stand at Holbeach House 
signed and dated 'E. Crofts 1892' (lower left)
oil on canvas
51 x 72in (129.5 x 182.8cm)

Crofts was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy of Arts on 19 July 1878, the year that his picture, Wellington on his march from Quatre Bras to Waterloo was shown. The artist walked and sketched much of the area around the battlefield of Waterloo. In 1896, he was elected a full academician of the Royal Academy, and his Diploma Work, a Civil War scene, was entitled To the Rescue. Two years later he succeeded Philip Calderon as keeper and trustee of the RA. He was in effect chief director of the academy art schools as well as chief custodian of the Diploma Galley.

In 1901 the king commissioned him to paint a picture of the distribution of the war medals following the Boer War. Two years later, he painted a large scene of the funeral of Queen Victoria. One of his most ambitious works was the panel in the ambulatory of the Royal Exchange which portrayed Queen Elizabeth opening the first Royal Exchange in 1571. 

The artist died of pneumonia at Burlington House on 19 March 1911. More

Crispijn van de Passe the Elder, (c.1564, Arnemuiden - buried 6 March 1637, Utrecht)
The craftsmen of the Gunpowder Plot
National Portrait Gallery

Crispijn van de Passe the Elder, (c.1564, Arnemuiden - buried 6 March 1637, Utrecht) was a Dutch publisher and engraver and founder of a dynasty of engravers. Most of their engravings were portraits, book title-pages, and the like, with relatively few grander narrative subjects. As with the other dynasties, their style is very similar, and hard to tell apart in the absence of a signature or date, or evidence of location. Many of the family could produce their own designs, and have left drawings.

Crispijn van de Passe I was born in Arnemuiden in Zeeland, and trained and worked in Antwerp, then the centre of the printmaking world, with hugely productive workshops. By 1585 he was a member of the artists' Guild of Saint Luke, and doing work for Christopher Plantin. The disruptions of the Dutch Revolt scattered these artists across Northern Europe; de Passe was an Anabaptist, which made his position especially difficult. He first moved to Aachen, until Protestants were also expelled from there. He started his own engraving and publishing business in Cologne in 1589, but again was forced to leave in 1611. He set up in business in Utrecht, by about 1612, where he created engravings for the English and other markets, and where he died in 1637. His works include a famous rendition of the English Gunpowder Plotters, although it is not known what basis he had for the likenesses. More

The plan was to blow up the House of Lords during the State Opening of England's Parliament on 5 November 1605, as the prelude to a popular revolt in the Midlands during which James's nine-year-old daughter, Princess Elizabeth, was to be installed as the Catholic head of state. Catesby may have embarked on the scheme after hopes of securing greater religious tolerance under King James had faded, leaving many English Catholics disappointed. His fellow plotters were John Wright, Thomas Wintour, Thomas Percy, Guy Fawkes, Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, Robert Wintour, Christopher Wright, John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, Sir Everard Digby and Francis Tresham. Fawkes, who had 10 years of military experience fighting in the Spanish Netherlands in suppression of the Dutch Revolt, was given charge of the explosives.

Henry Perronet Briggs (1793–1844)
The Discovery of the Gunpowder Plot and the Taking of Guy Fawkes, circa 1823
Oil on canvas
149 × 199 cm (58.7 × 78.3 in)
Current location
Laing Art Gallery,  Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Henry Perronet Briggs RA (1793 – 18 January 1844) was an English painter of portraits and historical scenes. Hewas born at Walworth, County Durham. While still at school at Epping he sent two engravings to the "Gentleman's Magazine" and in 1811 entered as a student at the Royal Academy, London, where he began to exhibit in 1814. From that time onwards until his death he was a constant exhibitor at the annual exhibitions of the Academy, as well as the British Institution, his paintings being for the most part historical in subject. After his election as a Royal Academician (RA) in 1832 he devoted his attention almost exclusively to portraiture. More

The plot was revealed to the authorities in an anonymous letter sent to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, on 26 October 1605. During a search of the House of Lords at about midnight on 4 November 1605, Fawkes was discovered guarding 36 barrels of gunpowder—enough to reduce the House of Lords to rubble—and arrested. 

Embleton, Ron (1930-88)
The Gunpowder Plot

Gouache on paper

Charles Gogin (1844–1931)
Guy Fawkes, c. 1870
Oil on cardboard
40.5 x 57.2 cm
York Museums Trust

Sir John Gilbert (1817 - 1897)
Guy Fawkes before King James, c. (1869-70)
90 x 52 cm (35,4 x 20,4 inches)
Watercolour on paper
Harrogate Museums and Art Gallery, North Yorkshire

After Sir John Gilbert.
Guy Fawkes (1570-1606), GUNPOWDER PLOT, 1605 being interrogated by King James I and his council in the King's bedchamber at Whitehall, following discovery of the 'Gunpowder Plot' to blow up the Houses of Parliament, 5 November 1605. 
Wood engraving, 1861

The Gunpowder Plot Guy Fawkes interrogated by James I

Most of the conspirators fled from London as they learned of the plot's discovery, trying to enlist support along the way. Several made a stand against the pursuing Sheriff of Worcester and his men at Holbeche House; in the ensuing battle Catesby was one of those shot and killed. At their trial on 27 January 1606, eight of the survivors, including Fawkes, were convicted and sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered.

Ronald Sydney Embleton (6 October 1930 – 13 February 1988) was a British comics artist and illustrator whose work was much admired by fans and editors alike. David Ashford and Norman Wright, writing in Book and Magazine Collector (March 2002) note that "his work for such diverse periodicals as Express Weekly, TV Century 21, Princess, Boy's World and Look and Learn have earned him the respect of every practitioner in the field and the gratitude of all of us who admire the art of the comic strip." More

Claes (Nicolaes) Jansz Visscher
exacted from the eight conspirators in Britain
National Portrait Gallery, London

Details of the assassination attempt were allegedly known by the principal Jesuit of England, Father Henry Garnet. Although he was convicted of treason and sentenced to death, doubt has been cast on how much he really knew of the plot. As its existence was revealed to him through confession, Garnet was prevented from informing the authorities by the absolute confidentiality of the confessional. Although anti-Catholic legislation was introduced soon after the plot's discovery, many important and loyal Catholics retained high office during King James I's reign. The thwarting of the Gunpowder Plot was commemorated for many years afterwards by special sermons and other public events such as the ringing of church bells, which have evolved into the Bonfire Night of today. More

The traditional death for traitors in 17th-century England was to be hanged from the gallows, then drawn and quartered in public. But, despite his role in the Gunpowder Plot - which the perpetrators hoped would kill King James and as many members of parliament as possible - it was not to be Fawkes's fate.

As he awaited his grisly punishment on the gallows, Fawkes leapt to his death - to avoid the horrors of having his testicles cut off, his stomach opened and his guts spilled out before his eyes. He died from a broken neck.

His body was subsequently quartered, and his remains were sent to "the four corners of the kingdom" as a warning to others. More

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