Classic Works of Art, Marine and Seascape Paintings - Brian Coole - (British-American, b. 1939), BOSTON HARBOR

Brian Coole - (British-American, b. 1939)
signed Brian Coole (lower right)
oil on board
19 by 29 1/2 in.

Although Brian Coole, is entirely self-taught, his ship paintings have been compared to the ship paintings of Fitz Hugh Lane, a renowned 19th century American artist who is best known for his Marine themed works and ship ‘portraits’. In 2001 Brian Coole was commissioned to paint three ship portraits for the British Royal Naval Museum, Portsmouth, UK.

More Marine Art

Classic Works of Art, Marine and Seascape Paintings - BRIAN COOLE (UK, 1939 - ), The 'Challenge'

BRIAN COOLE (UK, 1939 - ) 
oil on canvas, 
signed lower right
titled at bottom,
21 1/4" x 27 1/4"
Built in 1851 by William H. Webb of Boston 

Challenge. As a challenge to the 'Flying Cloud' on the San Francisco run, she was 224' long, 2000 tons, with a 230' main mast and 12,780 yards of sail, was wrecked off Ushant at the French end of the English Channel in 1876.

Challenge, 1851, was an extreme clipper built by William H. Webb in NYC for the San Francisco run. 230' mainmast, 224' length, 2000 tons, 12,780 yards of sail. Captain Robert Waterman expected to beat Flying Cloud. Brutal treatment of inexperienced crew by Waterman and first mate James Douglass caused riots when San Franciscans heard of the first passage. Wrecked off Ushant, 1876.

Flying Cloud was a clipper ship that set the world's sailing record for the fastest passage between New York and San Francisco, 89 days 8 hours. The ship held this record for over 100 years, from 1854 to 1989.

Flying Cloud was the most famous of the clippers built by Donald McKay. She was known for her extremely close race with Hornet in 1853; for having a woman navigator, Eleanor Creesy, wife of Josiah Perkins Creesy who skippered Flying Cloud on two record-setting voyages from New York to San Francisco; and for sailing in the Australia and timber trades.

Although Brian Coole, is entirely self-taught, his ship paintings have been compared to the ship paintings of Fitz Hugh Lane, a renowned 19th century American artist who is best known for his Marine themed works and ship ‘portraits’. In 2001 Brian Coole was commissioned to paint three ship portraits for the British Royal Naval Museum, Portsmouth, UK.

23 Photographs From Days Gone By

Christine Keeler, 1963 

Gelatin silver print, printed 1991 
18 x 13 7/8in. (45.5 x 35.3cm.) 
Private collection

Christine Keeler, (born February 22, 1942, Uxbridge, Middlesex, England—died December 4, 2017, Orpington, Kent), English model who, as one of the central figures in the Profumo affair, contributed to the collapse of the Conservative government of Harold Macmillan.

At age 16 Keeler left home and moved to London to work as a fashion model. Over the next two years she took a number of different jobs, eventually becoming a dancer at a Soho gentlemen’s club that catered to the upper classes. There she met Charles Ward, a physician who was connected to some of the most politically and socially powerful families in England. Keeler moved in with Ward and he acted as her patron, introducing her to men who moved in his circle, including Eugene Ivanov, a Russian military attaché and intelligence agent with whom Keeler became romantically involved.

In July 1961 Keeler met John Profumo, the secretary of state for war, at one of Ward’s parties, and the two began a short-lived affair. Rumours of the relationship leaked to the press, but Profumo was quick to deny them, going so far as to lie before Parliament in March 1963. Evidence of the affair quickly accumulated, however, and Profumo resigned in June 1963. Largely due to the scandal, the Macmillan government was voted out of office within a year.

At the height of the media flurry surrounding the Profumo affair, Keeler posed for a series of publicity shots with photographer Lewis Morley. The most famous of those images, featuring a nude Keeler astride a wooden chair, became one of the most iconic photographs of the 1960s. Keeler subsequently retreated to private life, emerging in 2001 with the biography The Truth at Last: My Story. The events of the Profumo affair were dramatized in the film Scandal (1989). More on Christine Keeler

Lewis Morley (1925–2013) established his reputation as one of the key British photographers of the 1960s and is known for his iconic image of a nude Christine Keeler straddling an Arne Jacobsen chair. He ran a highly successful studio above London's first satirical venue, the Establishment Club, where he formed important associations with Peter Cook, Dudley Moore, Barry Humphries and a range of as yet undiscovered young talents including Michael Caine who frequented the hip venue. Many of the faces he captured on film define the swinging sixties scene in London, including portraits of Charlotte Rampling, Vanessa Redgrave, Judy Dench, Jean Shrimpton and Peter O'Toole. He worked extensively for theatre and television, becoming sought after for his particular style of 'on location' and 'action' photography and portraiture. Migrating to Sydney in 1971, Morley found 'the sixties all over again'. Despite this, working in a new country in a new decade his work underwent a dramatic shift in approach to style and format. Shooting increasingly in colour for magazines such as Dolly, POL and Belle, Morley's Australian work provides an evocative record of culture change through the 1970s and 1980s. Portraits from this era include images of Peter Carey, Brett Whiteley, Nicole Kidman, Marcia Hines, Sherbet and John Newcombe. The National Portrait Gallery held an exhibition of his work, Myself and Eye, in 2003; Lewis Morley: 50 Years of Photography was staged at the Art Gallery of New South Wales in 2006. More on Lewis Morley

Scenes of Whitby, c. 1880s 

Album of 54 albumen prints. 
approx. 5 x 8in. (12.7 x 20.3cm.) or reverse. Burgundy leather.
Album size: 12 x 10in. (35.5 x 25cm.) 
Private collection

Whitby is a seaside town in Yorkshire, northern England, split by the River Esk. On the East Cliff, overlooking the North Sea, the ruined Gothic Whitby Abbey was Bram Stoker’s inspiration for “Dracula”. Nearby is the Church of St. Mary, reached by 199 steps. The Captain Cook Memorial Museum, in the house where Cook once lived, displays paintings and maps. West of town is West Cliff Beach, lined with beach huts. ― Google

Frank Meadow Sutcliffe's father was a painter, printmaker, and an amateur photographer. Frank began to photograph when the family moved to Whitby, Yorshire, in 1871. He first worked for Francis Frith; in 1875 he opened his own portrait studio. In his spare time he walked around Whitby, photographing people, scenes, and landscapes, attempting to develop an unmannered, natural style.

Between 1881 and 1905 Sutcliffe won sixty-two medals at international exhibitions. He had an arrangement with Kodak to try out the latest model cameras; Kodak had the option of using any picture he had taken with their apparatus for their own purposes. Sutcliffe wrote the "Photography Notes" column for the Yorshire Weekly Post from 1908 to 1930, and contributed articles to Amateur Photographer as well as other non-photographic magazines.

Late in his life Sutcliffe was asked by the council of the Whitby Literary and Philosophical Society to become the curator of the Whitby Gallery and Museum, a position he held until his death at the age of eighty-seven. More on Frank Meadow Sutcliffe

Greta Garbo, 1930s-40s 

Gelatin silver print
7½ x 7½in. (19 x 19cm.)
Private collection

Greta Garbo starred in movies of both the silent and the talkies eras, one of the few artists who made the transition very successfully. She is remembered for her elusive persona and husky voice. She was not just beauty but matched it with her intelligence and love for independence. Despite the fact that most of her movies were MGM productions; she would not let the banner unduly exploit her popularity. In fact, she was perhaps the first actor to assert herself using her fame. At the same time, she would go any length to ensure that nothing affected her performance by being punctual at the sets and always well prepared for the role she was to essay. She could romance, play the vamp or shine in a comic role with ease. Her role as a prostitute in ‘Camille’ is considered by critics to be her best. It is said of her acting technique that her eyes did all the acting. She introduced the method of underplaying expressions which was innovative, unique and much ahead of the time. Starting from a small role in a Swedish movie till the time she retired her career was one of unmatched success. Despite her immense popularity, she could never win an Oscar for her performances. More on Greta Garbo

Cecil Beaton was a British photographer and designer best known for his elegant photographs of high society. Working within a cinematic approach, his black-and-white images are characterized by their staged poses and imaginative sets. Beaton’s costume and stage designs won him three Academy Awards, including one for My Fair Lady (1964). Born on January 14, 1904 in London, United Kingdom to a wealthy family, he went on to study at St. John’s College in Cambridge, however he left before finishing his degree. He was mostly self-taught as a photographer, though he did study in the studio of Paul Tanqueray. Beaton was hired by numerous publications, including Condé Nast, Vanity Fair, and Vogue. During World War II, his focus shifted to documenting the realities of war throughout the United Kingdom and Europe, forging a prolific and varied career. “Be daring, be different, be impractical,” he once declared. “Be anything that will assert integrity of purpose and imaginative vision against the play-it-safers, the creatures of the commonplace, the slaves of the ordinary.” Beaton’s works can be found in The Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and the National Portrait Gallery in London, among others. He died on January 18, 1980 in Broad Chalke, United Kingdom. More on Cecil Beaton

Clarence Sinclair Bull (May 22, 1896 – June 8, 1979) was a portrait photographer who worked for movie studios during the Golden Age of Hollywood. He was head of the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer stills department for nearly forty years.

Clarence Sinclair Bull was born in Sun River, Montana, in 1896. His career began when Samuel Goldwyn hired him in 1920 to photograph publicity stills of the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio's stars. He is most famous for his photographs of Greta Garbo, taken between 1926 and 1941. Bull's first portrait of Garbo was a costume study for the silent romantic drama film Flesh and the Devil in September 1926.

Bull was able to study with the great Western painter, Charles Marion Russell. He also served as an assistant cameraman in 1918. Bull was skilled in the areas of lighting, retouching and printing.[4] He was most commonly credited as "C.S. Bull."

Bull died on June 8, 1979, in Los Angeles, California, aged 83. More on Clarence Sinclair Bull 

David Bailey
Catherine Bailey, St. Paul de Vence, 1983 
Platinum print, printed 1990 
10½ x 17in. (26.6 x 43.2cm.) 
Private collection

Catherine Bailey was born in London, England. She is an actress, known for A Quiet Passion, The Crown, And Then There Were None, Mr Selfridge and Midsomer Murders as well as leading roles in London Theatres such as Shakespeare's Globe, The Criterion, Theatre Royal Haymarket, The Young Vic, Tricycle Theatre, Hackney Empire and the Royal Shakespeare Company. More on Catherine Bailey

David Bailey was born in 1938 in Leytonstone, East England, David Royston Bailey is one of the most respected photographers in the world. He worked as a fashion photographer for Vogue magazine, but he is also known for his work on the ‘Swinging London’ scene from the 1960s, which gave him celebrity photographer status.

David Bailey started his professional career as a photographic assistant at John French Studio. In 1960, he worked as a photographer for John Cole’s studio. Later that year, Bailey was contracted by British Vogue magazine as a fashion photographer. He also took on a great deal of freelance work at that time

Along with Brian Duffy and Terence Donovan, Bailey captured and helped create ‘Swinging London’ of the 1960s, which was a reflection of the fashion and cultural scene of London at that time. The three photographers socialized with royalty, actors, and musicians, and their status was elevated to celebrity status. Together, they were called the Black Trinity, the first celebrity photographers.

Later, David directed many TV commercials and documentaries as well. In 1976, he even published Ritz newspaper with with David Litchfield. In 2005, Bailey was awarded the Centenary Medal and Honorary Fellowship by the Royal Photographic Society for his sustained and significant contribution to the art of photography. More on David Bailey

Lillian Bassman (B.1917)
Touch of Dew, Lisa Fonssagrives, Harper's Bazaar, New York, 1961 
Gelatin silver print 
10 1/8 x 13½in. (25.6 x 34cm.) 
Private collection

Lisa Fonssagrives was born Lisa Birgitta Bernstone on 17 May 1911, in Sweden (variously reported as Gothenburg or Uddevalla) and raised in Uddevalla. As a child, she took up painting, sculpting and dancing. She went to Mary Wigman's school in Berlin and studied art and dance. After returning to Sweden, she opened a dance school. She moved from Sweden to Paris to train for ballet and worked as a private dance teacher with Fernand Fonssagrives, which then led to a modeling career. She would say that modeling was "still dancing".

While in Paris in 1936, photographer Willy Maywald discovered her in an elevator and asked her to model hats for him. The photographs were then sent to Vogue, and photographer Horst P. Horst took some test photographs of her. In July 1939, she appeared in the German illustrated weekly Der Stern and was photographed also by André Steiner. Before Fonssagrives came to the United States in 1939, she was already a top model. Her image appeared on the cover of many magazines during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. 

Fonssagrives worked with various noted fashion photographers, including George Hoyningen-Huene, Man Ray, Erwin Blumenfeld, George Platt Lynes, Richard Avedon, and Edgar de Evia. She married Parisian photographer Fernand Fonssagrives in 1935; they divorced in 1949. She married American photographer Irving Penn in 1950 and became his muse.

After her modeling career ended she designed a leisurewear clothing line for Lord & Taylor. She went on to become a sculptor in the 1960s and was represented by the Marlborough Gallery in Manhattan. More on Lisa Fonssagrives

A New York City native, Lillian Bassman studied textile design in high school and modeled for the Art Students League. She joined the Works Progress Administration as a painting assistant in 1934, and when it was discontinued in 1939, studied fashion illustration at Pratt Institute and worked as a textile designer. Alexey Brodovitch, the art director at Harper's Bazaar, offered her a scholarship to study with him at the New School for Social Research in 1940, and encouraged her to pursue graphic design. She became his first salaried assistant at Harper's Bazaar and in 1945 was appointed co-art director at Junior Bazaar, a short-lived Hearst publication. During her tenure there, she provided many emerging photographers--Robert Frank and Richard Avedon among them--with their first opportunities to work in fashion. Bassman began making her own photographs while at Junior Bazaar, and when the magazine ceased production in 1947, she became a freelance fashion and advertising photographer, specializing in lingerie, fabrics, cosmetics, and liquor, and working chiefly for Harper's Bazaar and commercial clients. Bassman's editorial work for Bazaar lessened in the later 1960s, and she retired from commercial photography in 1970. In the 1970s and 1980s, she exhibited large-format color photographs of fruits and vegetables, abstractions, and "musclemen," among other subjects; she has recently been re-interpreting the negatives of her 1940s and 1950s fashion photography, in addition to executing new fashion assignments.

Bassman's photography is notable for her unusual printing techniques and innovative graphic effects, which involve experimentation with gauze and tissue in the darkroom. This experimentation, combined with the close rapport she establishes with her models, has resulted in pictures memorable for their emotional atmosphere, impressionistic mood, and subtlety of intimate gestures. More on Lillian Bassman

Herbert Ponting
'Terra Nova' at the ice-foot, Cape Evans, 1911 
Carbon print 
28 x 22½in. (71 x 57cm.) 
Private collection

The Terra Nova Expedition, officially the British Antarctic Expedition, was an expedition to Antarctica which took place between 1910 and 1913. Led by Captain Robert Falcon Scott, the expedition had various scientific and geographical objectives. Scott wished to continue the scientific work that he had begun when leading the Discovery Expedition from 1901 to 1904, and wanted to be the first to reach the geographic South Pole.

He and four companions attained the pole on 17 January 1912, where they found that a Norwegian team led by Roald Amundsen had preceded them by 34 days. Scott's party of five died on the return journey from the pole; some of their bodies, journals, and photographs were found by a search party eight months later. The expedition, named after its supply ship, was a private venture financed by public contributions and a government grant. More on The Terra Nova Expedition

As a member of the shore party in early 1911, Ponting helped set up the Terra Nova Expedition's Antarctic winter camp at Cape Evans, Ross Island. The camp included a tiny photographic darkroom. Although the expedition came more than 20 years after the invention of photographic film, Ponting preferred high-quality images taken on glass plates. With these plates, Ponting could capture images of Antarctic icescapes and landscapes. 

Englishman Herbert Ponting (1870-1935) was an adventurer first and photographer second. As a young man, he rejected the idea of following his father into banking and instead set off for the American West and wilds of California. Finding work first as a miner, Ponting eventually bought a fruit ranch and married an American woman. Photography had always been a hobby and encouraged after a chance meeting with a photographer near San Francisco, Ponting began showing his work publicly and offering stereoscopic prints to publishing companies. After the turn of the century, Ponting gathered his equipment and traveled to Asia as a freelancer. He first photographed the Russo-Japanese War then continued on to Burma, Korea, Japan, China, and India providing travel stereoscopes to the burgeoning magazine market.

Ponting returned to Europe an experienced professional and traveled the continent photographing and writing extensively for many contemporary periodicals. In 1910, he published a book of Japanese scenes, In Lotus-land Japan, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Photographic Society. Given Ponting’s extensive accomplishments and reputation as a raconteur, it was not a surprise when he was chosen as a member of Robert Falcon Scott’s Terra Nova Expedition to the South Pole, the first ever photographer invited on an Antarctic expedition. More on Herbert Ponting

The Abyssinian War, 1868 

Albumen print
3½ x 2¼in. (8.6 x 5.7cm.) to 10 3/8 x 8 1/8in. (26.5 x 20.5cm.)
Private collection

The British Expedition to Abyssinia was a rescue mission and punitive expedition carried out in 1868 by the armed forces of the British Empire against the Ethiopian Empire (also known at the time as Abyssinia). Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia, then often referred to by the anglicized name Theodore, imprisoned several missionaries and two representatives of the British government in an attempt to force the British government to comply with his requests for military assistance. The punitive expedition launched by the British in response required the transportation of a sizeable military force hundreds of kilometers across mountainous terrain lacking any road system. The formidable obstacles to the action were overcome by the commander of the expedition, General Robert Napier, who was victorious in every battle against the troops of Tewodros, captured the Ethiopian capital, and rescued all the hostages. The expedition was widely hailed on its return for achieving all its objectives. More on The British Expedition to Abyssinia

10th Company, Royal Engineers. John Harrold was in charge of the Royal Engineers photographic section (10th Company), in the Abyssinian Campaign of 1867-8, during which 15,200 photographic prints of plans and maps were made during the advance on Magdala. He also produced a series of landscapes and portraits during the campaign; employed as a photographer in the Surveyor-General’s Department of the Survey of India, Calcutta, from Mar 1873 until his retirement on 24.5.1898; he assisted James Waterhouse (qv) in the taking of a series of 100 photographs of the transit of Venus from Roorkee in 1874. More on John Harrold

Cecil Beaton
Gala and Salvador Dali, c.1935 
Gelatin silver print 
9 5/8 x 7 5/8in. (24.4 x 19.4cm.) 
Private collection

Salvador Dali was born in 1904 in Figueres, Spain. Dali was encouraged to explore his artistic talents from an early age. He received formal training at the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid where he quickly gained attention from his classmates for his Cubist work. Dali was expelled from the Academia for behavioral issues and moved to Paris, where he quickly befriended Picasso, Magritte, and Miro. His new acquaintances led Dali to his Surrealist phase.
Though inspired by classic artists like Raphael, Bronzino, Vermeer, and Velazquez (Dali’s trademark mustache was influenced by Velazquez), Dali is best known for his surrealist work. In 1931, Dali painted “The Persistence of Memory,” his most famous piece, which featured the motif of the melting clock, which can be found in many of his works. More on Salvador Dali

Bill Brandt  (1906-1984) 
Nude, 1948 

gelatin silver print, printed 1970s 
signed in ink on mount 
13½ x 11½in. (34.3 x 29.1cm.) 

Bill Brandt’s striking portrait, landscape, and nude photography embraced experimentation and helped expand the boundaries of the medium in the early 20th century. Brandt’s frames largely focused on British society. He first earned recognition for his documentary pictures, as exemplified in his book The English at Home (1936), which captured social and working conditions in the country. After World War II, Brandt transitioned to a more expressive style, cropping his compositions and shooting from unusual angles to transform bodies into abstract landscapes. Brandt’s work has been exhibited in New York, Paris, Stockholm, San Francisco, Houston, Boston, and Washington, D.C., and belongs in the collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Museum of Modern Art, the George Eastman Museum, and the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. His work has sold for up to six figures on the secondary market. More on Bill Brandt

Bill Brandt
East End girl dancing the Lambeth Walk, c. 1939 
Gelatin silver print, printed 1970s 
13 3/8 x 11½in. (34 x 29.2cm.) 
Private collection

The Lambeth Walk is a song from the 1937 musical Me and My Girl. The song takes its name from a local street, Lambeth Walk, once notable for its street market and working-class culture in Lambeth, an area of London. The tune gave its name to a Cockney dance made popular in 1937 by Lupino Lane.

Lev Abramovich Borodulin
Water Festival, 1960 
Gelatin silver print, printed before 1973 
15 5/8 x 10¾in. (39.8 x 27.4cm.) 
Private collection

Lev Abramovich Borodulin (25 January 1923, Moscow – 21 December 2018, Tel Aviv) was a Russian and Israeli photographer, master of sports photography.

Between 1940 and 1941 he studied at the art department of Moscow State University of Printing Arts, which ended only after the war. Participated in the Great Patriotic War, awarded medals For the Defence of Moscow and For the Capture of Berlin, he is injured.

Photography became engaged after graduation. The first publication took place in 1947 in the student newspaper. In 1950–1960 he worked as a photographer for the magazine Ogoniok. The first photographer in the Soviet Union, apply effects Fisheye lens.

Photography Year Book in 1964 recognizes Leo Borodulin star of world photography. In 1967, a Japanese newspaper Asahi Shimbun the best photographer of the year. In 1971 in Munich Lev Borodulin has been awarded for achievements in the field of sports photography Olympic gold medal. More on Lev Abramovich Borodulin

Ellen von Unwerth
Oh La La!, Miami, 1996 
Gelatin silver print 
17¾ x 12in. (45.2 x 30.5cm.) 
Private collection

Ellen von Unwerth (born 17 January 1954) is a German photographer and director, specializing in erotic femininity.

She worked as a fashion model for ten years before becoming a photographer, and now makes fashion, editorial, and advertising photographs.

In a 2018 interview with Harper's Bazaar, she explained her feminist approach to photography: "The women in my pictures are always strong, even if they are also sexy. My women always look self-assured. I try to make them look as beautiful as they can because every woman wants to  feel beautiful, sexy and powerful. That's what I try to do." More on Ellen von Unwerth

Ellen von Unwerth
Rebecca Asking 'What is it Mama?', New York, 1996 
Gelatin silver print 
17 7/8 x 12 1/8in. (45.2 x 30.7cm.)
Private collection

Bill Brandt
Hansom cab, c.1934 
gelatin silver print, printed 1970s 
signed in ink on mount 
13½ x 11½in. (34.3 x 29.2cm.)

Bianca Jagger inspects Airplane, July, 1972 

gelatin silver print triptych with paint/ink handwork, printed c.1990 
13¼ x 9 1/8in. (33.7 x 22.7cm.) 

MILTON H. GREENE (1922-1985) 
Marilyn Monroe, Black Sitting, 14 February 1956 

gelatin silver print 
signed, dated and numbered '3159/3D' in pencil, credit stamp on verso 
13¼ x 10 3/8in. (33.5 x 26.3cm.) 

Marilyn Monroe, Studio Session, Hollywood, California, 1960 

gelatin silver print, printed later 
copyright credit blindstamp in margin; signed, titled and dated in pencil on verso
14 x 9½in. (35.5 x 24cm.) 

JEANLOUP SIEFF (1933-2000) 
Nu Coupé, 1976 

gelatin silver print 
signed and dated in ink in margin; titled and dated in ink, credit stamp on verso
11¾ x 8in. (30 x 20.2cm.) 

Lauren Hutton at Lake Turkana, 1970s 

2 gelatin silver prints 
one titled and annotated 'P.B. Archives' in ink on verso 
each approx. 4 3/8 x 6½in. (11 x 16.5cm.) 

Darryl Hannah, c.1990 

gelatin silver print 
signed and annotated 'AP' in pencil, copyright credit blindstamp in margin; signed and indistinctly annotated in pencil on verso
15½ x 15½in. (39.2 x 39.2cm.) 

BERT STERN (B.1930) 
Marilyn in Vogue, 1962 

digital inkjet print, printed later 
signed, titled and dated in pencil in margin; signed and numbered '389' in pencil, copyright credit reproduction limitation stamp on verso
22 5/8 x 19¾in. (57.5 x 50.5cm.) 

Marilyn in Roses, 1962 

digital ink-jet print, printed 2006 
signed, titled and numbered '28/36' in crayon on recto; titled, dated and numbered '28/36' in pencil, credit reproduction limitation stamp on verso
14 x 9½in. (36.5 x 24cm.) 

Marilyn, Nude Red Scarf, 1962 

digital ink-jet print, printed 2006 
signed, titled and numbered '12/72' in crayon on recto; dated in pencil, credit reproduction limitation stamp on verso
10 x 10in. (25.5 x 25.5cm.) 

30 Paintings by Jean Leon Gerome (1824-1904) for the Paris Salon, with footnotes

Jean-Léon Gérôme (11 May 1824 – 10 January 1904) was a French painter, teacher, and sculptor. The range of his work included historical painting, Greek mythology, Orientalism, portraits and other subjects.

He was one of the most famous French painters of his day. In the course of his long career, he was the subject of controversy and bitter criticism, in particular for defending the conventions of the waning genre of Academic painting, under attack by Realists and Impressionists. 

He was born at Vesoul, Haute-Saône, and went to Paris in 1840 where he studied under Paul Delaroche. Like many other students of Delaroche, he joined the atelier of Charles Gleyre and studied there for a brief time. He then attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In 1846 he tried to enter the prestigious Prix de Rome, but failed in the final stage because his figure drawing was inadequate.

JEAN-LÉON GÉRÔME (1824-1904)
Jóvenes griegos presenciando una pelea de gallos/The Cockfight 
Oil on Canvas
143 x 204 cm
Musée d'Orsay, Paris
1 January 1846

Gérôme started work on this canvas in 1846 when he was still smarting from his failure to win the Prix de Rome which would have opened the doors of the Villa Medicis to him. He feared a new rebuff and hesitated to exhibit his Young Greeks Attending a Cock Fight. But, encouraged by his master, the academic painter Delaroche, he finally entered his painting in the Salon of 1847, where it was a great success. More

He improve his skills and painted The Cockfight (1846), depicting a nude young man and a lightly draped young woman with two fighting cocks and in the background the Bay of Naples. He sent this painting to the Salon of 1847, where it gained him a third-class medal, and public success. The work was seen as the epitome of the Neo-Grec movement, and was championed by the influential French critic Théophile Gautier.

Jean Leon  Gerome (1824-1904)
The Virgin the Infant Jesus and St. John
Oil on canvas, 1848
75 x 108 cm (29.53" x 3' 6.52")

private collection
c. 1848

In 1848 his paintings, The Virgin, the Infant Jesus and St John, (private collection) and Anacreon, Bacchus and Cupid (Musée des Augustins, Toulouse, France) took a second-class medal. 

Jean-Leon Gerome (1824-1904)
Anacréon, Bacchus et l'amour
Oil on canvas, 1848
203 x 134 cm (6' 7.92" x 4' 4.76")
Musee des Augustins (Toulouse, France)

Anacreon, author of Odes anacreontic - praise of wine, love and nature - was one of the most famous lyric poets of anchient Greece. During the first half of the nineteenth century many interpretations of this work are born in France. This rare subject became major step for Gérôme; the Greek Revival aesthetic. On a festive bacchanalian background, Anacreon, standing in the center, crowned with myrtle, playing a seven-string lyre. A young bacchante accompanies the poet with his flute while Bacchus and his Love Children embody the hedonism of Anacreon. A twilight scene in an ancient landscape with archaeologically correct references. More

In 1849, he produced the paintings Michelangelo (also called In his studio) (now in private collection) and A portrait of a Lady (Musée Ingres, Montauban).

Michelangelo Greek Arabian Orientalism Jean Leon Gerome
Jean-Leon Gerome (1824-1904)
Michelangelo being shown the Belvedere Torso
Oil on canvas, 1849
45 x 51.5 cm (17.72" x 20.28")
Private collection

This painting, by a still unknown Gérôme, is rich in contrasts: old age and youth; touch and sight; and, most intriguingly, the muscular white marble torso and the delicate, colorfully attired apprentice. It is a scene of an aspiring artist contemplating his artistic roots while giving testimony to his future career. Gérôme must have identified with the apprentice, who is in awe of the great Renaissance master, and through him the artist pays tribute to his own classical ideal. The portfolios and tools also allude to the concepts of learning and creation, as both an intellectual and sensory process. More

Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
Portrait of a Woman, 1851
canvas and oil
c. 1849
114 x 86 cms (443/4 x 333/4 ins)
Musée Ingres

In 1851, he decorated a vase, later offered by Emperor Napoleon III of France to Prince Albert, now part of the Royal Collection at St. James's Palace, London. 

Jean-Leon Gerome (1824-1904)

Drunken Bacchus and Cupid - Jean-Leon Gerome -
Jean-Leon Gerome (1824-1904)
Drunken Bacchus and Cupid
Oil on canvas
c. 1850
113 x 149 cm (3' 8.49" x 4' 10.66")
Musee des Beaux-Arts (Bordeaux)

He exhibited Bacchus and Love (Above), Drunken Bacchus and Cupid, a Greek Interior and Souvenir d'Italie, in 1851; 

File:Gérôme - Greek Interior sketch.jpg
Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
Greek Interior
c. 1848
Oil on canvas
21 × 15.5 cm (8.3 × 6.1 in)
Orsay Museum

Prince Napoleon buys the painting which has been qualified by Theophile Gautier as the only painting that can reach the greatness of the Ingres "Statonice"; a depiction of a brothel in the Pompeian manner.

Jean-Léon Gérome Souvenir d'Italie (1849) oil on canvas;  88.3 x 67.9 cm Paris, Musée d'Orsay
Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
Souvenir d'Italie
c. 1849
Oil on canvas
88.3 x 67.9 cm 
Paris, Musée d'Orsay

View of Paestum (1852); 

Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
View of Paestum
Oil on canvas
c. 1852
81 x 66.5 cm (31.89" x 26.18")
Private collection

Paestum is an archaelogical site located south of Naples in the Campania region of Southern Italy. Its magnificent remains are associated with Magna Graecia, which refers to the Greek colonies of southern Italy established in the 8th century B.C.E. The name “Paestum” is the Romanized form of Poseidonia, which is what the original Greek settlers called the town in honor of Poseidon. More

and An Idyll (1853).

Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
An Idyll (Daphnis and Chloe)
c. 1852
Oil on canvas
212.1 × 155.9 cm (83.5 × 61.4 in)
Musée Massey

Daphnis and Chloe is the only known work of the 2nd century AD Greek novelist and romancer Longus. It is set on the isle of Lesbos during the 2nd century AD, which is also assumed to be the author's home. Its style is rhetorical and pastoral; its shepherds and shepherdesses are wholly conventional, but the author imparts human interest to this idealized world. Daphnis and Chloe resembles a modern novel more than does its chief rival among Greek erotic romances, the Aethiopica of Heliodorus, which is remarkable more for its plot than for its characterization. More

In 1852, Gérôme received a commission by the Surintendant des Beaux-Arts to the court of Napoleon III, for the painting of a large historical canvas, the Age of Augustus.

Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
The Age of Augustus, the Birth of Christ
c.  1852 - 1854
Oil on canvas
37.1 x 55.2 cm (14 5/8 x 21 3/4 in.)
J. Paul Getty

In 1852, Jean-Léon Gérôme received a state commission to paint a large mural of an allegorical subject of his choosing. In selecting this subject, Gérôme perhaps sought to flatter Emperor Napoleon III, whose government commissioned the painting and who was identified as a "new Augustus."  

In preparation for his large mural, Gérôme traveled all over to find the appropriate ethnic types to portray the different peoples of the ancient world. When The Age of Augustus, The Birth of Christ was shown in 1855 at the Universal Exposition, his skill in depicting various nationalities led some to remark that Gérôme gave a lesson whenever he painted a picture. More 

In this canvas he combines the birth of Christ with conquered nations paying homage to Augustus. Thanks to a considerable down payment, he was able to travel in 1853 to Constantinople. This would be the first of several travels to the East: in 1854 he made another journey to Greece and Turkey and the shores of the Danube.

Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
The Last Communion of Saint Jerome
Oil on plaster
c. 1854
235 x 525 cm (7' 8.52" x 17' 2.69")
Church of Saint-Severin, Saint Jerome Chapel (Paris, France)

In 1854, he completed another important commission of decorating the Chapel of St. Jerome in the church of St. Séverin in Paris. His Last communion of St. Jerome in this chapel reflects the influence of the school of Ingres on his religious works.

Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
Oil on plaster
c. 1856
235 x 525 cm (7' 8.52" x 17' 2.69")
Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nantes  (France - Nantes)  

The Pifferari are strolling Italian musicians/shepherds who plays the piffero/bagpipes in memory of the shepherds of Bethlehem at Christmas time in front of the pictures of the Madonna.

The Pifferari usually go in pairs. One plays the bagpipes, the other rustic oboe or bassoon. In Italy they play in cities at Christmas time and asking alms to play the serenade. After they returned to their flocks. Gérôme was in Italy at the beginning of the 1840s, where one could hire the services of Pifferari for the holidays. This may be one of them that he used as a model. Gérôme painted the Pifferari alone or in groups. It is difficult to accurately determine the origin of these paintings, as the painter often simply titled them of Pifferari (Pifferaro singular). More

To the exhibition of 1855 he contributed; Pifferaro,

The Syrian Shepherd - Jean-Leon Gerome
Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
The Syrian Shepherd
Oil on canvas
c. 1856
83.50x46.00 cm
Private Collection

The Syrian Shepherd

"Recreation in a Russian Camp, Remembering Moldavia", Oil On Canvas by Jean Léon Gérôme (1824-1904, France)
Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
A Russian Concert
Oil on canvas
c. 1855

In 1854 Genome made a journey to Greece, Turkey and the shores of the Danube, where he was present at a concert of Russian conscripts, making music under the threat of a lash.

A Russian Concert, and The Age of Augustus & the Birth of Christ (Above). However the modest painting, A Russian Concert (also called Recreation in the Camp) was more appreciated than his huge canvases.

In 1856, Gérôme visited Egypt for the first time. This would herald the start of many orientalist paintings depicting Arab religion, genre scenes and North African landscapes.

Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
Duel After a Masquerade Ball
c. 1859
Oil on canvas
68 x 99 cm.
Hermitage Museum

In this painting, showing the outcome of a duel after a costume ball, Gérôme replicates, with slight variations, a composition he had executed for the Duc d'Aumale in 1857. It is dawn on a wintry day in the Bois de Boulogne, Paris, and Pierrot succumbs in the arms of the Duc de Guise. A Venetian doge examines Pierrot's wound while Domino clasps his head in despair. To the right, the victorious American Indian departs, accompanied by Harlequin. More

Gérôme's reputation was greatly enhanced at the Salon of 1857 by a collection of works of a more popular kind: the Duel: after the Masked Ball

Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
Egyptian Recruits Crossing the Desert, c. 1857
Oil on canvas
64 x 109.8 cm
Private collection

Egyptian Recruits crossing the Desert, The Egyptian Recruting Office, 

Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
The Egyptian recruting officer, c. 1861
Oil on panel 
11 x 16 in. (28 x 40.5 cm.) 
Private collection 

The present works represents a scene common in Egypt during the nineteenth century, when young men from the villages were conscripted into the army of the Khalif, a process which dated back to the first attempt by Mohammed Ali Pasha, to build up a regular army in 1824. As seen in the paintings, the recruits trudge across the desert, escorted by the Arnaut guard, and challenge the heat and wind making their journey long and painful. Characteristic of Gérôme's most acclaimed orientalist paintings, this intense realism prompted the French critic Théophile Gautier to note that Gérôme succeeded in capturing the peculiar qualities of light and heat unique to the Egyptian desert. He further remarked that, contrary to the current fashion for representing hot countries as torrid and highly coloured, Gérôme had observed that extreme light drains all colours from objects and renders the sky and land white. More

Thebes Colosseums, Memnon and Sesostris (study) - Jean-Leon Gerome
Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
«Les Colosses de Thèbes, Memnon et Sésostris»
c. 1856
Huile sur toile
Musée Georges-Garret

Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
Memnon and Sesostris
c. 1856 
Oil on canvas
Height: 35 cm (13.78 in.), Width: 49.5 cm (19.49 in.)
Private collection

The Colossi of Memnon have stood guard at the ancient necropolis of Thebes since 1350 BC. Standing at a towering height of 18 meters, they were intentionally imposing and would have made a powerful impression on any visitor. Gérôme was known to have painted the subject a number of times, including a view from the side in The Colossi of Thebes, Memnon and Sesostris (1856, Musée Georges Garrett de Vesoul), Caravan Passing the Colossi of Memnon, Thebes (1857. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Nantes), and the oil sketch of the present view, Memnon and Sesostris (1856, Private Collection). More

Memnon and Sesostris,

Camels at the Watering-place
Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
Camels Watering
c. 1856
20" x 16" (50.8 x 40.6 cm) 

"Camels at the Watering Place" is among the earliest and least staged of Gérôme's "orientales", inspired by the artist's first trip to Egypt from July to October 1856 with Auguste Bartholdi, future sculptor of the Statue of Liberty, and two orientalist painters, Léon Belly and Narcisse Berchère. The work was one of a group of six Egyptian paintings Gérôme sent to the Salon of 1857, where the critic Théophile Gautier praised its Realist qualities of straightforward representation. More

and Camels Watering.

In 1858, he helped to decorate the Paris house of Prince Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte in the Pompeian style. The prince had bought his Greek Interior (1850), a depiction of a brothel also in the Pompeian manner (shown above).

Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)

The Death of Caesar
Oil on Canvas
c. 1867
215.9 x 368.3 cm
Walters Art Museum

Julius Caesar was assassinated in Rome on the Ides of March (March 15). Concerned about detail, but constantly disrupting the context, Gérôme was markedly indifferent to the expression of the passions that had long been a part of historical representations. Differing significantly on this point from Delaroche, in whose work pathos was expressed on faces, Gérôme took a panoramic vision-the panoramic format being his favorite-of history, built on the anonymity of the crows of Rome or courtiers of Versailles, made up by endlessly interchangeable walk-ons.” More

In Caesar (1859) Gérôme tried to return to a more severe class of work, the painting of Classical subjects, but the picture failed to interest the public. 

File:Jean-Léon Gérôme, Phryne revealed before the Areopagus (1861) - 01.jpg

Jean-Léon Gérôme
Oil on canvas
80 × 128 cm (31.5 × 50.4 in)
Kunsthalle Hamburg

Phryne before the Areopagus, King Candaules and Socrates finding Alcibiades in the House of Aspasia (1861) gave rise to some scandal by reason of the subjects selected by the painter.

Художник Жан-Леон Жером.
Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
Treading out the Grain in Egypt
Oil on Panel
c. 1859
Height: 30.5 cm (12.01 in.), Width: 39.25 cm (15.45 in.)

Gérôme made his first of many trips to Egypt in 1856, where he spent four months navigating the Nile and then another four months residing at the home of Soliman Pasha in Cairo. He was immediately taken with the people, land and local culture and continued to visit Egypt, as well as Turkey, Palestine and Algeria, numerous times throughout the remainder of his life.  More

Egyptian Grain-cutters Painting
Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
Egyptian Grain-cutters 
Oil on Panel
c. 1859

In this small, elegant composition Gérôme depicts two Egyptian Fellahs or peasants cutting grain in the cool, clear light of the morning sun. The frieze-like composition, featuring the figures and animals in strict profile, and shallow foreground space impart a classical quality to the image, which is further enhanced by the limited palette and abbreviated brushstrokes. The area depicted appears to be the middle to upper region of Egypt where the cliffs are located near the valley of the Nile River, unlike the flatter delta region in the south. Small pools of water are evidence of the Nile's flooding of the valley from June until October, allowing the farmers to cultivate the land in the following months. More

At the same Salon he exhibited the Egyptian Chopping Straw, and Rembrandt Biting an Etching, two very minutely finished works.

Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
Rembrandt Etching a Plate in His Atelier
c. 1861
Oil on Panel
16.1x13.2 in, 41x34 cm

Jean-Léon Gérôme died in his atelier on 10 January 1904. He was found in front of a portrait of Rembrandt and close to his own painting The Truth.

He started an independent atelier at his house in the Rue de Bruxelles between 1860 and 1862.

Gérôme was elected a member of the Institut de France in 1865. Already a knight in the Légion d'honneur, he was promoted to an officer in 1867. In 1869, he was elected an honorary member of the British Royal Academy. The King of Prussia Wilhelm I awarded him the Grand Order of the Red Eagle, Third Class. His fame had become such that he was invited, along with the most eminent French artists, to the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869.

File:La Mort du Maréchal Ney (1868).jpg
Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
7 December 1815, Nine o’clock in the Morning. The execution of 
Marshall Ney
c. 1867
Oil on canvas
65.2 x 104.2 cm
Museums Sheffield

Michel Ney, 1st Duc d'Elchingen, 1st Prince de la Moskowa (10 January 1769 – 7 December 1815), was a French soldier and military commander during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He was one of the original 18 Marshals of the Empire created by Napoleon. 

At Waterloo Ney ordered a mass cavalry charge against the Anglo-Allied line. Ney's cavalry overran the enemy cannons, but found the infantry formed in cavalry-proof square formations. Ney, without infantry or artillery support, failed to break the squares. The action earned Ney criticism, and some argue that it led to Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo. 

Ney was arrested (on 3 August 1815). He was tried (4 December 1815) for treason by the Chamber of Peers. On 6 December 1815, he was condemned, and executed by firing squad in Paris, an event that deeply divided the French public. He refused to wear a blindfold and was allowed the right to give the order to fire.

Ney's execution was an example intended for Napoleon's other marshals and generals, many of whom were eventually exonerated by the Bourbon monarchy. Ney is buried in Paris at Père Lachaise Cemetery. More

The theme of his Death of Caesar (1867) was repeated in his historical canvas Death of Marshall Ney, that was exhibited at the Salon of 1867, despite official pressure to withdraw it as it raised painful memories.

Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
L'Eminence Grise
c. 1873
68.6 x 101 cm (27 x 39 3/4 in.)
Oil on canvas
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

L’Eminence Grise recreates the palace of Cardinal Richelieu, the “Red Cardinal,” virtual ruler of France during the childhood of Louis XIII. Descending the staircase is Richelieu’s chief adviser, François Le Clerc du Trembly, a Capuchin friar known as L’Eminence grise (the Gray Cardinal), a term that has come to mean “the power behind the throne.” More

Gérôme returned successfully to the Salon in 1873 with his painting L'Eminence Grise, a colorful depiction of the main stair hall of the palace of Cardinal Richelieu, popularly known as the Red Cardinal, who was France's de facto ruler under King Louis XIII beginning in 1624.

Gérôme, Jean, (1824-1904), Truth Rising from Her Well to Shame Mankind, 1896
Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904)
Truth Rising from Her Well to Shame Mankind
c. 1896
Oil on canvas
90.81 X 71.76 cm
Musée Anne de Beaujeu - Moulins (France)

In 1896 Gérôme painted Truth Rising from her Well, an attempt to describe the transparency of an illusion. He therefore welcomed the rise of photography as an alternative to his photographic painting. In 1902, he said "Thanks to photography, Truth has at last left her well."

Jean-Léon Gérôme died in his atelier on 10 January 1904. He was found in front of a portrait of Rembrandt and close to his own painting "The Truth". At his own request, he was given a simple burial service without flowers. But the Requiem Mass given in his memory was attended by a former president of the Republic, most prominent politicians, and many painters and writers. He was buried in the Montmartre Cemetery in front of the statue Sorrow that he had cast for his son Jean who had died in 1891.

Acknowledgment: Wikipedia

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