15 Classic Works of Art, Marine Paintings - With Footnotes, 14

Thomas Bush HARDY, (1842-1897)
Busy shipping off Boulogne Pier, c. 1891
10.25” x 23” (26cm x 58.4cm)
Private collection

Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne, is a city in Northern France. Boulogne lies on the Côte d'Opale, a tourist coast on the English Channel, and is the most-visited location in its region after the Lille conurbation. It is also the country's largest fishing port, specialising in herring.
Boulogne was the major Roman port for trade and communication with Britain. After a period of Germanic presence following the collapse of the Empire, Boulogne was at the centre of an eponymous county of the Kingdom of France during the Middle Ages, and was occupied by the Kingdom of England numerous times due to conflict between the two nations.
The city's 12th-century belfry is recognised by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site,[5] while another popular attraction is the marine conservation centre, Nausicaa. More

Thomas Bush Hardy (1842, Sheffield – 1897, Maida Vale, London) was a British marine painter and watercolourist. As a young man he travelled in the Netherlands and Italy. In 1884 Hardy was elected a Member of the Royal Society of British Artists. He exhibited with the Society and also at the Royal Academy.
His paintings feature coastal scenes in England and the Netherlands, the French Channel ports and the Venetian Lagoon.
Hardy had nine children. His son Dudley Hardy was a painter, illustrator and poster designer. His daughter Dorothy received an MBE after working as a nurse in the First World War. He died on 15 December 1897 in Maida Vale, London. More

Thomas Bush Hardy, 1842-1897
Off Boulogne, c. 1877
12.48 X 19.84 in (31.7 X 50.4 cm)
Private collection

Thomas Bush Hardy, 1842-1897, see above

Édouard Manet
The Jetty at Boulogne-sur-Mer, c. 1868
Oil on canvas
59 cm (23.23 in.), Width: 73 cm (28.74 in.)
Van Gogh Museum  (Netherlands - Amsterdam)

Édouard Manet (23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter. He was one of the first 19th-century artists to paint modern life, and a pivotal figure in the transition from Realism to Impressionism.

His early masterworks, The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) and Olympia, both 1863, caused great controversy and served as rallying points for the young painters who would create Impressionism. Today, these are considered watershed paintings that mark the genesis of modern art. More

Frank Earle Schoonover, 1877 - 1972
Brawn of These Lads Made the Pike a Match for a Pirate’s Cutlass, 1922
Oil on canvas
27.5 x 36 in.
Private collection

The painting is based on the book, Blackbeard Buccaneer, by Ralph D Paine

Frank Earle Schoonover (August 19, 1877 – September 1, 1972) was an American illustrator who worked in Wilmington, Delaware. Born in Oxford, New Jersey, Schoonover studied under Howard Pyle at the Drexel Institute in Philadelphia and became part of what would be known as the Brandywine School. A prolific contributor to books and magazines during the early twentieth century, the so-called "Golden Age of Illustration", he illustrated stories as diverse as Clarence Mulford's Hopalong Cassidy stories and Edgar Rice Burroughs's A Princess of Mars. In 1918 and 1919, he produced a series of paintings along with Gayle Porter Hoskins illustrating the American forces in the First World War for a series of souvenir prints published in the Ladies Home Journal. Schoonover helped to organize what is now the Delaware Art Museum and was chairman of the fundraising committee charged with acquiring works by Howard Pyle. In his later years he restored paintings including some by Pyle and turned to easel paintings of the Brandywine and Delaware landscapes. He also gave art lessons, established a small art school in his studio, designed stain glass windows, and dabbled in science fiction art, he was known locally as the “Dean of Delaware Artists.” Schoonover died at 94, leaving behind more than two thousand illustrations. More

Ivan Aivazovsky, (1817–1900
Among the waves, c. 1898
Oil on canvas
66 × 97 cm (26 × 38.2 in)
Aivazovsky National Art Gallery, Feodosia, Crimea. 

Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (29 July 1817 – 2 May 1900) was a Russian Romantic painter. Aivazovsky was born into an Armenian family in the Black Sea port of Feodosia and was mostly based in his native Crimea.

Following his education at the Imperial Academy of Arts, Aivazovsky traveled to Europe and lived briefly in Italy in the early 1840s. He then returned to Russia and was appointed the main painter of the Russian Navy. Aivazovsky had close ties with the military and political elite of the Russian Empire and often attended military maneuvers. He was sponsored by the state and was well-regarded during his lifetime.

One of the most prominent Russian artists of his time, Aivazovsky was also popular outside Russia. He held numerous solo exhibitions in Europe and the United States. During his almost 60-year career, he created around 6,000 paintings, making him one of the most prolific artists of his time.The vast majority of his works are seascapes, but he often depicted battle scenes, Armenian themes, and portraiture. Most of Aivazovsky's works are kept in Russian, Ukrainian and Armenian museums as well as private collections. More

Hovhannes Aivazovsky, (1817 - 1900)
The Ninth Wave, c. 1850
Oil on canvas
Height: 2,210 mm (87.01 in). Width: 3,320 mm (130.71 in).
State Russian Museum

The title refers to the nautical tradition that waves grow larger and larger in a series up to the largest wave, the ninth wave, at which point the series starts again.

Hovhannes Aivazovsky, (1817 - 1900)
The Ninth Wave, c. 1850

It depicts a sea after a night storm and people facing death attempting to save themselves by clinging to debris from a wrecked ship. The painting has warm tones, which reduce the sea's apparent menacing overtones and a chance for the people to survive seems plausible. This painting shows the destructive side, and beauty of nature. More

Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (29 July 1817 – 2 May 1900), see above

DON STONE, (ME/NH, 1929-2015)
A Full Deck
Oil on canvas
38" x 48", SS: 29 1/2" x 39 1/2"
Private collection

Maine label, depicting four fishermen on a trawler with dory alongside hauling in their nets.

Don Stone, NA, 1929-2015, was a known modern impressionist painter, He, was elected to full membership in the National Academy of Design, the American Watercolor Society (Dolphin Fellow), American Society of Marine Artists (Fellow), Salmagundi Club (Honorary Member), and the New England Watercolor Society (Lifetime Honorary Member).

In addition, Stone was a member of the Guild of Boston Artists, Allied Artists of America, the Hudson Valley Art Association, the Rockport Art Association (Lifetime Member), the North Shore Art Association and a number of smaller regional art associations with whom he exhibited over the years. His work has been exhibited in various public museums, including the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the Museum of Mobile, Alabama, and the Canton Art Institute, Canton, Ohio. He won numerous awards, including two Greenshields Foundation Grants and First Prize in Juried Shows at both the Rockport Art Association and the North Shore Art Association. More

Marc-Aurèle Fortin
Barge, Port of Montreal
11.02 X 14.57 in (28 X 37 cm)
Private collection

Marc-Aurèle Fortin (March 14, 1888 – March 2, 1970) was a Québécois painter, born in 1888 in Ste-Rose, Quebec. He studied art in Montreal and worked at the Montreal Post Office, and at an Edmonton bank. He studied art abroad. He was known for painting watercolour landscapes of the St. Lawrence Valley. He travelled around the St. Lawrence Valley by bicycle. Fortin believed that "Canadian artists should take their inspiration from the countryside and progress towards a national art... We should excel in landscapes, exactly as the French do".

He was part of the first Atelier exhibition at Henry Morgan Galleries in April 1932 together with Atelier founder John Goodwin Lyman, André Biéler, and Edwin Holgate. Fortin was exhibited by Galerie L'Art français from the 1940s.

His works are displayed at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts in Montreal. He was a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts[3] He died in 1970. More

 Eugène Galien-Laloue, (1854-1941)
Quais de Paris, c. 1920
Oil on canvas
44 x 65.5 cm
Private collection

Impressions from Belle Époque Paris: The painting shows a part of the Seine dockside with fishermen, merchants, ships and the cityscape in the background – the work is characterized by the contrast of brown depiction and white sky. 

Eugène Galien-Laloue (1854–1941) was a French artist of French-Italian parents and was born in Paris on December 11, 1854. He was a populariser of street scenes, usually painted in autumn or winter. 
His paintings of the early 1900s accurately represent the era in which he lived: a happy, bustling Paris, la Belle Époque, with horse-drawn carriages, trolley cars and its first omnibuses. Galien-Laloue's works are valued not only for their contribution to 20th-century art, but for the actual history, which they document. His work can be seen at the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Louvier; Musée des Beaux-Arts, La Rochelle; Mulhouse, France. 
A typical Galien-Laloue painting depicts sidewalks and avenues crowded with people or tourists mingling before the capital's monuments. He also painted the landscapes of Normandy and Seine-et-Marne, as well as military scenes he was commissioned to produce in 1914. The Republic of France selected Galien-Laloue to work as a 'war artist,' both during the Franco-Prussian War and World War I, chiefly in watercolor. 
Galien-Laloue was in exclusive contract with one gallery and used 5 other names: "L.Dupuy", "Juliany", "E.Galiany", "Lievin" and "Dumoutier". More

Paul Lehmann-Brauns, (1885-1970)
Hamburg Harbor Scene, 1930
Oil on cardboard
58 x 67 cm
Private collection

In the late 1920s Hamburg was an affluent city on the River Elbe. Proclaimed as Germany’s ‘gateway to the world,’ Hamburg was the country’s largest seaport and played a key role in facilitating its commercial prosperity. More

Paul Lehmann-Brauns (23. October 1885 in Gdansk ; † 24. April 1970 in Berlin ) was a German landscape painter. He was born as Max Felix Paul Lehmann in Neufahrwasser Gdansk harbor at the mouth of the Vistula .

As Lehmann was a very common name, he was called from 1918 Paul Lehmann fairway with reference to his birthplace Neufahrwasser. His younger brother Georg , born on February 8, 1887, also a painter was under the same name Lehmann fairway. This led understandably to confusion that Paul, in 1923, change his stage name to Lehmann-Brauns. His brother kept the name Georg Lehmann fairway.

Paul chose the North Frisian Islands as the focus of his work; the island Foehr played a prominent role. More

Edward William Cooke, (27 March 1811 – 4 January 1880)
Axmouth Harbour, Devon, low water, c. 1861
Oil on canvas 
26.25 X 42.25 in (66.68 X 107.32 cm)
Private collection

Axmouth is a village and civil parish in the East Devon district of Devon, England, near the mouth of the River Axe. The village itself is about 1 km inland, although the parish extends to the sea. The village is near Seaton and Beer which are on the other side of the Axe estuary. According to Historic England, 'Axmouth was ranked as a major port by the mid-14th century and accounted for 15% of the country’s shipping trade'. The remains of a late medieval fishing boat can be seen at low tide in the River Axe, just south-west of the village. More

The harbour offers access over high water. Tidal streams run strongly within the entrance channel and river, particularly on spring tides when entry and leaving times are critical. More

Edward William Cooke, R.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.S.A., F.G.S. (27 March 1811 – 4 January 1880) was an English landscape and marine painter, and gardener. Cooke was born in Pentonville, London, the son of well-known line engraver George Cooke; his uncle, William Bernard Cooke (1778–1855), was also a line engraver of note, and Edward was raised in the company of artists. He was a precocious draughtsman and a skilled engraver from an early age, displayed an equal preference for marine subjects (in special in sailing ships) and published his "Shipping and Craft" – a series of accomplished engravings – when he was 18, in 1829. He benefited from the advice of many of his father’s associates, notably Clarkson Stanfield and David Roberts. Cooke began painting in oils in 1833, took formal lessons from James Stark in 1834 and first exhibited at the Royal Academy and British Institution in 1835, by which time his style was essentially formed.

Edward William Cooke
View Of St. Agnes, Scilly Isles, before 1880

Oil on canvas
Private collection

St Agnes is the southernmost populated island of the Isles of Scilly — the island is the southernmost settlement in the United Kingdom and England; and joins the island of Gugh by a tombolo, a kind of sandbar, called the Gugh Bar, which is exposed only at low tide. 

The island's most notable landmark is its lighthouse. Built in 1680, as it is the most westerly of the inhabitable islands and close to the collection of rocks, tidal flows and currents, now known as the Western Rocks. It was coal fired until 1790, when it was converted to oil, with copper lamps and twenty-one revolving reflectors. It stands 74' above the ground, and 138' above mean high water. It now serves as a daymark for shipping. More

He went on to travel and paint with great industry at home and abroad, indulging his love of the 17th-century Dutch marine artists with a visit to the Netherlands in 1837. He returned regularly over the next 23 years, studying the effects of the coastal landscape and light, as well as the works of the country's Old Masters, resulting in highly successful paintings. He went on to travel in Scandinavia, Spain, North Africa and, above all, to Venice. In 1858, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Academician.

Cooke also had serious natural history and geological interests, being a Fellow of the Linnean Society, Fellow of the Geological Society and Fellow of the Zoological Society, and of the Society of Antiquaries. His geological interests in particular led to his election as Fellow of the Royal Society in 1863 and he became a Royal Academician the following year.

In 1842 John Edward Gray named a species of boa, Corallus cookii, in Cooke's honor. More

Thomas Luny, (1759–1837)
H.M.S. Bellerophon Lying at Anchor, 1827
Oil on canvas
29 5/8 × 39 3/4 in

75.2 × 101 cm

On 15th July 1815, almost ten years after the battle of Trafalgar, Napoleon Bonaparte surrendered himself to Captain Frederick Maitland, the commander of the 74-gun H.M.S. Bellerophon, which was then blockading the French port of Rochefort. The fallen emperor was taken to Torbay where he was held prisoner on the H.M.S. Bellerophon for over three weeks, without ever being allowed to set foot in England. Despite a cloak of secrecy, word leaked out that Bonaparte was onboard, and the news created a sensation as crowds of spectators took to their boats and braved the sea to catch a glimpse of the defeated Napoléon.

Thomas Luny (1759–1837), born in Cornwall, an English artist and painter, mostly of seascapes and other marine-based works. At the age of eleven, Luny left Cornwall to live in London. There he became the apprentice of Francis Holman, a marine painter who would have a great and long lasting artistic influence on Luny: Luny remained until 1780 in Holman's London studio.

In September 1777, Luny left Holman's studio to journey to France. During this particular expedition, Luny almost certainly strayed from France itself; his first exhibited picture in London, seen at the Society of Artists that same year, was given the title A distant view of the island of Madeira and Porto Santo, suggesting that an engraving had inspired his choice of subject. Similarly, it is unlikely that Luny was on hand for the Battle of the Nile, 1798, and the bombar

Luny left Holman's studio in 1780. It was around this time that Luny was frequently exhibiting at the Royal Academy, in a total of twenty-nine exhibitions between 1780 and 1802. In Leadenhall Street, Luny became acquainted with a "Mr. Merle", a dealer and framer of paintings who promoted Luny's paintings for over twenty years, to great success. Luny also found a wealthy source of business in Leadenhall Street, where the British East India Company had their headquarters; their officers commissioned many paintings and portraits from Luny. This relationship between the Company and Luny also had several non-monetary benefits for Luny; it seems probable that, considering the great detail and realistic look of many of his sketches of locations such as Naples, Gibraltar, and Charleston, South Carolina, Luny was occasionally invited as a guest on the Company's ships on special occasions and voyages.

Several years later, in 1807, Luny decided to move again, this time to Teignmouth in Devon. There he received a number of commissions. Luny was by that time suffering with arthritis in both of his hands. This had no obvious impact on the quality or pace of his artistic work. In fact, of his lifetime oeuvre of over 3,000 works, over 2,200 were produced between 1807 and his death.[2] He died on 30 September 1837. More

H.M.S. Bellerophon Lying at Anchor, 1827

Luny captures this historic moment to dramatic effect in this remarkable oil on canvas. The scene is masterfully composed to emphasis Britain's ultimate victory; the diminutive Napoléon, glimpsed through a window in the Bellerophon's stern, is dwarfed in comparison to the might of England's warship and billowing flag. Both figuratively and metaphorically diminished, Napoléon gazes out towards the sea as he awaits his fate, while British bystanders look on, eager to catch a glimpse of their country's long-standing foe. More

Oscar-Claude Monet, (14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926)
Au Large, Off the coast, c. 1815-1918
Pastel on paper
21 5/8 × 16 1/8 in
54.9 × 41 cm

Au Large is an example of the early work of Claude Monet. Heralded today as one of the world's most legendary artists, Monet's works reveal his obsession with light and atmosphere. This stunning composition is no exception. The pastel also presents a rare medium for the artist, who is best known for his oil paintings composed en plein air.

Au Large stands as a precursor to the spontaneity and impressionistic verve of Monet's later oils. It was composed in the late 1860s, less than 10 years after Monet decided to pursue a career as an artist. His early oil paintings from this period reveal the influences of the great French Barbizon and landscape painters, particularly those he encountered during his days in Le Havre. Eugene Boudin, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, and Charles-François Daubigny, among others, would have a profound influence on his style. Boudin, in particular, encouraged the young Monet to set up his easel outdoors in order to best capture the world around him, and Monet's early Impressionism came to emulate the natural and vibrant light of his first teacher - though with a heavier hand. More

Oscar-Claude Monet (14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting.[1][2] The term "Impressionism" is derived from the title of his painting Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which was exhibited in 1874 in the first of the independent exhibitions mounted by Monet and his associates as an alternative to the Salon de Paris.

Monet's ambition of documenting the French countryside led him to adopt a method of painting the same scene many times in order to capture the changing of light and the passing of the seasons. From 1883 Monet lived in Giverny, where he purchased a house and property, and began a vast landscaping project which included lily ponds that would become the subjects of his best-known works. In 1899 he began painting the water lilies, first in vertical views with a Japanese bridge as a central feature, and later in the series of large-scale paintings that was to occupy him continuously for the next 20 years of his life. More

The Mighty Westward racing for the King's Cup at Cowes on August 8, 1934, with Velsheda, Astra, Candida, Shamrock and Britannia, 20th Century
Oil on canvas
36 × 45 1/4 × 3 in
91.4 × 114.9 × 7.6 cm

In the present work, Dews' skillful depiction of dynamic movement is fully evident as he faithfully renders the Westward racing towards victory in the King's Cup. Imbued with excitement and energy, the painting captures the action and excitement of ships at full sail, pulling the viewer into the adventure of the race. More

John Steven Dews (British, b. 1949) was born in Beverley, North Humberside in 1949. He has risen from a boy who failed his art 'A' level to become Britain's most sought-after living marine artist. His grandfather was then Assistant Dockmaster at the Hull Docks. He were brought up on a tradition of the sea, the family being able to trace their nautical connections back to the seventeenth century.

Steven, who had been turned down by various naval institutions, settled for Hull Regional College of Art where he graduated in Technical Graphics and Illustration. He moved back to his parents and borrowed a friend’s derelict farmhouse on the northern banks of the Humber. Here, where the light, the skies and the atmosphere were perfect, Steven spent hours painting in a makeshift studio.

John Steven Dews (British, b. 1949)
The battle of Trafalgar
H.M.S. “Victory” breaking the enemy line and raking the stern of the French flagship as she goes through 
Oil on canvas
101.6 x 167.6cm. (40 x 66in.)
Privately held

He studied photographs, reference books, model ships and architectural drawings, especially noting the sea and sky in their various moods and produced hundreds of pencil sketches graduating to accurate drawings incorporating measurements.

In 1976, his first exhibition was mounted. Virtually the whole body of work was sold on the first night and seventeen commissions were received. The following year he had an exhibition in San Francisco which sold out to large critical acclaim and heralded a secure future as an artist. As a consequence of the number of commissions gained from this exhibition, much of Steven’s work from this period was to cross the Atlantic.

His pictures also formed a major one-man touring fund-raising exhibition opened by HRH The Prince of Wales in support of the excavation of the site of the ”Mary Rose”, Henry VIII’s warship. The exhibition was scheduled for twenty-four destinations around the UK including the National Maritime Museum, and closed at Amoco’s headquarters in Chicago.

As Steven’s reputation blossomed, so did his lifelong affair with the sea. He was able to buy his first yacht and, when not painting the sea, was out sailing on it. In his studio he concentrated on the meticulous detail essential for the accuracy and realism of his painting. Always demanding perfection from his work, he developed techniques to help him. 

He lives and loves the subject he paints, with much of his spare time spent sailing. 'How is it possible to express the air and sea and sky without having experienced the elements, knowing how a ship works, pulled the ropes ?' he asks. More

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