17 Classic Works of Art, Marine Paintings - With Footnotes - 9

Constantinos Volanakis 1837-1907 GREEK A COASTAL BAY signed in Greek lower left oil on panel 29.5 by 39cm., 11½ by 15¼in.:
Constantinos Volanakis
signed in Greek lower left
oil on panel
29.5 by 39cm., 11½ by 15¼in

Konstantinos Volanakis (1837, Heraklion - 29 June 1907, Piraeus) was a Greek painter who became known as the "father of Greek seascape painting". He completed his basic education on Syros in 1856. Afterward, urged on by his brothers, he went to Trieste and became an accountant for a family of Greek merchants who were related to his family by marriage. While there, he made sketches of ships and harbors in his account books. Rather than dismiss him, the family recognized his artistic talent, and made arrangements for him to study at the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich, under Karl von Piloty, joining a group of Greek students that included Nikolaos Gyzis, Georgios Jakobides, Nikiphoros Lytras and Polychronis Lembesis. His instructors discouraged any sort of landscape painting, because it was "in decline", so he concentrated on portraits.

His break came in 1869, three years after the Battle of Lissa (Below), when Emperor Franz Joseph held a drawing competition to memorialize the event. Volanakis won the contest, receiving 1000 gold Florins and free travel cruises with the Austrian navy for three years. He took full advantage of this, producing numerous canvases and sketches. He married in 1874. Nine years later, despite warnings from Gyzis that it would ruin his career, he returned to Greece and settled in Piraeus, where his family had a pottery factory, citing pressure from his wife, whose health was suffering from the cold winters in Germany.

From then until 1903, he was a teacher at the Athens School of Fine Arts, where one of his best-known students was Michalis Oikonomou. He also operated his own private school. In 1889, he was awarded the Silver Cross of the Order of the Redeemer. He was, however, very poor in his later years, due to his very large family and declining interest in his art. In an effort to increase his income, he reversed the usual method of painting first, then framing, by working with a group of framers who would make luxurious carved frames first, then creating paintings to fit them.

He died from complications related to a major hernia. His funeral was on an important election day, so very few people attended. Most of his works are in private collections. More

File:Constantine Volanakis Naval battle at Lissa.jpg
Konstantinos Volanakis (1837–1907)
Naval battle at Lissa, c. 1869
Oil on canvas
283 × 169 cm (111.4 × 66.5 in)
Museum of Fine Arts. Budapest, Hungary

The Battle of Lissa (sometimes called Battle of Vis) took place on 20 July 1866 in the Adriatic Sea near the Dalmatian island of Lissa ("Vis" in Croatian) and was a decisive victory for an outnumbered Austrian Empire force over a numerically superior Italian force. It was the first major sea battle between ironclads and one of the last to involve deliberate ramming. More

Hendrik Willem Mesdag 1831 - 1915 DUTCH SUNDAY MORNING signed H. W. Mesdag lower left oil on canvas 48 by 79cm., 19 by 31in.:
Hendrik Willem Mesdag
1831 - 1915
signed H. W. Mesdag lower left
oil on canvas
48 by 79cm., 19 by 31in.

Hendrik Willem Mesdag (23 February 1831 – 10 July 1915) was a Dutch marine painter. He was born in Groningen, the son of the banker Klaas Mesdag and his wife Johanna Wilhelmina van Giffen. Mesdag was encouraged by his father, an amateur painter, to study art. He married Sina van Houten in 1856, and when they inherited a fortune from her father, Mesdag retired from banking at the age of 35 to pursue a career as a painter.

He studied in Brussels with Willem Roelofs and in 1868 moved to The Hague to paint the sea. In 1870 he exhibited at the Paris Salon and won the gold medal for The Breakers of the North Sea.

In 1880 he received a commission from a Belgian company to paint a panorama giving a view over the village of Scheveningen on the North Sea coast near The Hague . With the help of Sina and students he completed the enormous painting (Panorama Mesdag) — 14 m high and 120 m around — by 1881. However, the vogue for panoramas was coming to an end, and when the company operating it went bust in 1886, Mesdag purchased the painting at auction and thereafter funding its operating losses from his own pocket.

He joined the art society of The Hague (the Pulchri Studio) and in 1889 was elected chairman. In 1903 he gave his house at Laan van Meerdervoort and his collection of paintings to the Netherlands; the house is now the Museum Mesdag. More

File:Mesdag, Preparations for departure.jpg
Hendrik Willem Mesdag (1831–1915)
Preparations for departure
Oil on canvas
54.6 × 70.5 cm (21.5 × 27.8 in)
Private collection

Johannes Hermanus Koekkoek 1778 - 1851 DUTCH SHIPS ON THE IJ, WITH THE WESTERTOREN IN THE DISTANCE signed H.K.KOEKKOEK lower right on the hull of the boat; signed, titled and dated Gesigt op Amsterdam / geschildert Ao 1819 / J.H. Koekkoek /tot / Harlingen on the reverse oil on panel 75.5 by 106cm., 29¾ by 41¾in.:
Johannes Hermanus Koekkoek
1778 - 1851
signed H.K.KOEKKOEK lower right on the hull of the boat; signed, titled and dated Gesigt op Amsterdam / geschildert Ao 1819 / J.H. Koekkoek /tot / Harlingen on the reverse
oil on panel
75.5 by 106cm., 29¾ by 41¾in.

Johannes Hermanus Koekkoek, (Veere, 17 August 1778 – Amsterdam, 9 January 1851) was a Dutch painter and draughtsman. Koekkoek was the head of an artistic family. His sons Barend Cornelis Koekkoek, Hermanus Koekkoek (1815–1882) and Marinus Adrianus Koekkoek (1807–1868) were all successful artists; the first two specialized in marine art, and Marinus was primarily a landscape painter. His grandson Johannes Hermanus Barend Koekkoek also became an artist. More

William Joy (British, 1803-1867) and John Cantiloe Joy (British, 1806-1866) Moored vessels
William Joy (British, 1803-1867) and John Cantiloe Joy (British, 1806-1866)
Moored vessels 
signed and dated 'JOY, 1857' (lower right)
29.3 x 42cm (11 9/16 x 16 9/16in)

George William Joy (July 7, 1844 in Dublin, Ireland – October 28, 1925 in Purbrook, Hampshire) was an Irish painter in London. He was initially destined for the military and was also an accomplished violin player. After a foot injury at young age, his father declared him unfit for military service. Joy was then educated at Harrow School and eventually pursued a career as an artist. He studied in London's South Kensington School of Art and later at the Royal Academy under John Everett Millais, Frederic Leighton and George Frederic Watts; among his fellow students was Hubert von Herkomer.

In 1868 Joy went to Paris where for two years he was a student of Charles-François Jalabert and Léon Bonnat. There he met masters like Gérôme, Cabanel, Jules Breton, Jules Lefebvre und Philippe Rousseau.

Going back to London, Joy established himself as a history and genre painter, and became a frequent exhibitor at the Royal Academy, the Salon des artistes français and the Royal Hibernian Academy. He became a member of the Royal Institute of Oil Painters in 1895.

To satisfy his early military ambitions, Joy entered the Artists Rifles where he was known as a good shot, representing Ireland several times. He spent many winters in Swanage from 1896 and eventually retired to Purbrook. Both of his sons were killed in 1915 during World War I. Morehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_W._Joy

William Joy (British, 1803-1867) and John Cantiloe Joy (British, 1806-1866) The Donegal at sea
William Joy (British, 1803-1867) and John Cantiloe Joy (British, 1806-1866)
The Donegal at sea
signed and dated 'JOY 85' (lower right) watercolour 
36 x 50.7cm (14 3/16 x 19 15/16in)

The Barra was a Téméraire class 74-gun ship of the line of the French Navy. She was renamed Pégase in October 1795, and Hoche in December 1797. She was captured by the British on 12 October 1798 and recommissioned in the Royal Navy as HMS Donegal.

As Hoche, she took part in the French attempt to land in County Donegal, in the west of Ulster, to support the Irish Rebellion of 1798. She formed the flagship of an expedition under Commodore Jean-Baptiste-François Bompart, consisting of Hoche and eight frigates, and transporting 3,000 French troops. The battle started at 07:00 in the morning, with Warren giving the signal for HMS Robust to steer for the French line and attack Hoche directly. Hoche then came under fire from HMS Magnanime. Heavily damaged, Bompart finally surrendered at 10:50 with 270 of his crew and passengers killed or wounded, giving his sword to Lieutenant Sir Charles Dashwood. Wolfe Tone was later recognised and arrested.

The captured Hoche was taken into service and renamed HMS Donegal. She spent 1800 in Plymouth, and in 1801 came under the command of Captain Sir Richard. Donegal was initially deployed in the English Channel, then she was assigned to watch the French squadron at Cadiz. Whilst on this station, she spotted and gave chase to the large 42-gun Spanish frigate Amfitrite in November 1804. After pursuing her for 46 hours, Amfitrite lost her mizzen-top-mast and Donegal subsequently overhauled her.

By 1805 Donegal was still off Cadiz, under the command of Captain Pulteney Malcolm. She then accompanied Vice-admiral Nelson in his pursuit of the combined fleets across the Atlantic to the West Indies and back. She was not present at Trafalgar, but was able, on 23 October, to capture the partially dismasted Spanish first rate Rayo which had escaped Trafalgar, but had been ordered to sea again to attempt to recapture some of the British prizes.

Donegal was also part of a squadron off San Domingo on 6 February. The lines moved to attack the French ships and the Battle of San Domingo broke out (see Below). Donegal initially engaged the Brave with several broadsides. After the battle, Donegal had lost her fore-yard and had 12 killed and 33 wounded

 Donegal was at Spithead in 1808 and over a period of five days  oversaw the disembarkation of Sir Arthur Wellesley's army at Mondego Bay. Donegal’s first-lieutenant James Askey acted as the beach-master during the landings.

On 23 February 1809 Donegal was part of a squadron under Rear-admiral Stopford, when they chased three enemy frigates into the Sable d'Olonne, leading to the Battle of Les Sables-d'Olonne. Donegal suffered one man killed and six wounded in the engagement. 

Donegal was commanded by acting-Captain Edward Pelham Brenton when she sailed for Cadiz on 24 July 1809, carrying the ambassador to the Junta at Seville, Marquess Richard Wellesley, brother of Sir Arthur Wellesley. 

On 13 November 1810, the frigates HMS Diana and Niobe attacked two French frigates (Élisa and Amazone) which sought protection under the shore batteries near La Hogue. Donegal and Revenge arrived the two days later and together the four ships fired upon the French for as long as the tide would allow. Donegal had three men wounded in this action. 

She spent most of 1811 off Cherbourg, before being reduced to ordinary at Portsmouth later that year. She was later moved and spent 1814 in ordinary at Chatham. After the end of the Napoleonic era, she was refitted and brought back into service as a flagship, serving well into the 1830s; Donegal was eventually broken up in 1845. More

Duckworth's action off San Domingo, 6 February 1806, Nicholas Pocock.jpg
Nicholas Pocock
Duckworth's action off San Domingo, 6 February 1806

Nicholas Pocock (2 March 1740 – 9 March 1821) was a British artist known for his many detailed paintings of naval battles during the age of sail. He was born in Bristol in 1740, the son of a seaman. He followed his father's profession and was master of a merchant ship by the age of 26. During his time at sea, he became a skilled artist by making ink and wash sketches of ships and coastal scenes for his log books.

In 1778, Pocock's employer, Richard Champion, became financially insolvent due to the effects of the American Revolutionary War on transatlantic trade. As a result, Pocock gave up the sea and devoted himself to painting. The first of his works were exhibited by the Royal Academy in 1782.

Later that year, Pocock was commissioned to produce a series of paintings illustrating George Rodney's victory at the Battle of the Saintes. In 1789, he moved to London, where his reputation and contacts continued to grow. He was a favourite of Samuel Hood and was appointed Marine Painter to King George.

Pocock's naval paintings incorporated extensive research, including interviewing  eyewitnesses about weather and wind conditions as well as the positions, condition, and appearance of their ships; and drawing detailed plans of the battle and preliminary sketches of individual ships. He was also present himself at the Glorious First of June in 1794, on board the frigate HMS Pegasus.

In addition to his large-scale oil paintings depicting naval battles, Pocock also produced many watercolours of coastal and ship scenes. More

File:Nicholas Pocock - The Battle of Copenhagen, 2 April 1801.jpg
Nicholas Pocock (1740–1821)
The Battle of Copenhagen, 2 April 1801
Oil on canvas
71 × 101.5 cm (28 × 40 in)
National Maritime Museum

The Battle of Copenhagen, 2 April 1801 was an engagement which saw a British fleet under the command of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker fight a huge Danish fleet anchored just off Copenhagen on 2 April 1801. Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson led the main attack. He famously is reputed to have disobeyed Sir Hyde Parker's order to withdraw by holding the telescope to his blind eye to look at the signals from Parker. Parker's signals had given Nelson permission to withdraw at his discretion, yet he declined. Copenhagen is often considered to be Nelson's hardest-fought victory, with the Danes offering a very stubborn resistance. More

William Joy (British, 1803-1867) Shipping moored on an estuary
William Joy (British, 1803-1867)
Shipping moored on an estuary 
signed 'W. JOY' (lower right)
16 x 26cm (6 5/16 x 10 1/4in)

William Joy (British, 1803-1867) and John Cantiloe Joy (British, 1806-1866) Vessels moored in a calm
William Joy (British, 1803-1867) and John Cantiloe Joy (British, 1806-1866)
Vessels moored in a calm 
signed and dated 'JOY, 1857' (lower right)
30 x 45.5cm (11 13/16 x 17 15/16in)

Samuel Owen (British, 1768-1857) Shipping on the Thames
Samuel Owen (British, 1768-1857)
Shipping on the Thames 
20.5 x 15.3cm (8 1/16 x 6in)

Samuel Owen (1769 - 8 December 1857) was an English marine painter and illustrator. Though born about 1769, Nothing is recorded of him before 1791, when he exhibited "A Sea View" at the Royal Academy. This was followed in 1797, after the victory of Cape St. Vincent, by "A View of the British and Spanish Fleets", and, in 1799, by three drawings of the engagement between the "HMS Director" (under Captain Bligh) and the Vryheid (Admiral De Winter) in the Battle of Camperdown on 11 Oct. 1797. These, with three other drawings exhibited in 1802 and 1807, complete the number of his exhibits at the Royal Academy.[1]

In 1808 he joined the "Associated Artists in Water-Colours", and sent eleven drawings of shipping and marine subjects to the first exhibition of that short-lived body. He also exhibited twelve works in 1809, and six in 1810, but after that date resigned his membership. His works were carefully drawn and freshly coloured, with great attention to the details of shipping. " Among them are the series of 84 drawings which were engraved by William Bernard Cooke for his work "The Thames", published in 1811, and eleven others made for the "Picturesque Tour of the River Thames", published by William Westall, R.A., and himself in 1838.

Owen died at Sunbury in Surrey, on the 8th December 1867, in his 89th year, but had long before ceased to practise his art. More

Samuel Owen (British, 1768-1857) Moored ships in a calm
Samuel Owen (British, 1768-1857)
Moored ships in a calm 
signed and dated 'S. OWEN 1820' (on spar, lower right)
30 x 22.2cm (11 13/16 x 8 3/4in)

A. J. Jansen (British 19th/20th Century) 
The Dresden 
Signed A.J. Jansen and inscribed Antwerp l.r. 
Oil on canvas 

13 x 21 in (33 x 53.3 cm) 

USS Zeppelin was a passenger liner launched in 1914 as SS Zeppelin by Bremer Vulkan, Bremen-Vegesack, Germany, for Norddeutscher Lloyd (NDL). Due to the First World War she never entered NDL service. She had a career after the war first under White Star Line control, then briefly as the troop ship USS Zeppelin, next as the Orient SN Co liner SS Ormuz[1] and finally back with NDL as SS Dresden, More

A. J. Jansen is a British painter

A. F. Olson (American 19th Century) 
Steamer Franconia 
Signed A.F. Olson l.r. 
Watercolor on paper; apparently in good condition. Framed.* 
Sight size: 13-1/2 x 23 in (34.3 x 58.4 cm) 

Montague Dawson

Searching the Seas, H.M.S. Victory
39.25 X 65.5 in (99.7 X 166.37 cm)
Oil on canvas


Thomas Bush Hardy
Wind against tide, c. 1890
12 X 22.5 in (30.48 X 57.15 cm)

Montague Dawson RMSA, FRSA (1890–1973) was a British painter who was renowned as a maritime artist. His most famous paintings depict sailing ships, usually clippers or warships of the 18th and 19th centuries. More

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