17 Paintings of the Canals of Venice in the 18 & 19th Century, by the artists of the time, with foot notes. #2

Beppe Ciardi, 1875 - 1932, ITALIAN
Oil on canvas
27 3/4 by 31 3/4 in., 70.5 by 80.6 cm
Private Collection

Beppe Ciardi (1875–1932) was an Italian painter. Born in Venice, he was the son of the painter Guglielmo and the brother of Emma, who also became a notable artist. Beppe Ciardi studied under his father at the Venice Academy of Fine Arts from 1896. He graduated in 1899 and his participation in the Venice Biennale began the same year with the Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte di Venezia, where his work continued to be exhibited in later years and was featured in a solo show in 1912. The author of landscapes characterised by a symbolic interpretation of nature that won the esteem of critics, he was awarded the Fumagalli Prize in Milan (1900), a gold medal in Munich (1901) and a silver medal in San Francisco (1904). His work drew inspiration in later decades from everyday life in Venice and the countryside around Treviso. He died in the family villa at Quinto di Treviso in 1932. More

Antonio Reyna
A side view of Santa Maria della Salute
Oil on canvas 
25 1/2 x 20 3/4 in
Private Collection

Santa Maria della Salute, see below

Antonio Maria de Reyna Manescau (1859-1937), Spanish,  began life and his artistic passion in Malaga, studying at the Spanish city’s School of Fine Art. Encouraged to study abroad, he arrived in Rome and traveled on to Venice as early as 1876, and immediately began a lifelong effort to capture the canaled city's topical landscapes.

The architectural of Venice highlights the career works of Reyna. Often the Basillica at San Marcos, the Santa Maria della Salute, or other prominent landmarks are portrayed by this artist, and it is pleasant to note that his views of the remote backwaters and unique spots of the Italian City-State are given equal importance and weight by this artist.

Reyna painted with a critical focus for accurate proportions and colorful, vibrant subjects in his works. More often they are traditional horizontal presentations with a ratio of greater than two-to-one in width to height, focusing the views into panoramic scenes of vast distance and close detail combined. Reyna highlighted his career by exhibiting works with the National Society of Fine Art in Paris in 1887, and at a large exposition at the National University of Rome in 1911. More

Antonio Maria de Reyna Manescau (1859-1937)
A quiet canal in Venice
Oil on canvas 
18 3/8 x 13 1/2 in
Private Collection

Antonio Maria de Reyna Manescau (1859-1937), see above

Diana Maxwell Armfield RA (British, born 1920)
'Dusk in the Piazzetta, Venice'
Oil on canvas 
40 x 34cm (15 3/4 x 13 3/8in).
Private Collection

Diana Maxwell Armfield RA (British, born 1920) studied at the Slade School of Fine Art and Central School of Arts and Crafts. She was Artist in Residence in Perth, Australia in 1985, and in Jackson, Wyoming, USA in 1989.

She started her career in textile and wallpaper design in partnership with Roy Passano; they contributed to the 1951 Festival of Britain and examples of their work are in the permanent collection at the V&A.

After teaching at the Byam Shaw School of Art for some years, Armfield turned to painting in 1965 and has pursued a successful career ever since. “I enjoy the different challenges offered by working in pastel, watercolour and print making, but return to the two first and drawing as fundamental to my way of observing and translating.” In 2010 Browse and Darby held an exhibition to mark Armfield’s 90th birthday and she was the featured artist in the RWS Spring Show 2011. More

Ken Howard R.A. (British, born 1932)
Canal view, Venice 
Oil on canvas
61 x 30.5cm (24 x 12in).
Private Collection

Ken Howard R.A. (British, born 1932) studied at Hornsey School of Art from 1949 to 1953. He then did his National Service with the Royal Marines before returning to study at the Royal College of Art from 1955 to 1958. He went on to win a British Council Scholarship to Florence from 1958 to 1959.

Howard’s first solo show was held at the Plymouth Art Centre in 1955. Subsequent exhibitions were held in 1966 and 1968 at the John Whibley Gallery. From then on he exhibited extensively, both nationally and internationally, particularly with the New Grafton Gallery from the early 1970s. He was given a retrospective in 1972 at the Plymouth City Art Gallery and in 1973 and 1979 was appointed by the Imperial War Museum as official artist in Northern Ireland. He also worked with the British Army in Germany, Cyprus, Oman, Hong Kong, Nepal, Norway, Canada, Belize and Brunei from 1973 to 1982.

Howard was elected a member of the New English Art Club in 1962, the Royal Institute of Oil Painters in 1966, the Royal Society of Painters in Watercolours in 1979, the Royal West of England Academy 1981, Honorary Member of the Royal Society of British Artists in 1988, Royal Academician in 1991 and President of the New English Art Club in 1998. Among his numerous awards are First Prize in the Lord Mayor’s Art Award in 1966, a Prize Winner in the John Moores Exhibition, Liverpool in 1978, first prize in the Hunting Group Awards and the Critics Prize at Sparkasse Karlsruhe in 1985. Ken Howard lives and works in London. More

Rubens Santoro, 1859 - 1942, ITALIAN
Oil on canvas
19 5/8 by 14 3/8 in., 49.9 by 36.5 cm
Private Collection

Santa Maria della Salute (English: Saint Mary of Health), commonly known simply as the Salute, is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica located at Punta della Dogana in the Dorsoduro sestiere of the city of Venice, Italy.

It stands on the narrow finger of Punta della Dogana, between the Grand Canal and the Giudecca Canal, at the Bacino di San Marco, making the church visible when entering the Piazza San Marco from the water. The Salute is part of the parish of the Gesuati and is the most recent of the so-called plague-churches.

In 1630, Venice experienced an unusually devastating outbreak of the plague. As a votive offering for the city's deliverance from the pestilence, the Republic of Venice vowed to build and dedicate a church to Our Lady of Health (or of Deliverance, Italian: Salute). The church was designed in the then fashionable baroque style by Baldassare Longhena, who studied under the architect Vincenzo Scamozzi. Construction began in 1631. Most of the objects of art housed in the church bear references to the Black Death.

The dome of the Salute was an important addition to the Venice skyline and soon became emblematic of the city, inspiring artists like Canaletto, J. M. W. Turner, John Singer Sargent, and Francesco Guardi. More

Rubens Santoro (October 26, 1859 in Mongrassano, Province of Cosenza, Calabria – 1942 in Naples) was an Italian painter. He moved to Naples at 10 years of age, to study literature, but his inclination was painting. He only briefly enrolled at the Neapolitan Academy, instead, real life was his model. His first work was a small and simple genre piece: A Girl who Laughs, exhibited at the Promotrice. Domenico Morelli took note and encouraged him.

Santoro continually changed his vistas, painting in Torre Annunziata, Castellammare di Stabia, Procida, the Amalfi Coast, and Resina. During the long trips to the open countryside, he distracted himself by playing the mandolin. Many of his Amalfi landscapes were bought by the Goupil Gallery. Two were displayed at the 1877 Exposition at Naples: Marina di Maiuri and Grotta degli Zingari.  He moved to Paris, and after an excursion in England, returned to Naples even more prolifict. His painting Verona, exhibited at 1911 exhibition of Barcelona was awarded a Silver medal. More

Rubens Santoro, 1859 - 1942, ITALIAN
Oil on canvas
10 1/2 by 17 3/8 in., 26.7 by 44.1 cm
Private Collection

Rubens Santoro, 1859 - 1942, ITALIAN, see above

Edward William Cooke, 1811 - 1880, BRITISH
Oil on paper laid on canvas
11 by 17 3/4 in., 28 by 45 cm
Private Collection

Following in the footsteps of Canaletto, Francesco Guardi, and Joseph Mallord William Turner, Edward William Cooke spent ten seasons in Venice from 1850-1877, enticed by the city’s architecture mirrored in the waterways and lagoons.  With the help of his gondolier, Vincenzo Grilla, who rowed the artist to new vantage points, Cooke found innumerable subjects for his paintings and captured his favorite views repeatedly under different light effects and weather conditions.  As John Munday notes, “What marine painter, worth his salt, could ignore the call of the Serenissima? Certainly not Edward Cooke, for her waterways fringed by palaces and churches of a unique style reflecting moving colour and light were thronged by a fascinating variety of working craft. More

Santa Maria della Salute, commonly known simply as the Salute, is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica located at Punta della Dogana in the Dorsoduro sestiere of the city of Venice, Italy.

It stands on the narrow finger of Punta della Dogana, between the Grand Canal and the Giudecca Canal, at the Bacino di San Marco, making the church visible when entering the Piazza San Marco from the water. The Salute is part of the parish of the Gesuati and is the most recent of the so-called plague-churches.

The dome of the Salute was an important addition to the Venice skyline and soon became emblematic of the city, inspiring artists like Canaletto, J. M. W. Turner, John Singer Sargent, and Francesco Guardi. More

Edward William Cooke, R.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.S.A., F.G.S. (27 March 1811 – 4 January 1880) was an English landscape and marine painter, and gardener. Cooke was born in Pentonville, London, the son of well-known line engraver George Cooke; his uncle, William Bernard Cooke (1778–1855), was also a line engraver of note, and Edward was raised in the company of artists. He was a precocious draughtsman and a skilled engraver from an early age, displayed an equal preference for marine subjects and published his "Shipping and Craft" – a series of accomplished engravings – when he was 18. He benefited from the advice of many of his father’s associates, notably Clarkson Stanfield and David Roberts. Cooke began painting in oils in 1833, took formal lessons from James Stark in 1834 and first exhibited at the Royal Academy and British Institution in 1835, by which time his style was essentially formed.
He went on to travel and paint with great industry at home and abroad, indulging his love of the 17th-century Dutch marine artists with a visit to the Netherlands in 1837. He returned regularly over the next 23 years, studying the effects of the coastal landscape and light, as well as the works of the country's Old Masters, resulting in highly successful paintings.
Cooke was "particularly attracted by the Isle of Wight, and on his formative visit of 1835 he made a thorough study of its fishing boats and lobster pots; above all he delighted in the beaches strewn with rocks of various kinds, fishing tackle, breakwaters and small timber-propped jetties." More

Edward Pritchett, FL.1828-1864, BRITISH
Oil on canvas
36 by 56 in., 92 by 143 cm
Private Collection

Santa Maria della Salute, see above
Pritchett developed a deep knowledge of Venice, which allowed him to recreate it so vividly. Far from being merely topographical, his paintings capture the essence of the picturesque city, with its crumbling stonework, vivacious locals, and bustle of commerce. The present work depicts Venice as a center of trade, humming with life and the exchange of goods, as it has for centuries. In this scene, fishermen and merchants go about their daily business at the entrance to the Grand Canal. Amidst the fast pace of this commercial hub, the architectural splendor appears timeless. More
Edward Pritchett (fl. 1828 – 1864) was a nineteenth-century English painter and man of mystery.
Nothing is known of Pritchett's life; he has appropriately been described as "elusive." He may have lived to 1879. Pritchett spent more than three decades living and working in Venice, producing admirable views of the city; he was one of a group of English artists who produced notable records of the scenes of northern Italy, a group that included John Wharlton Bunney, James Holland, the brothers-in-law Luke Fildes and Henry Woods, and, in a later generation, William Logsdail. More

Christian Kruck (1925-1985)
Santa Maria della Salute
Lithograph in colors on wove paper
51 x 62.5 cm
Private Collection

Santa Maria della Salute, see above

Christian Kruck (1925-1985) initially completed an apprenticeship as lithographer and then studied, interrupted by military service and captivity, in Nuremberg and Freiburg. He worked as a freelance artist in Hamburg since 1949 and developed the complex printing process of lithography painting. In 1953 he became technical director of the printing workshops at the Städel School in Frankfurt, in 1970 he received a lectureship in printmaking. Kruck, who also created paintings and sculptures, received for his intensive study of the lithography the first prize of the International Senefelder Foundation in 1975. More

J. Warren Sheppard (American, 1882-1943)
Untitled (Venice)
Oil on canvas
17" x 14"
Private Collection
J. Warren Sheppard (American, 1882-1943), was known primarily for his newspaper and magazine illustrations. He lived in New York and created work for the Brooklyn Eagle, New York Herald Tribune, the New York Sun, Century and Scribner's magazines.  He took lessons from his father, Warren Sheppard. More

Francesco Zanin, (Italian, 1843–1890)
The Piazza San Marco, Venice, in the early hours of the last evening of carnival
Oil on canvas
76 x 122in. (193 x 309.9 cm.)
Private Collection

Piazza San Marco or St. Mark’s Square is the main public square in Venice.  The Piazza is located in front of the great Byzantine church known as Basilica di San Marco. This Piazza is surrounded by shops, caffè’s and palazzi on three sides. According to local legend Napoleon called the Piazza San Marco “the drawing room of Europe.” More

Francesco Zanin, (Italian, 1843–1890) was a painter of Venetian scenes and a faithful follower in the tradition of the great Giovanni Antonio Canal called Canaletto.

Zanin was painting dramatic and picturesque views of Venice, marked by strong contrasts of light and shade and free handling. Meanwhile, partly under the influence of Canaletto, Zanin began to turn out views which were more topographically accurate, set in a higher key, and with smoother, more precise handling, characteristics that mark most of his later work. This phase of his work culminated in this splendid work titled The Grand Canal, Venice. At the same time he began painting the ceremonial and festival subjects which ultimately formed an important part of his work.

His patrons were chiefly European collectors, for whom he was believed to have produced a series of views in uniform size. It is popularly believed that he also made a remarkable series of drawings in pen, and pen and wash, as both preparation for paintings and independent works of art. This led to changes in his style of painting, increasing an already well-established tendency to become stylized and mechanical in handling. Experts in Venetian art observe the probable use of the camera obscura as an aid to composition.

His depictions of the splendour of the grand Venetian palazzos are always drawn with breathtaking precision and faultless perspective drawing and he manages to achieve something of the light atmosphere and mystique for which the master is so highly prized. More

Jean-François Raffaëlli
Vue de Venise
Oil on paper laid down on canvas
8 1/2 x 18 1/4in (21.5 x 46.3cm)
Private Collection

Jean-François Raffaëlli (April 20, 1850 – February 11, 1924) was a French realist painter, sculptor, and printmaker who exhibited with the Impressionists. He was also active as an actor and writer.

Born in Paris, he was of Tuscan descent. He showed an interest in music and theatre before becoming a painter in 1870. One of his landscape paintings was accepted for exhibition at the Salon in that same year. In October 1871 he began three months of study under Jean-Léon Gérôme at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris; he had no other formal training.

Raffaëlli produced primarily costume pictures until 1876, when he began to depict the people of his time—particularly peasants, workers, and ragpickers seen in the suburbs of Paris—in a realistic style. His new work was championed by influential critics such as J.-K. Huysmans, as well as by Edgar Degas.

Degas invited Raffaëlli to participate in the Impressionist exhibitions of 1880 and 1881, an action that bitterly divided the group; not only was Raffaëlli not an Impressionist, but he threatened to dominate the 1880 exhibition with his outsized display of 37 works. Monet, resentful of Degas's insistence on expanding the Impressionist exhibitions by including several realists, chose not to exhibit.

After winning the Légion d'honneur in 1889, Raffaëlli shifted his attention from the suburbs of Paris to city itself, and the street scenes that resulted were well received by the public and the critics. He made a number of sculptures, but these are known today only through photographs. In the later years of his life, he concentrated on color printmaking. Raffaëlli died in Paris on February 11, 1924. More

Félix Ziem (February 26, 1821 – November 10, 1911)
The Doge's Palace, Venice, inundated
Oil on canvas
11 x 15 7/8in (28 x 40.3cm)
Private Collection

The Doge's Palace (Italian: Palazzo Ducale) is a palace built in Venetian Gothic style, and one of the main landmarks of the city of Venice in northern Italy. The palace was the residence of the Doge of Venice, the supreme authority of the former Republic of Venice, opening as a museum in 1923. More

Félix Ziem (February 26, 1821 – November 10, 1911) was a French painter in the style of the Barbizon School. He was born Félix-Francois Georges Philibert Ziem in Beaune in the Côte-d'Or département of the Burgundy région of France. His mother was a native of Burgundy who had married an immigrant. Originally, Ziem planned to be an architect and studied at the School of Architecture in Dijon, and for a time he worked as an architect. In 1839 he moved to Marseilles, where he received some informal instruction in painting from Adolphe Monticelli. Painting developed from a hobby into a career following a visit in 1841 to Italy, where he fell in love with the city of Venice, a place that would become the source for many of his works, and to which he returned annually until 1892. Apart from Venetian scenes, he also painted many still lifes, portraits, and landscapes from a variety of places including Constantinople, Martigues, Cagnes-sur-Mer and his native Burgundy. More

Félix Ziem (February 26, 1821 – November 10, 1911)
The French Gardens, Venice
Oil on panel
5 3/4 x 10in (14.6 x 43.8cm)
Private Collection

The city is full of canals, narrow streets (Calli) and historic buildings that are intertwine with each other as well as full of green areas and gardens Venice hidden behind the facades of the buildings. The tradition of Venetian gardens dates back to ancient times when, in case of war, the city was to be totally independent. More

Félix Ziem (February 26, 1821 – November 10, 1911), see above

Warren Sheppard, (American, 1858-1937)
Venice, the French Gardens
Oil on Canvas

16 x 24 Inches
Private Collection

J. Warren Sheppard (American, 1882-1943), was known primarily for his newspaper and magazine illustrations. He lived in New York and created work for the Brooklyn Eagle, New York Herald Tribune, the New York Sun, Century and Scribner's magazines.  He took lessons from his father, Warren Sheppard. More

Félix Ziem (February 26, 1821 – November 10, 1911)
San Giorgio, Venice
Oil on panel
10 5/8 x 15in (27 x 38cm)
Private Collection

San Giorgio Maggiore is one of the islands of Venice, northern Italy, lying east of the Giudecca and south of the main island group.

San Giorgio Maggiore was probably occupied in the Roman period; after the foundation of Venice it was called Insula Memmia after the Memmo family who owned it. By 829 it had a church consecrated to St George; thus it was designated as San Giorgio Maggiore to be distinguished from San Giorgio in Alga.

The San Giorgio Monastery was established in 982, when the Benedictine monk, Giovanni Morosini, asked the doge Tribuno Memmo to donate the whole island for a monastery. Morosini drained the island's marshes next to the church to get the ground for building, and founded the Monastery of San Giorgio Maggiore, and became its first abbot.

San Giorgio is now best known for the Church of San Giorgio Maggiore, designed by Palladio and begun in 1566. The belltower has a ring of 9 bells in C#.

In the early 19th century, after the Republic fell, the monastery was almost suppressed and the island became a free port with a new harbour built in 1812. It became the home of Venice's artillery. More

Félix Ziem (February 26, 1821 – November 10, 1911), see above

Félix Ziem (February 26, 1821 – November 10, 1911)
Quai des Sept Martyrs
Oil on panel
20 3/4 x 31 1/2 in
Private Collection

On the 3rd of August, 1944, in front of the eyes of men, women and children of Castello, 7 young men, aged between 20 and 46, were executed by a German firing squad. Their punishment was in reprisal for the death of a German sentry. It was later found that he had fallen into the water and drowned, with no evidence of any foul play.

This stretch of the Riva was renamed as Riva dei Sette Martiri (the Riva of the Seven Martyrs). More

Félix Ziem (February 26, 1821 – November 10, 1911), see above

Acknowledgement: Sotheby'sBONHAMS NEW YORK

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