16 Classic Works of Art, Marine Paintings - With Footnotes, 13

Ilya Yefimovich Repin (5 August 1844 – 29 September 1930) 
The end of the Black Sea Volnitsa. 1900 

Ilya Yefimovich Repin (5 August 1844 – 29 September 1930)
Zaporozhian Cossacks in a "chaika" boat during a storm on the Black Sea, c. 1908
Oil on canvas

Zaporozhian Cossacks used the “Chaika” or wooden boats with masts and sails in early warfare encompassing the 16th and 17th centuries. The crew consisted of 30 to 50 men.

Ilya Yefimovich Repin (5 August 1844 – 29 September 1930) was the most renowned Russian artist of the 19th century. He played a major role in bringing Russian art into the mainstream of European culture. His major works include Barge Haulers on the Volga (1873), Religious Procession in Kursk Province (1883) and Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks (1880–91).

Repin was born in Chuguyev, in the Kharkov Governorate (now Ukraine) of the Russian Empire into a military family. He entered military school in 1854 and in 1856 studied under Ivan Bunakov, a local icon painter. He began to paint around 1860. In 1874–1876 he showed at the Salon in Paris and at the exhibitions of the Itinerants' Society in Saint Petersburg. He was awarded the title of academician in 1876.

In 1901 he was awarded the Legion of Honour. In 1911 he traveled to the World Exhibition in Italy, where his painting 17 October 1905 and his portraits were displayed in their own separate room. In 1916 Repin worked on his book of reminiscences, Far and Near. He welcomed the Russian Revolution of 1917. Celebrations were held in 1924 in Kuokkala to mark Repin's 80th birthday, followed by an exhibition of his works in Moscow. In 1925 a jubilee exhibition of his works was held in the Russian Museum in Leningrad. Repin died in 1930 and was buried at the Penates. More

Montague Dawson R.S.M.A., F.R.S.A., 1895-1973
Oil on canvas
101.5 by 127cm., 40 by 50in.

Dawson insisted on strict accuracy in terms of the rendering  of nautical detail and the vast majority of his works, particularly the tea clippers of the 19th century, depict specific vessels , in a particular place on a recorded voyage.  In the present work the vertically orientated design of the stern galleries suggest a British ship of the late 17th century, but other than that the narrative and detail is left tantalisingly ambiguous.  Dawson was clearly enamoured and inspired by the notorious pirates and privateers of the 17th century and produced a number of dramatic and escapist paintings, of which the present work is an example. More

Montague Dawson RMSA, FRSA (1890–1973) was a British painter who was renowned as a maritime artist. His most famous paintings depict sailing ships, usually clippers or warships of the 18th and 19th centuries. More

Philip Richard Morris, A.R.A., 1838-1902
LAND AHOY! c. 1864
Oil on canvas
43 by 53.5cm., 17 by 21in.

Philip Richard Morris (4 December 1836 in Devonport – 22 April 1902 Clifton Hill, Maida Vale, London) was an English painter of genre and maritime scenes, Holman Hunt-influenced religious paintings and (later in his career) portraits.

Taken to London aged 14 by his iron-founder father to train for the family trade, Philip became increasingly interested in art and, with William Holman Hunt winning round his father, began taking evening drawing classes in the British Museum and (from 1855) in the Royal Academy Schools. At the latter, he used the travelling studentship he won for his The Good Samaritan to fund a journey to Italy and France, remaining there until 1864.

He was elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 1877, though he resigned it in 1900. More

Charles Napier Hemy, 1841-1917
Oil on board
45.5 by 70cm.,18 by 27¼in.

Charles Napier Hemy RA (Newcastle-on-Tyne 24 May 1841 – 30 September 1917 Falmouth) was a British painter best known for his marine paintings and his paintings in the Tate collections.

He trained in the Government School of Design, Newcastle, followed by the Antwerp Academy and the studio of Baron Leys. He returned to London in the 1870s and in 1881 moved to the coastal town of Falmouth in Cornwall. He produced painted figure and landscapes, but is best known works are Pilchards (1897) and London River (1904) which are in the Tate collections.

Charles Napier Hemy, 1841–1917
Pilchards, c. 1897
Oil paint on paper mounted on canvas
1130 x 2121 mm
Tate Britain

John Singer Sargent painted a portrait (now in the Falmouth Art Gallery collection) of Hemy on a visit to Hemy's Falmouth home, 'Churchfield', in 1905. The visit highlighted the importance of the circle of artists that surrounded the great marine artist in the town.

Charles Napier Hemy 1841–1917
London River, c. 1904
Oil paint on canvas
1206 x 1829 mm
Tate Britain

Hemy was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1898 and an Academician in 1910, he was also honoured as an Associate of the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours in 1890 and became a full member in 1897.

He died in Falmouth on 30 September 1917. More

Lev Felixovich Lagorio, 1826-1905
Oil on canvas
43.7 by 71.5cm, 17 1/4 by 28 in.

Lev Feliksovich Lagorio (1828–1905) was a Russian painter, known for his paintings of seascapes. Lagorio was born in Feodosia, Crimea and later studied in the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg. In 1845 Lagorio went on a sea voyage on the warship Groziashchy to study the arrangement of the ship.

Lagorio spent eight years in Italy. The paintings he created there brought him to the status of professor on his return home to Russia. In his later years, he painted the coastal views of Finland and Norway. He also painted motives of the Russian-Turkish war. More

Jack Lorimer Gray, 1927-1981
Heavy Weather on Crossing to France (John Paul Jones's Ranger)
Oil on Canvas

Jack Lorimer Gray, 1927 - 1981
Oil on canvas
26 by 40 in., 66 by 101.5 cm.

Jack Lorimer Gray (April 28, 1927 — September, 1981) was a Canadian artist, known particularly for marine art. As a schoolboy young Jack loved drawing pictures, especially those of ships at sea. By the end of World War II he was a student at In the summer of 1945 Gray boarded with the Young family of East Ironbound island and made many sketches of island life which subsequently were turned into large paintings. 

His first major solo exhibition was at the Hackmatack Inn in Chester, Nova Scotia in 1948, leading to several commissions. With subsequent patronage from the Philadelphia dowager heiress Mary Dayton Cavendish, Maritime brewery owner Sidney C. Oland and others in the Oland family, Gray gradually advanced his career, living aboard boats in the early 1950s. When the steamship Dufferin Bell was wrecked on the Nova Scotian coast in 1951, Gray traveled with the salvage crew and filled several sketchbooks, attracting the attention of the press. An early friendship with author Thomas Head Raddall led to Gray's pen-and ink illustrations in Raddall's A Muster of Arms (1954); Gray also painted a wartime scene of Duncan's Cove, Nova Scotia for the book's dust jacket.[1] While based in Chester in the summers from 1953 to 1955, he painted in (his landlord) Herman Walker's sail loft in the Back Harbour. More

Oil on panel
5 1/2 x 9 7/16 in. (14 x 23.9 cm)

Giovanni Boldini (31 December 1842 in Ferrara, Italy – 11 July 1931 in Paris, France) was an Italian genre and portrait painter. According to a 1933 article in Time magazine, he was known as the "Master of Swish" because of his flowing style of painting. Boldini was born in Ferrara, the son of a painter of religious subjects, and in 1862 went to Florence for six years to study and pursue painting. He only infrequently attended classes at the Academy of Fine Arts, but in Florence, met other realist painters known as the Macchiaioli, who were Italian precursors to Impressionism. 

Moving to London, Boldini attained success as a portraitist. He completed portraits of premier members of society. From 1872 he lived in Paris, where he became a friend of Edgar Degas. He also became the most fashionable portrait painter in Paris in the late 19th century. He was nominated commissioner of the Italian section of the Paris Exposition in 1889, and received the Légion d'honneur for this appointment.

A Boldini portrait of his former muse Marthe de Florian, a French actress, was discovered in a Paris flat in late 2010, hidden away from view on the premises that were unvisited for 70 years. The portrait has never been listed, exhibited or published and the flat belonged to de Florian's granddaughter who went to live in the South of France at the outbreak of the Second World War and never returned. A love-note and a biographical reference to the work painted in 1888, when the actress was 24, cemented its authenticity. The full length portrait of the lady in the same clothing and accessories, but less provocative, hangs in the New Orleans Museum of Art. More

Attributed to Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1817-1900
Pencil and wash heightened with gouache on paper
20 by 30.5cm, 8 by 12in.

Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, see below

Simon Jacobsz. de Vlieger, ROTTERDAM CIRCA 1600/1 - 1653 WEESP
Black chalk within black chalk framing lines
77 by 145 mm

Simon de Vlieger (1601 – 1653) was a Dutch designer, draughtsman, and painter, most famous for his marine paintings. Born in Rotterdam, de Vlieger moved in 1634 to Delft, where he joined the Guild of Saint Luke, and then to Amsterdam in 1638. In the 1630s and 1640s he was one of the best-known Dutch maritime painters. He moved away from the monochrome style of Jan Porcellis and Willem van de Velde, the elder towards a more realistic use of colour, with highly detailed and accurate representations of rigging and ship construction. He painted ships in harbour and at sea as well as storms and shipwrecks. More

Russian School
oil on canvas
65.5 by 90.2cm, 25 3/4 by 35 1/2 in.

Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1817-1900
Oil on canvas
32 by 43.6cm, 12 1/2 by 17 1/4 in.

Attributed to Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1817-1900
Oil on canvas
36.5 by 40.7cm, 14 1/2 by 16in.

Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (29 July 1817 – 2 May 1900) was a Russian Romantic painter. He is considered one of the greatest marine artists in history. Baptized as Hovhannes Aivazian, Aivazovsky was born into an Armenian family in the Black Sea port of Feodosia and was mostly based in his native Crimea.

Following his education at the Imperial Academy of Arts, Aivazovsky traveled to Europe and lived briefly in Italy in the early 1840s. He then returned to Russia and was appointed the main painter of the Russian Navy. Aivazovsky had close ties with the military and political elite of the Russian Empire and often attended military maneuvers. He was sponsored by the state and was well-regarded during his lifetime.

One of the most prominent Russian artists of his time, Aivazovsky was also popular outside Russia. He held numerous solo exhibitions in Europe and the United States. During his almost 60-year career, he created around 6,000 paintings, making him one of the most prolific artists of his time. The vast majority of his works are seascapes, but he often depicted battle scenes, Armenian themes, and portraiture. Most of Aivazovsky's works are kept in Russian, Ukrainian and Armenian museums as well as private collections. More

Yuli Yulievich Klever and Studio, 1850-1924
Oil on canvas
32.5 by 47.5cm, 11 ¾ by 18 ¾in.

Yuliy Yulevich Klever was a Russian painter who was born in 1850. Klever attended the Academy of St. Petersburg, and upon graduation worked in the studio of Worobjew. In the Paris Exhibition in 1878, his works were shown in the Russian Pavilion designed by Ivan Ropet. Klever was awarded a Gold Medal at the Berlin Exhibition in 1888, and received Honorable Mention at the Paris Exhibition the following year. Throughout his career he exhibited works in Russia, Germany, Austria and France and his works have been displayed at the Hermitage, the Moscow Museum and the Tretyakov Gallery. More

Constantin Westchiloff, 1877-1945
Oil on canvas
91.5 by 112cm, 36 by 44in.

Constantin Alexandrovich Westchiloff (1877–1945) was a Russian-American Impressionist painter. Westchiloff was born in Russia in 1877. He studied under Ilya Repin at the Imperial Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg from 1898. He won an award in 1904 for the painting, "Ivan the Terrible After the Triumph of Kazan." He held a foreign study fellowship from the Royal Academy in 1905-06. He exhibited in the Royal Academy's Fall Exhibit of 1906, showing "Breakthrough of the Cruiser Askold in 1904 in the Yellow Sea," which documented the Russo-Japanese War.

He emigrated from Soviet Russia in 1922, lived in Italy (1923-1928), France (1929-1935), and immigrated to the United States in 1935 and settled in New York, where he died. More

SIR JOHN LAVERY, R.A., R.H.A., R.S.A., 1856-1941
Embarking at Southampton, c. 1917
Oil on canvas

Sir John Lavery RA (20 March 1856 – 10 January 1941) was an Irish painter best known for his portraits and wartime depictions. Born in Belfast Lavery attended Haldane Academy in Glasgow in the 1870s and the Académie Julian in Paris in the early 1880s. He returned to Glasgow and was associated with the Glasgow School. In 1888 he was commissioned to paint the state visit of Queen Victoria to the Glasgow International Exhibition. This launched his career as a society painter and he moved to London soon after. In London he became friendly with James McNeill Whistler and was clearly influenced by him.

Lavery was appointed an official artist in the First World War. Ill-health, however, prevented him from travelling to the Western Front. A serious car crash during a Zeppelin bombing raid also kept him from fulfilling this role as war artist. He remained in Britain and mostly painted boats, aeroplanes and airships. 

After the war he was knighted and in 1921 he was elected to the Royal Academy.

He and his wife were tangentially involved in the Irish War of Independence and the Irish Civil War. They gave the use of their London home to the Irish negotiators during the negotiations leading to the Anglo-Irish Treaty. In 1929, Lavery made substantial donations of his work to both The Ulster Museum and the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery and in the 1930s he returned to Ireland. He received honorary degrees from the University of Dublin and Queen's University Belfast. He was also made a free man of both Dublin and Belfast. More

Acknowledgement: Sotheby's

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