Friday, February 17, 2017

14 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists of the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, #10

Jan van Beers, (1852-1927)
Souvenance, c. 1877
Oil paint on canvas
21 x 27 cm
Private Collection

Jean Marie Constantin Joseph "Jan" van Beers (27 March 1852 – 17 November 1927) was a Belgian painter and illustrator, the son of the poet Jan van Beers. They are sometimes referred to as Jan van Beers the elder and Jan van Beers the younger. In 1884, Jan Van Beers produced the pen-and-ink sketches for the edition de luxe of his father's poetry. More on Jan van Beers

Edwin Lord Weeks, 1849 - 1903, AMERICAN
Oil on canvas
18 5/8 by 22 3/8 in., 47.3 by 56.8 cm
Private Collection

Isfahan is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about 340 kilometres south of Tehran. Isfahan is located on the main north–south and east–west routes crossing Iran, and was once one of the largest cities in the world. It flourished from 1050 to 1722, particularly in the 16th and 17th centuries under the Safavid dynasty, when it became the capital of Persia for the second time in its history. Even today, the city retains much of its past glory. It is famous for its Persian–Islamic architecture, with many beautiful boulevards, covered bridges, palaces, mosques, and minarets. More Isfahan

Edwin Lord Weeks (1849 – 1903) was an American artist. Weeks was born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1849. His parents were affluent spice and tea merchants from Newton, a suburb of Boston, and as such they were able to finance their son's youthful interest in painting and travelling. As a young man Weeks visited the Florida Keys to draw, and also travelled to Surinam in South America. His earliest known paintings date from 1867 when he was eighteen years old, although it is not until his Landscape with Blue Heron, dated 1871 and painted in the Everglades, that Weeks started to exhibit a dexterity of technique and eye for composition—presumably having taken professional tuition.

In 1872 Weeks relocated to Paris, becoming a pupil of Léon Bonnat and Jean-Léon Gérôme. After his studies in Paris, Weeks emerged as one of America's major painters of Orientalist subjects. Throughout his adult life he was an inveterate traveler and journeyed to South America (1869), Egypt and Persia (1870), Morocco (frequently between 1872 and 1878), and India (1882–83).

Weeks died in Paris in November 1903.[2] He was a member of the Légion d'honneur, France, an officer of the Order of St. Michael, Germany, and a member of the Munich Secession. More on Edwin Lord Weeks

Jan van Beers (1852-1927)
La Belle Egyptienne/ The Beautiful Egyptian, c. between 1876 and 1927
Oil on panel
height: 27 cm (10.6 in); width: 21 cm (8.2 in)
Private Collection

Jan van Beers (1852-1927), see above

Frederick Arthur Bridgman, 1847 - 1928, AMERICAN
Oil on canvas
33 by 63 in., 83.8 by 160 cm
Private Collection

An Egyptian Procession was one of several historical genre scenes produced late in Bridgman’s career, and one of four major processional scenes painted between 1879 and 1919.  These works were closely related — both thematically and compositionally — to the artist’s historical reconstructions of the 1870s, the most famous of which were Les funerailles d’une momie (location unknown), exhibited at the 1877 Paris Salon, and the Procession du boeuf Apis of circa 1879 

Frederick Arthur Bridgman (November 10, 1847 - 1928) was an American artist, born in Tuskegee, Alabama. The son of a physician, Bridgman would become one of the United States' most well-known and well-regarded painters and become known as one of the world's most talented "Orientalist" painters. He began as a draughtsman in New York City, for the American Bank Note Company in 1864-1865, and studied art in the same years at the Brooklyn Art Association and at the National Academy of Design; but he went to Paris in 1866 and became a pupil of Jean-Leon Gerome. Paris then became his headquarters. A trip to Egypt in 1873-1874 resulted in pictures of the East that attracted immediate attention, and his large and important composition, The Funeral Procession of a Mummy on the Nile, in the Paris Salon (1877), bought by James Gordon Bennett, brought him the Cross of the Legion of Honor. Other paintings by him were An American Circus in Normandy, Procession of the Bull Apis (now in the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.), and a Rumanian Lady (in the Temple collection, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). More on Frederick Arthur Bridgman

Frederick Arthur Bridgman, 1847 - 1928, AMERICAN
A Street Scene in Algeria, 1879
Oil on canvas
Private collection

Frederick Arthur Bridgman, 1847 - 1928, see abov

Ludwig Deutsch, 1855-1935, AUSTRIAN
Oil on panel
12 3/4 by 9 5/8 in., 32.4 by 24.4 cm
Private Collection

Painted in 1883, the present work is one of the earliest examples of Deutsch’s most iconic Orientalist themes—a single male figure, silhouetted against an architecturally distinctive door or entrance way.  The man’s ankle-length black-and-white striped woolen abāya identifies him as an itinerant worker in this Egyptian scene; he is probably a della’l, or broker, hired by one of the local shopkeepers.  As the noted nineteenth-century Arabic scholar Edward William Lane (1801-1876) explained, “In many of the nooks of Cairo auctions are held on stated days. They are conducted by delláls, or brokers, hired either by persons who have anything they wish to sell in this manner, or by shopkeepers. The Delláls carry the goods up and down, announcing the sums bidden for them with cries of Harraj, harraj, etc." In Deutsch’s painting, the man gestures emphatically and continues his familiar calls, though he has momentarily set down the eclectic array of goods he has been appointed to vend. More on this painting

Ludwig Deutsch, 1855-1935, was born in Vienna to a well-to-do family. He began studying at the Academy of Fine Arts after completing high school. He studied in the atelier of Alselm Feuerbach along with the painter Rudolf Ernst, his contemporary, who was also an Orientalist and lifelong friend. 

Deutsch decided to move to Paris to continue his studies. He was accepted into the class of Leopold Carl Muller, another Austrian Orientalist, who had moved to Paris. By 1880, he had decided to cut all his ties with his life in Vienna, apart from his friend Rudolf Ernst, who had also moved to Paris.  Deutsch set up a studio on the Rue Pelletier, and sent a portrait to the Paris Salon in 1879. He was then studying with Jean-Paul Laurens, who promoted his student’s work to Parisian high society. It was in 1881 that he began painting Orientalist works. He began making paintings that focused on single figures instead of the groups of people that he had been painting before. 

Deutsch traveled to Egypt in 1886 for the first time, resulting in a number of paintings of everyday street scenes. He visited again in 1890, and frequently did so over the next few years. 

Deutsch wanted accuracy in his work, and so hired local photographers to take pictures of the sites that he would later paint.  Deutsch won the Gold Medal at the Paris Salon in 1900. His work sold well, with buyers being drawn to his incredible attention to detail. He continued painting through the next decade and a half till the outbreak of the First World War, when he was forced to flee Paris. 

Deutsch became a French citizen in around 1919. Throughout his career, he worked towards improving his photo-realistic technique. Though he was a studio-painter who often painted with models in Paris, his travels in Egypt lent color and atmosphere that rendered his paintings authentic. Deutsch continued living and working in Paris till his death in 1935. More on Ludwig Deutsch

Adam Styka , born April 7, 1890 and died September 23, 1959
watercolour, gouache, pencil, cardboard
21.7 x 15.5cm
Private Collection

Adam Styka , born April 7, 1890 and died September 23, 1959 in Doylestown (Pennsylvania) was born in Poland in 1890. He completed his formal education at the French Academy of Fine Arts, and painted closely under the tutelage of his father, Jan Styka. Each year Adam exhibited his paintings in the Paris' Salon de Paris, Champs Des Elysses and others in Europe and countries of both Americas.

After graduating from the French Military Academy in Fontainebleau, Adam served in the French artillery during the World War I. He was decorated with a Cross of Merit. Also as a reward, he was granted the French "Nationality Citizenship" and a special assistance from the French Government to visit French colonies in Northern Africa. As the result of these annual journeys, Adam developed an entire genre of Middle-Eastern and Oriental themes. 
Adam Styka passed away on 23rd of September 1959 in Doylestown, Pennsylvania. More on Adam Styka

Joseph Coomans, 1816-1889, BELGIAN
THE AMULET, c. 1882
Oil on canvas
32 by 25 3/4 in., 81.3 by 65.4 cm
Private Collection

Pierre Oliver Joseph Coomans (1816-1889), was a native of Brussels, and a pupil of Professor Hasselaere at Ghent, and of Nicaise de Keyser and Baron Wappers at the Antwerp Academy. From Antwerp he removed to Paris, and going with the French army to Algiers, where he resided several years, he later traveled extensively in Italy, Turkey, Greece, and the Crimea. Some years before his death he visited America, residing there for a prolonged period. More on Pierre Oliver Joseph Coomans

Pierre Oliver Joseph Coomans, (1816-1889)
oil on canvas
21 1/2 by 17 in., 54.6 by 43.1 cm
Private Collection

Pierre Oliver Joseph Coomans (1816-1889), see above

Adam Styka , born April 7, 1890 and died September 23, 1959
Girl with camels
Oil on canva
60.0 x 70.0 cm 
Private Collection

Adam Styka made several trips to North Africa , Tunisia and Algeria, where he became interested in the Orientalism . It was a fertile period in addressing the landscapes of these regions and portraits of Arabs, Berbers and Orientalist genre scenes. His palette was very bright in the North African sun. He is nicknamed "the painter of the Sun" . Subsequently, Styka stayed in Morocco and Egypt . He left France in the 1950s and settled in Pennsylvania.

Adam Styka, born April 7, 1890 and died September 23, 1959
Oil on canvas
35 5/8 by 32 in., 90.4 by 81.2 cm
Private Collection

At the end of his life, he became interested in religious themes as did his father. We find many of his paintings in churches in Europe and North America. He exhibited in Paris (including the brothers Gérard gallery of the street la Boetie ), the Paris Salon , etc., in Europe and the United States .

He is buried in the cemetery of the Order of Saint Paul, the First Hermit Doylestown in United States. More on Adam Styka

Michał Paweł Gorstkin-Wywiórski (14 March 1861, Warsaw - 30 May 1926, Berlin)
Oil, canvas
71 x 51.5cm
Private Collection

Michał Paweł Gorstkin-Wywiórski (14 March 1861, Warsaw - 30 May 1926, Berlin) was a Polish painter; primarily of landscapes and maritime scenes; and an amateur naturalist and maritime historian.

He was the son of a Russian army officer and his Polish wife. From 1881 to 1882, he studied chemistry at Riga Technical University and became a member of Arkonia, an "academic corporation" devoted to Polish patriotism. It was then that he began adding his mother's maiden name to Gorstkin. A sudden illness forced him to discontinue his studies and return home.

Michał Paweł Gorstkin-Wywiórski (14 March 1861, Warsaw - 30 May 1926, Berlin)
Hunting with falcons
Oil, canvas
65.5 x 105 cm
Private Collection

After a brief stay in Zurich for his health, he decided to study art instead. From 1883 to 1887, he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts Munich with Karl Raupp and Nikolaos Gyzis. He also took private lessons. In 1894, his painting of a Lithuanian forest earned him a second-class medal at the Glaspalast. After 1895, he lived in Berlin for several years before returning to Poland. While there, at the invitation of Wojciech Kossak and Julian Fałat, he participated in painting a panorama depicting the Battle of Berezina. This was followed by an invitation from Jan Styka to work on the Transylvania Panorama.

After that, he devoted himself to travel, visiting (among many other places) Spain (1899-1900), Egypt (1900-1901), Scandinavia (1903-1904) and the Carpathians (1906). In Spain, he and Kossak gathered material for a panorama of the Battle of Somosierra, which was never completed because of objections from the Russian authorities. In Egypt, he made sketches for a panorama of the Battle of the Pyramids.

At first, he painted genre scenes dealing primarily with Cossacks and Tatars. Later, under the influence of the Young Poland movement, he shifted his interest to landscapes and marine art. He was a member of several art societies and professional groups in Poznań, which was his primary home after 1904. More on Michał Paweł Gorstkin-Wywiórski

After Marc Gabriel Charles Gleyre
Lost Illusions
oil on canvas 
76 x 117cm (29 15/16 x 46 1/16in)
Private collection

Gleyre claimed that "Lost Illusions" represented a vision that he had experienced on the evening of March 1, 1835, while sitting on the banks of the Nile River near Abydos, Egypt. An aging poet watches pensively as a mysterious boat carries away his youthful dreams and illusions, personified by music-making maidens and a cupid strewing flowers. Although the figures in the painting wear classical Greek dress, their vessel resembles a "dahabieh," an Egyptian river boat. In 1843, Gleyre succeeded Paul Delaroche as the head of the major private studio in Paris. His pupils included such diverse figures as the Academic artist Jean-Léon Gérôme, the future Impressionists Alfred Sisley and Auguste Renoir (1841-1919), and the American James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834-1904). This painting, begun by Gleyre's pupil Léon Dussart and reworked by Gleyre himself, replicates Gleyre's masterpiece "Le Soir" (now in the Louvre Museum, Paris). William Walters commissioned this painting from the artist through the Parisian art dealers Goupil & Cie. in 1865. It took two years to complete. Conscious of the delay, the firm wrote to Walters: Mr. Gleyre has finally nearly finished his reproduction of his picture. . . We are happy to be able to tell you that this reproduction is beautifully done. It has taken a long time and has required more trouble from the painter than he thought. More on this painting

Marc Gabriel Charles Gleyre (2 May 1806 – 5 May 1874), was a Swiss artist, resident in France from an early age. He took over the studio of Paul Delaroche in 1843 and taught a number of younger artists who became prominent, including Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, James Abbott McNeill Whistler and Louis-Frederic Schützenberger. More on Marc Gabriel Charles Gleyre

He was a major figure in academy painting in Paris in the mid-nineteenth century. For a long time, given the smooth perfection of his facture and his subject matter, mostly taken from mythology, he was taken for a cold, conventional esthete blind to the revolutions of his time. However, research into the history of art draws attention to the important role played by his studio, which produced artists like Jean-Léon Gérôme que Claude Monet and Fréderic Bazille. Also, fresh interpretations of his work, including first and foremost the psychoanalytical analysis published by Michel Thevoz in 1980, have uncovered the fascinating contradictions of both the artist and his work. More on Marc Gabriel Charles Gleyre

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