Sunday, May 15, 2016

29 Magical Doorways That Connects Two Locations, Dimensions, or Points in Time, 1

Baur, Max
Kloster Chorin and Lehnin, 1930s-40's
 23 x 16 cm 

Vintage gelatin silver prints on ivory paper. Each circa 23 x 16 cm and 16 x 23 cm. Titled and signed by the photographer below the image on the mount.

Bourne, Samuel
The Great Gate Futtehpore Sikr
21 x 28,8 cm

Buland Darwaza, or the "Gate of Magnificence", was built in 1576 A.D. by Akbar,  Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death, to commemorate his victory over Gujarat. It is the main entrance to the palace at Fatehpur Sikri, a town which is 43 km from Agra, India.

Buland Darwaza is the highest gateway in the world and is an example of Mughal architecture. It displays Akbar's empire. More

Beato, Felice
Lahore Gate of the Royal Palace, Delhi 1858
Albumen print. 26 x 31,5 cm. Mounted to board

The Lahori Gate is the main entrance to the Red Fort in Delhi. The Red Fort was the residence of the Mughal emperor of India for nearly 200 years, until 1857. It is located in the centre of Delhi. In addition to accommodating the emperors and their households, it was the ceremonial and political centre of Mughal government and the setting for events critically impacting the region.

Constructed in 1648 by the fifth Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan as the palace of his fortified capital Shahjahanabad, the Red Fort is named for its massive enclosing walls of red sandstone and is adjacent to the older Salimgarh Fort, built by Islam Shah Suri in 1546. The imperial apartments consist of a row of pavilions, connected by a water channel known as the Stream of Paradise (Nahr-i-Behisht). The fort complex is considered to represent the zenith of Mughal creativity under Shah Jahan and although the palace was planned according to Islamic prototypes, each pavilion contains architectural elements typical of Mughal buildings that reflect a fusion of Timurid and Persian traditions. More

Schmidt, Georg
Main portal of Lorenzkirche, Nuremberg
The Sebalduskirche, Nuremberg. Circa 1855

St. Lorenz (St. Lawrence) is a medieval church of the former free imperial city of Nuremberg in southern Germany. It is dedicated to Saint Lawrence. The church was badly damaged during the Second World War and later restored. It is one of the most prominent churches of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria.

The nave of the church was completed by around 1400. In 1439, work began on the choir in the form of a hall church in the late German sondergotik style of gothic architecture. The choir was largely completed by 1477 by Konrad Roriczer, although Jakob Grimm completed the intricate vaults.

In the choir one can find the carving of the Angelic Salutation by Veit Stoss, and the monumental tabernacle by Adam Kraft. The latter is notable for including a prominent figure of the sculptor himself.

The west facade is articulated richly reflecting the wealth of the Nuremberg citizens. The facade is dominated by the two towers, mirroring St. Sebald and indirectly Bamberg Cathedral with a sharp towering West portal doorway, and a well-indented rose window 9 metres in diameter. More

HENRI EMILIEN ROUSSEAU - French (1875-1933) 
"The Entrance" 
oil on canvas, signed lower left and dated illegibly. 
18 x 21 1/2 

The French artist Henri Rousseau (1844-1910) was a self-taught painter who became a friend of Picasso and an inspiration to the Paris avant-garde. Born on May 21, 1844, in Laval, France. While working as a toll collector in Paris, he taught himself to paint and exhibited his work almost annually from 1886 until the end of his life. He was given the nickname "Le Douanier" ("the customs officer") by his acquaintances in the Parisian avant-garde. Despite his connections with other artists and dealers, he never profited from his paintings; however, works like "The Dream," "The Sleeping Gypsy" and "Carnival Evening" influenced many artists who came after him. He died in Paris on September 2, 1910. More

Catherine M. Wood (British, ?-1939) The North Door, Ely Cathedral
Catherine M. Wood (British, 1857-1939)
The North Door, Ely Cathedral 
indistinctly signed (lower left)
oil on canvas
40.7 x 30.5cm (16 x 12in).

Ely Cathedral, the Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Ely, is the principal church of the Diocese of Ely, in Cambridgeshire, England, and is the seat of the Bishop of Ely and a suffragan bishop, the Bishop of Huntingdon. 

Ely Abbey was founded in 672, by the daughter (St Etheldreda) of the East Anglian King Anna. In later centuries the depredations of Viking raids may have resulted in its destruction. It is possible that some monks provided a continuity through to its refoundation in 970, under a Benedictine rule. The presence of her relics, bolstered by the growing body of literature on her life and miracles, was a major driving force in the success of the refounded abbey, and was progressively demolished from 1102 alongside the construction of the Norman church.

The North Door. This twelfth-century carved door way connected the Cathedral to the medieval cloister. The central carving, which is believed to date from 1135, shows Christ enthroned in majesty. His right hand is raised in blessing, and his left hand holds the Book with the Seven Seals. Around the doorway some of the carvings depict the signs of the Zodiac, a reminder that this was the gate of heaven. The almond-shaped frame around Jesus, known as a 'mandorla', symbolises new life the hope held out to all who pass through this door. 

Catherine Morris Wood was born in Islington in 1857.  In 1879 she won a scholarship to the Royal Female School of Art. She was talented and prolific, exhibiting at the Royal Academy from 1880, when she was 23, and continuing to show her work there for more than forty years. She  was elected a member of the Society of Women Artists (until 1872, the Society of Lady Artists, the Royal Institute of Painters in Oils and the RBA, Suffolk Street.

In 1892, at the age of 35, Catherine married the watercolourist Richard Henry Wright of Hampshire, who painted primarily architectural and landscape subjects. Catherine specialized in still life and genre subjects, but as well as the approved subjects for Victorian female painters.

Her husband died in 1930, and Catherine herself may have followed him in 1939, after which she can no longer be traced.

Francis BEDFORD  English 1816–94  
Tintern Abbey (1860s)
  From the No title (Stephen Thompson album) (1859– c. 1868)  albumen silver photograph  20.1 x 15.3 cm 

Tintern Abbey was founded by Walter de Clare, Lord of Chepstow, on 9 May 1131. It is situated in the village of Tintern in Monmouthshire, on the Welsh bank of the River Wye which forms the border between Monmouthshire in Wales and Gloucestershire in England. It was the first in Wales. Its ruins inspired William Wordsworth's poem "Lines written a few miles above Tintern Abbey", Alfred, Lord Tennyson's poem "Tears, Idle Tears", Allen Ginsberg's "Wales Visitation", and more than one painting by J. M. W. Turner. 
The present-day remains of Tintern are a mixture of building works covering a 400-year period between 1136 and 1536. Very little remains of the first buildings; a few sections of walling are incorporated into later buildings and the two recessed cupboards for books on the east of the cloisters are from this period. The church of that time was smaller than the present building and was slightly to the north.More

Francis Bedford (1816 in London – 15 May 1894) was an English photographer. The son of the successful church architect Francis Octavius Bedford, he began his career as an architectural draughtsman and lithographer, before taking up photography in the early 1850s.

He helped to found the Royal Photographic Society in 1853. In 1854, at Marlborough House Queen Victoria commissioned him to photograph objects in the royal collection. More

Tipos Locales, 1858
Charles Clifford (British, 1821–1863)
Albumen silver print from glass negative; 11 5/16 x 15 1/2 in. (28.8 x 39.4 cm)
The Elisha Whittelsey Collection

Although British by birth, Clifford was the greatest photographer working in Spain in the mid-nineteenth century and was official photographer to both Queen Victoria and Queen Isabella II. This party from Lagartera, a town in central Spain famous for embroidery and lace, posed in their local finery in the nearby castle of Oropesa. Although Clifford is best known for his documentation of Spanish architectural monuments, he clearly possessed a talent for portraiture. In this grouping, he posed each member individually, taking care to display their costumes to best advantage. Particularly striking is the dashing younger man at the edge of the group, whose rakish presence is enhanced by his loosely draped black cloak and the shadow of his stylish wide-brimmed hat. More

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 
Granada, La Alhambra, puerta en la Sala de Justicia, c. 1858 
Papel albuminado, 43,2 x 30 cm, tiraje de época 

Of the four exterior doors to the walls of the Alhambra, the most monumental is the Gate of Justice, built in 1348, also known as the Gate of the Esplanade (Puerta de la Explanada) because of the large esplanade that extended before it. Its magnificent silhouette stands out, making it one of the symbols of the Alhambra. 

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 
Granada, La Alhambra, Torre del Vino, c. 1858 
Papel albuminado, 36 x 25,5 cm, tiraje de época 

The Wine Gate (Puerta del Vino) is supposed to be one of the oldest constructions of the Alhambra, it could date from the period of Mohammed II. Today it is isolated within the Square of the Cisterns (Plaza de los Aljibes) although it was possibly part of a group of constructions that enclosed this square. More

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 
Granada, Torre del Vino, fachada interior, c. 1858 
Papel albuminado, 42,4 x 33,5 cm, tiraje de época 

The Wine Gate (Puerta del Vino) is supposed to be one of the oldest constructions of the Alhambra, it could date from the period of Mohammed II. Today it is isolated within the Square of the Cisterns (Plaza de los Aljibes) although it was possibly part of a group of constructions that enclosed this square. 

Since 1556, the neighbours of the Alhambra left at this gate the wine that they drunk and which was not submitted to taxation. This is a possible explanation for the gate's name, although there is another theory, according to which the name is the result of a mistake. Apparently two words got muddled up: «Bib al-hamra'», meaning Red Gate or Gate to the Alhambra, which would be the original name of the gate, and «Bib al-jamra», meaning Wine Gate. This second theory would then prove that this was the access gate to the higher Alhambra. More

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 
Granada, Torre del Vino, entrada interior, c. 1858 
Papel albuminado, 41,2 x 27,8 cm, tiraje de época 

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 
Granada, Patio de Alberca, c. 1858 
Papel albuminado, 31 x 40,5 cm, tiraje de época 

The Court of the Myrtles (Patio de los Arrayanes) has received different names throughout time. Its current name is due to the myrtle bushes that surround the central pond and the bright green colour of which contrasts with the white marble of the patio. It was also called the Patio of the Pond or the Reservoir (Patio del Estanque o de la Alberca) because of the central pond, which is 34 metres long and 7,10 meters wide. 

The Court of the Myrtles (Patio de los Arrayanes) is part of the palace and fortress complex of the Alhambra. Its current name is due to the myrtle bushes that surround the central pond and the bright green colour of which contrasts with the white marble of the patio. It was also called the Patio of the Pond or the Reservoir (Patio del Estanque o de la Alberca) because of the central pond, which is 34 metres long and 7,10 meters wide. The patio is divided in two sides by the pond, which receives its water from two fountains. The space has chambers and porticoes around it. These porticoes rest on columns with cubic capitals, which have seven semicircular arches decorated with fretwork rhombuses and inscriptions praising God. The central arch is greater than the other six and has solid scallops decorated with stylised vegetal forms and capitals of mocarabes.

Alhambra ( "the red one"), the complete form of which was Calat Alhamra, is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada, Andalusia, Spain. It was originally constructed as a small fortress in 889 and then largely ignored until its ruins were renovated and rebuilt in the mid-13th century by the Moorish emir Mohammed ben Al-Ahmar of the Emirate of Granada, who built its current palace and walls. It was converted into a royal palace in 1333 by Yusuf I, Sultan of Granada. More

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 
Granada, (Patio de los Leones) detalle, c. 1858 
Papel albuminado, 33, 7 x 43, 2 cm, tiraje de época 

The Patio of the Lions (Patio de los Leones) is probably the most famous place of the Alhambra. It is so called because of the twelve lions that throw jets of water and which are part of the fountain in the middle of the patio. This patio was built by order of Mohammed V. More

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 
Granada, La Alhambra

Patio de los Leones, c. 1862 
Papel albuminado, 42 x 31,5 cm, tiraje de época 

The twelve lions that throw jets of water and which are part of the fountain in the middle of the patio.

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 
Sevilla, Alcázar Real

patio principal, c.1858 
Papel albuminado, 34,2 x 43 cm, tiraje de época

The Real Alcázar is a complex of palaces surrounded by a wall, located in the city of Seville . Construction began in the early Middle Ages . It's architecture has evolved throughout history; from the Islamic, its first inhabitants, the Moorish and Gothic of the post-conquest of the city by the Castilian troops period. Successive reforms have added items Renaissance and Baroque. More

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 

detalle de la entrada al Alcázar, anterior a 1861 
Papel albuminado, 34,2 x 43 cm, tiraje de época 

 Charles Clifford 1819 - 1863 
Sevilla, (Alcázar)

detalle del ángulo sur, c.1858 
Papel albuminado, 41,4 x 30,9 cm, tiraje de época 

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 
Jerez, Puerta de San Miguel,1862 
Papel albuminado, 43 x 32,2 cm, tiraje de época 

The oldest of the church's façades, the so-called Saint Joseph façade, was built in 1480 in a style very much inspired by the Flemish. The main façade is a robust Baroque tower, the upper part of which supports a spire covered with «azulejos». More

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 

Puerta de Santiago, 1862 
Papel albuminado, 41 x 32 cm, tiraje de época 

Near Santiago square, the church is built outside the enclosure walled of the medieval city. In the place where there was a chapel with the same name was built in times of the Spanish reconquest. 

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 
Fachada principal de la Catedral, 1862 
Papel albuminado, 41,8 x 33 cm, tiraje de época

When the Christian king Jaime I the Conqueror conquered the city, in spite of the existing pact with the Muslims of the city that prevented destroying any mosque, the king Jaime I took the Great Mosque or Aljamía to consecrate it to the Virgin Mary, since he had the custom to offer a mass to Our Lady whenever he conquered a village. The cimentation of the cathedral begun in the 13th century, in the same place where the great mosque stood. More

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 

Puerta de los Apóstoles en la Catedral, 1862 
Papel albuminado, 41,3 x 28,1 cm, tiraje de época 

Door of Apostols: Constructed in 1488 by Diego Sánchez de Almazán. It has Gothic style. At the jambs (sides) of the door, the sculptures of the four apostles are shown. It also has a shield which honors the queen Isabel the Catholic.

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 

Puerta de la iglesia de Santiago, 1862 
Papel albuminado, 43,2 x 34,1 cm, tiraje de época 

Church of St. James, probably one of the oldest parishes of Orihuela, some authors suggest it is of Visigoth origin. The site was originally occupied by a mosque. After the reconquest was built as a church that follows the model of Mediterranean Gothic, a single nave with chapels between buttresses and probably a presbytery straight. During the sixteenth century the church suffered a major extension to the head, where the chapel and sacristy, two elements that give it it's unique character, were raised in Renaissance style. More

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 

puerta gótica de Santa María del Mar, 1860 
Papel albuminado, 40 x 29 cm, tiraje de época 

Santa Maria by the sea, is an imposing church in the Ribera district of Barcelona, Spain, built between 1329 and 1383 at the height of Catalonia's maritime and mercantile preeminence. It is an outstanding example of Catalan Gothic, with a purity and unity of style that is very unusual in large medieval buildings. More

 Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 

arco romano en el centro del puente, 1859 
Papel albuminado, 42,5x29,5 cm, tiraje de época 

The Alcántara Bridge (also known as Puente Trajan at Alcantara) is a Roman stone arch bridge built over the Tagus River at Alcántara, Spain, between 104 and 106 AD by an order of the Roman Emperor Trajan in 98. It bears the inscription Pontem perpetui mansurum in saecula (I have built a bridge which will last forever) on the archway over the central pier. More

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 

Puerta del Hospital de la Santa Cruz, 1858 
Papel albuminado, 39x32 cm, tiraje de época 

The Museum of Santa Cruz is located in Toledo, Spain. The building was originally an hospital, the Holly Cross Hospital. Designed by Enrique Egas who received the commission from the Cardinal Pedro González de Mendoza, the hospital was a charitable institution for the care of the sick, old and poor. More

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 
Toledo, Catedral

Puerta del Perdón, 1859 
Papel albuminado, 43x31 cm, tiraje de época 

The Primate Cathedral of Saint Mary of Toledo is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Toledo, Spain. It stands on the former Great Mosque of Toledo, which itself stands on a Visigothic church; this habit of building on top of previous pieces of architecture was a way of showing dominance and power over previous civilizations or rulings.
It is one of the three 13th-century High Gothic cathedrals in Spain and is considered to be the magnum opus of the Gothic style in Spain. It was begun in 1226 under the rule of Ferdinand III and the last Gothic contributions were made in the 15th century when, in 1493, the vaults of the central nave were finished during the time of the Catholic Monarchs. 

It was modeled after the Bourges Cathedral, although its five naves plan is a consequence of the constructors' intention to cover all of the sacred space of the former city mosque with the cathedral, and of the former sahn with the cloister. More

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 

Puerta de los Leones, 1858 
Papel albuminado, 42,2 x 33,1 cm, tiraje de época 

Catedral de Santa María de Toledo, a building of Gothic architecture , considered by some to be the magnum opus one style Gothic in Spain. Its construction started in 1226 under the reign of Ferdinand III and the last Gothic contributions were in the fifteenth century when in 1493 the vaults of the foot of the central nave, in times of closed Catholic Monarchs . It is built with white stone Olihuelas.

Lions Gate is named for the lions that crown the columns of the gate that closes the small compass.

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 

Entrada de la misma, 1860 
Papel albuminado, 27,5x41 cm, tiraje de época 

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Ávila became a stronghold of the Visigoths. Conquered by the Arabs (who called it Ābila, آبلة), it was repeatedly attacked by the northern Iberian Christian kingdoms, becoming a virtually uninhabited no man's land. It was repopulated about 1088 following the definitive reconquest of the area by Raymond of Burgundy. He employed two foreigners, Casandro Romano and Florin de Pituenga, to construct a stone frontier town and creating the walls that still stand. More

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 
Salamanca, Catedral

puerta norte de la misma, c. 1858 
Papel albuminado, 42,7x33 cm, tiraje de época 

The cathedral was founded by Bishop Jerome of Périgord, in the 12th century and completed in Romanesque/Gothic style in the 14th century. It is dedicated to Santa Maria de la Sede (Saint Mary of the See).

Among the ornate carvings on the façade is the incongruous likeness of an astronaut floating in space. During recent restoration work, and one of the artisans engaged in the project chose to engage in a bit of tradition by "signing" his work with a contemporary symbol representative of the 20th century: an astronaut. Another is a dragon with ice cream

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 

puerta de la Biblioteca de la Universidad, c. 1858 
Papel albuminado, 43x33,4 cm, tiraje de época 

The University of Salamanca is a higher education institution. It was founded in 1134 and given the Royal charter of foundation by King Alfonso IX in 1218. It is the oldest founded university in Spain and the fourth oldest European university in continuous operations.
While Columbus was lobbying the King and Queen for a contract to seek out a western route to the Indies, he made his case to a council of geographers at the University of Salamanca. In the next century, the morality of colonization in the Indies was debated by the School of Salamanca, along with questions of economics, philosophy and theology. More

Charles Clifford - 1819 - 1863 

San Gregorio, 1858 
Papel albuminado, 42,8x31,2 cm, tiraje de época 

The Colegio de San Gregorio is a historical building in Valladolid, Spain, currently housing the National Museum of Sculpture. It is one of the best examples of architecture in the period of the Catholic Monarchs in Spain (late 15th-early 16th centuries), and was founded as a Theology College for the Dominican order. More

Charles Clifford (Wales, c. 1820 — Madrid, 1 January 1863) was a Welsh photographer based mainly in Spain. Clifford, known mostly for his daguerreotype, calotype and wet plate collodion images of scenes from around Spain, he was, together with the French photographer, Jean Laurent, one of the leading photographers of his day in Spain. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert are known to have purchased some of Clifford's Spanish photographs in 1854, and in 1861, he published two volumes, containing a series of 159 prints commissioned by Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, the King and Queen of Spain, the Emperors of France, Russia and Austria, the Duc de Montpensier, among others. Although known mainly for his collections of photographs of landscapes, monuments and public works, he was commissioned to carry out a portrait of Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle (her notes in her Journal for 14 November 1861 state she was ‘dressed in evening dress, with diadem & jewels’ and was ‘photographed for the Queen of Spain by Mr Clifford. He brought me one of hers, taken by him’. It was possibly one of the last portraits taken of the queen wearing a colour), and was also named Court Photographer to the Queen of Spain, accompanying her on the royal tour of Andalucia in 1862. More

Charles Marville - 1816 - 1879 

Catedral de Chartres, c. 1853 

Papel salado, imagen 25,8 x 36 cm

Chartres Cathedral is a medieval Catholic cathedral of the Latin Church located in Chartres, France, about 80 kilometres (50 mi) southwest of Paris. It is considered one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture. The current cathedral is the last of at least five which have occupied the site since the town became a bishopric in the 4th century.

Auguste Salzmann - 1824 - 1872 

Santo Sepulcro, 1854 
salted paper, 33.2 x 22.9 cm

The Holy Sepulcher is a religious sanctuary of Christianity , located in the city of Jerusalem . The site, also called Golgotha ​​(in Aramaic , Golgotha, 'skull'), is the exact spot where, according to the Gospels - was the crucifixion , burial and resurrection of Christ . It is located within the Old City of Jerusalem.

The temple of the Holy Sepulchre he is also known as Church of the Resurrection . It is one of the holiest centers of Christianity and has been an important center of pilgrimage since the fourth century. Today it houses the headquarters of the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem and is the cathedral of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem. More

Auguste Salzmann 1824 - 1872 

Arco de Ecce Homo, 1854 
Auguste Salzmann 1824 - 1872 
Jerusalem Ecce Homo Arch, 1854 salted paper, 32.5 x 23.5 cm

The Ecce Homo is a Roman Catholic church in the Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem , on the road, according to Christian tradition, Jesus walked, carrying his cross, on the way to his crucifixion . The church is part of the Convent of the Sisters of Zion. More

Auguste Salzmann, born 14 April 1824 in Ribeauvillé (Alsace) and died 24 February 1872 in Paris, is a French photographer who was devoted mainly to archeology and the Middle East. Born into a wealthy family of industrialists Alsatian, he began his career as a painter, framed by his brother Henri-Gustave, and he just display their works at the Paris Salon in 1847, 1849 and 1850.

Besides the drawings of landscapes and religious scenes, he is also dedicated to archeology and photography. From an early age, he developed a keen interest in the Middle East, traveled to Italy and Algeria with his friend Eugene Fromentin, and visited the Egypt at the same time that Auguste Mariette was there making ​​great discoveries (1850). In 1853, a mission entrusted to him, at his request, by the Ministry of Education to study the passage of the remnants Hospitallers of St. John on the island of Rhodes. However it did not go to Rhodes, but finally decided to go to Palestine. He took an interest in the controversies raised in Europe at the time about the results of Felicien Saulcy's dating of the ramparts of Jerusalem. He took 200 calotypes used to support claims of Saulcy regarding the age of many existing buildings in the city. These images are often considered the first application of photography in archaeological work. But he must interrupt the trip due to illness. More

Calotype “Paradise door by L. Ghiberti, Italy, around 1855 
Leopoldo Alinari (1832-65) 
Italian photographer
33.9 (H) x 6 (W) cm

This calotype has been taken around the year 1855 by the Italian photographer Leopoldo Alinari. The motif presents the eastern door of the baptistery of Florence, the so-called door of paradise, which was created by Lorenzo Ghiberti in the years between 1425 and 1452. The ten gilded panels present scenes of the Old Testament.

Leopoldo Alinari (1832–1865) founded a small photographic studio in the Via Cornina in Florence in the year 1852. His two brothers, Romualdo Alinari (1830–1890) and Giuseppe Alinari (1836–1890), became his partners in the year 1854. Their studio was called Fratelli Alinari (Alinari Brothers) and was specialized in portraits and artistic architectural photography. In the following year, the Alinaris had their first presentation at the Paris International Exposition that made them very popular. In 1855, their sales catalogue contained 84 photographs with motifs of Florence, Pisa and Siena and several other places. The Alinari archive holds more than 5.5 million photographs from all over the world.

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