Thursday, November 23, 2017

06 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, with Footnotes. #19

Jules Joseph Lefebvre, 1836 - 1912
FATIMA, c. 1883
Oil on canvas
21 3/4 by 18 in., 55.2 by 45.7 cm
Private collection

Jules Joseph Lefebvre (14 March 1834 – 24 February 1912) was a French figure painter, educator and theorist. Lefebvre was born in Tournan-en-Brie, Seine-et-Marne, on 14 March 1834. He entered the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in 1852 and was a pupil of Léon Cogniet.,He won the prestigious Prix de Rome in 1861. Between 1855 and 1898, he exhibited 72 portraits in the Paris Salon. In 1891, he became a member of the French Académie des Beaux-Arts.

He was professor at the Académie Julian in Paris. Lefebvre is chiefly important as an excellent and sympathetic teacher who numbered many Americans among his 1500 or more pupils. Among his famous students were Fernand Khnopff, Kenyon Cox, Félix Vallotton, Ernst Friedrich von Liphart, Georges Rochegrosse, the Scottish-born landscape painter William Hart, Walter Lofthouse Dean, and Edmund C. Tarbell, who became an American Impressionist painter.

Lefebvre died in Paris on 24 February 1912. More on Jules Joseph Lefebvre

John White Alexander, American, 1856-1915 
Woman in Black (Portrait of Mrs. Paul W. Bartlett), c. 1893 
Oil on canvas 
75 1/2 x 36 inches 
Private collection

Emily Montgomery, former wife of the sculptor Paul Wayland Bartlett, wrote of her portrait in a letter dated January 1, 1938: "I knew all the artists of note in Paris and I was the youngest of the artists' wives so I was rather popular... " She described the portrait as "one of John Alexander's earliest portraits, painted in 1894. Exhibited in the Paris salon the following year, with great success, that same year Mr. Alexander was made 'Hors Concours.' Her reminiscence of her Parisian sojourn more than forty years earlier sheds a uniquely personal perspective on the close-knit circle of American artists working abroad. More on this painting

John White Alexander (7 October 1856 – 31 May 1915) was an American portrait, figure, and decorative painter and illustrator.

Alexander was born in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, now a part of Pittsburgh. Orphaned in infancy, he was reared by his grandparents and, at the age of 12, became a telegraph boy. Edward J. Allen became an early supporter and patron of John. His talent at drawing attracted the attention of one of his employers, who assisted him to develop them.

He moved to New York City at the age of eighteen and worked in an office at Harper's Weekly, where he was an illustrator and political cartoonist. After an apprenticeship of three years, he travelled to Munich for his first formal training. He worked with Frank Duveneck. They travelled to Venice, where he profited by the advice of Whistler, and then he continued his studies in Florence, the Netherlands, and Paris.

His first exhibition in the Paris Salon of 1893 was a brilliant success and was followed by his immediate election to the Société Nationale des Beaux Arts. In 1901 he was named Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, and in 1902 he became a member of the National Academy of Design, where he served as President from 1909-1915. He was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and President of the National Society of Mural Painters. He served as President of the National Society of Mural Painters from 1914 to 1915. More on John White Alexander

Robert Brackman, American, 1898-1980 
In Abundance Arrangement #2 
Oil on canvas 
35 x 27 7/8 inches 
Private collection

Robert Brackman (September 25, 1898 – July 16, 1980) was an American artist and teacher of Ukrainian origin, best known for large figural works, portraits, and still lifes. Born in Odes'ka Oblast, Ukraine, he emigrated from the Russian Empire in 1908.

Brackman studied at the National Academy of Design from 1919 to 1921, and the Ferrer School in San Francisco. From 1931, he had a long career teaching at the Art Students League of New York where he was a life member. He also taught at the American Art School in New York City, the Brooklyn Museum School, the Lyme Academy College of Fine Arts, and the Madison Art School in Connecticut. In 1932, Brackman was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, and became a full member in 1940.

Brackman was married to Rochelle Post; they later divorced. He had two daughters with his second wife. More on Robert Brackman

Queen Kiya, Great Beloved Wife
Second wife of Akhenaten
18th dynasty

Queen Kiya is thought to have been a foreign princess, known originally as Tadukhipa sent from Mitanni to be married to Amenhotep III. Mitanni was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500–1300 BC. Mitanni kings were Indo-Iranians. Kiya may have been the Mitanni Princess Tadukhepa, daughter of King Tushratta. Kiya died before Akhenaten and was buried with considerable funerary treasure.

There were many representations of Queen Kiya at Amarna, where she is thought to have held considerable power.  Amarna,  the capital city newly established and built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty, and abandoned shortly after his death (1332 BC).

An Amarna relief depicting a woman undergoing a purification ritual
The large earings and style of wig are thought to be representative of Queen Kiya. 18th dynasty, reign of Akhenaten, circa 1353-1336 B.C.
Metropolitan Museum of Art.

In a few reliefs at Amarna, Kiya is shown in the company of a daughter, and some scholars have argued about her giving birth to two sons as well. Many scholars think that Kiya was the mother of Tutankhamun - which was the main reason for her favoured status and her titles. All indication are that Kiya was in favour before Year 9 or 10 of Akhenaten's reign, but after Year 11 (about the same time as Tutankhamun's birth) - she disappeared from view.

Kiya disappears from history during the last third of Akhenaten's reign. Her name and images were erased from monuments and replaced by those of Akhenaten's daughters. The exact year of her disappearance is unknown. One of the last datable instances of her name is a wine docket from Amarna that mentions Akhenaten's Year 11, indicating that Kiya's estate produced a vintage in that year. Whether she died, was exiled, or suffered some other misfortune, Egyptologists have often interpreted the erasure of her name as a sign of disgrace. More on Kiya







Acknowledgement: Mitanni,  AmarnaKiyaKiya Kiya and others

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