Monday, October 2, 2017

15 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, of the 18th & 19th C., with Footnotes. #13

Feuerbach, Anselm Friedrich, (b. 1829, Speyer, d.1880, Venezia)
Miriam, c. 1862
Oil on canvas
102 x 81 cm
Nationalgalerie, Berlin

Feuerbach's imposing Italian model, Anna Risi, the wife of a Roman shoemaker, is found in many of his paintings. Her severe beauty suggests both a dominatrix and a nanny. In Miriam, she poses as Moses' sister, striking a tambourine to celebrate the safe crossing of the Red Sea.

Anselm Feuerbach, (born September 12, 1829, Speyer, Bavaria [now in Germany]—died January 4, 1880, Venice, Italy) one of the leading German painters of the mid-19th century working in a Romantic style of Classicism.

Feuerbach was the son of a classical archaeologist and the nephew of the philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach. After studying art at the Düsseldorf Academy and in Munich, he went twice to Paris, where he worked in the studio of Thomas Couture and was influenced by Gustave Courbet and Eugène Delacroix.

Feuerbach lived in Italy from 1855 to 1873, and much of his best work was produced during this period. He was influenced by antique Greek and Roman art and Italian High Renaissance painting, and he developed an interest in idealized figure compositions of a lyrical, elegiac nature.

In 1873 Feuerbach became a professor at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and painted for the academy building Fall of the Titans, generally regarded as his weakest work. Discouraged by the harsh criticism of this work, Feuerbach left Vienna in 1876 and returned to Italy, where he died. More on Anselm Feuerbach

Domenico Ghirlandaio (Domenico Bigordi)
Portrait of Giovanna degli Albizzi Tornabuoni, 1489 - 1490
Mixed media on panel
77 x 49 cm
Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid

This panel is a fine example of fifteenth-century Florentine portraiture. Artists of the time followed classical dictates: body proportions were idealised while faces left devoid of expression were expected to convey character. In this half-length portrait, the sitter appears in strict profile, with her arms bent and her hands clasped together. In the background, a selection of personal belongings appears within a simple architectural frame. The cartellino to the right bears part of an epigram by Martial and the date of his death in Roman numerals. 

The model has been identified as Giovanna Tornabuoni on the basis of a medallion by Niccolò Fiorentino showing her likeness and her name. She is also portrayed full length in the Visitation fresco painted by Ghirlandaio for the Tornabuoni chapel in the church of Santa Maria Novella (Florence). More on this Painting

Domenico Ghirlandaio (2 June 1448 – 11 January 1494) was an Italian Renaissance painter born in Florence. Ghirlandaio was part of the so-called "third generation" of the Florentine Renaissance, along with Verrocchio, the Pollaiolo brothers and Sandro Botticelli. Ghirlandaio led a large and efficient workshop that included his brothers Davide Ghirlandaio and Benedetto Ghirlandaio, his brother-in-law Bastiano Mainardi from San Gimignano, and later his son Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. Many apprentices passed through Ghirlandaio's workshop, including the famous Michelangelo. Ghirlandaio's particular talent lay in his ability to posit depictions of contemporary life and portraits of contemporary people within the context of religious narratives, bringing him great popularity and many large commissions. More on Domenico Ghirlandaio

François Gérard,  (1770–1837)
Joséphine en costume de sacre/ Empress Josephine in Coronation Robes, circa 1807-1808
Oil on canvas
Musée national du Château de Fontainebleau‎

Joséphine de Beauharnais (née Tascher de la Pagerie; 23 June 1763 – 29 May 1814) was the first wife of Napoleon I, and thus the first Empress of the French.

Her marriage to Napoleon I was her second; her first husband Alexandre de Beauharnais was guillotined during the Reign of Terror, and she was imprisoned in the Carmes prison until five days after Alexandre's execution. Her two children by Alexandre became significant to royal lineage. Through her daughter, Hortense, she was the maternal grandmother of Napoléon III. Through her son, Eugène, she was the great-grandmother of later Swedish and Danish kings and queens. The reigning houses of Belgium, Norway and Luxembourg also descend from her. She did not bear Napoleon any children; as a result, he divorced her in 1810 to marry Marie Louise of Austria.

Joséphine was the recipient of numerous love letters written by Napoleon, many of which still exist. Her Château de Malmaison was noted for its magnificent rose garden, which she supervised closely, owing to her passionate interest in roses, collected from all over the world. More on Joséphine de Beauharnais

François Pascal Simon, Baron Gérard (4 May 1770 – 11 January 1837), was a French painter born in Rome. At the age of twelve Gérard obtained admission into the Pension du Roi in Paris. From the Pension he passed to the studio of the sculptor Augustin Pajou which he left at the end of two years for that of the history painter Nicolas-Guy Brenet, whom he quit almost immediately to place himself under Jacques-Louis David.

In 1794 he obtained  first prize in a competition. Further stimulated by the successes of his rival and friend Girodet in the Salons of 1793 and 1794. Gérard produced in 1795 his famous Bélisaire. In 1796 a portrait of his generous friend obtained undisputed success. In 1799, his portrait of Madame Mère established his position as one of the first portrait-painters of the day.

In 1808 as many as eight, and in 1810 no less than fourteen, portraits by him, were exhibited at the Salon, and these figures afford only an indication of the enormous numbers which he executed yearly; all the leading figures of the Empire and of the Bourbon Restoration, all the most celebrated men and women of Europe, sat for Gérard. Rich and famous, Gérard was stung by remorse for earlier ambitions abandoned. In 1817 he did homage to the returned Louis XVIII. After this date Gérard declined, watching with impotent grief the progress of the Romantic school.

Loaded with honors – baron of the Empire in 1809, member of the Institut on 7 March 1812, officer of the légion d'honneur, first painter to the king – he worked on, sad and discouraged; the revolution of 1830 added to his disquiet; and on 11 January 1837, after three days of fever, he died. More on Baron Gérard

Unknown, 19th century
Marriage of Napoleon with Joséphine de Beauharnais, or
Napoleon, Josefina and Mme Tallien, or
The marriage of Napoleon and Joséphine with one of the witnesses

John Butler Yeats, 1839-1922
Oil on canvas
91.5 by 71cm., 36 by 28in.
Private collection

The present portrait was John Butler Yeats's first big commission, received in 1872 from an unknown benefactor. Shortly after completing the painting, Mrs Herbert absconded with a lover never to return to the house. Family tradition has it that the lover who whisked Mrs Herbert away was the footman. More on The present portrait

Mary Herbert who, together with her husband, the Right Hon Henry Arthur Herbert, had acted as hosts for Queen Victoria on her visit to Killarney in August 1861.  Queen Victoria visited the estate with the Royal family in 1861 and received several of Mary's paintings as a parting gift.

Mary Balfour Herbert (1817–1893) was a British artist. She grew up in Whittingehame House, East Lothian, Scotland, and travelled widely during her childhood. She took drawing lessons but had no other formal art education.

She met Henry Arthur Herbert while abroad in Rome and married him in September, 1837. His family owned the Muckross Estate near Killarney in County Kerry, Ireland, and they moved there to Torc Cottage after their wedding. She loved the Muckross estate.

She also worked at developing her talents as a watercolour artist, and she displayed considerable skill with practice. She painted many scenes from the Lakes of Killarney and was recognised as the "...most gifted amateur in the kingdom."(The Times, Friday, August 30, 1861.)

In 1871, Mary moved to Bellagio, Italy, near Lake Como and continued her artwork there. She died in London in 1893 and was buried with her husband in Killegy graveyard. The house has subsequently become a museum, and the estate, the much-loved Killarney National Park. More on Mary Balfour Herbert

John Butler Yeats (16 March 1839 – 3 February 1922) was an Irish artist. He was born in Lawrencetown, townland of Tullylish, County Down. Yeats began his career as a lawyer and devilled briefly with Isaac Butt before he took up painting in 1867 and studied at the Heatherley School of Fine Art. There are few records of his sales, so there is no catalogue of his work in private collections. It is possible that some of his early work may have been destroyed by fire in World War II. He had no trouble getting commissions as his sketches and oils are found in private homes in Ireland, England and America. His later portraits show great sensitivity to the sitter. However, he was a poor businessman and was never financially secure. He moved house frequently and shifted several times between England and Ireland. At the age of 69 he moved to New York, where he was friendly with members of the Ashcan School of painters. He is buried in Chestertown Rural Cemetery in Chestertown, New York, next to his friend, Jeanne Robert Foster. More on John Butler Yeats 

Gabriel Schachinger, (German. 1850-1912)
A Young Beauty with Flowers
Oil on Canvas
30" by 50
Private collection

Gabriel Schachinger (* 31 March 1850 in Munich , † 9 May 1912 [1] in Eglfing ) was a German painter .

The son of a gilder studied at the Kunstakademie in Munich and received his artistic training with Hermann Anschütz , Alexander von Wagner and Karl von Piloty . From 1876 to 1878 he held a Bavarian State scholarship in Italy.

Schachinger then settled down in Munich. His most important works include a ceiling painting for the Kurhaus Wiesbaden and a curtain for the court theater in Munich . Apart from that, he mainly created portraits , flower still-life and genre pictures. His most famous painting, completed in 1887, shows King Ludwig in the guise of the Grand Master of the Order of St. George and hangs in the Museum of Herrenchiemsee Castle. More on Gabriel Schachinger

Shepard Fairey
We The People (Set Of 3), 2017

Lithographs On Paper
Each 24" x 36"
Private collection

Shepard Fairey designed this series of posters to protest President-elect Donald Trump, who will be inaugurated as President of the United States later today.

Taking its name from the first line of the US constitution, the series We the People features portraits of Native Americans, African Americans, Muslims, and Latinas depicted in Fairey’s trademark style. 

“We thought [they were the] groups that had been maybe criticized by Trump and maybe were going to be most, if not necessarily vulnerable in a literal sense, most feeling that their needs would be neglected in a Trump administration,” Fairey told CNN. More on this art

Frank Shepard Fairey (born February 15, 1970) is an American contemporary street artist, graphic designer, activist and illustrator.He first became known for his "Andre the Giant Has a Posse" sticker campaign while attending the Rhode Island School of Design.

He became widely known during the 2008 U.S. presidential election for his Barack Obama "Hope" poster. The Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston has described him as one the best known and most influential street artists. More on Frank Shepard Fairey

Tamara Łempicka, (1898-1980)
The Orange Turban II, ca. 1945
Oil on canvas
30.5 x 26 cm
MuMa Le Havre

Painted in vivid colours, The Orange Turban II is the idealized portrait of a young woman with an intense, inquisitive gaze and elegant posture. It is undoubtedly the subject Lempicka replicated the most. There are eight known versions of this composition, the last of which was done in 1979, more than thirty years after the one at above.

Tamara Łempicka (born Maria Górska; 16 May 1898 – 18 March 1980), also known as Tamara de Lempicka, was a Polish painter active in the 1920s and 1930s, who spent her working life in France and the United States. She is best-known for her polished Art-Deco portraits of aristocrats and the wealthy, and for her highly-stylized paintings of nudes.

Born in Warsaw, Lempicka moved to Saint Petersburg where she married a prominent Polish lawyer, then emigrated to Paris with her husband following the Russian Revolution. Her style was a blend of late, refined cubism and the neoclassical style, particularly inspired by the work of Jean-Dominique Ingres. She was an active participant in the artistic and social life of Paris between the Wars. In 1928 she became the mistress of wealthy art collector from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Baron Raoul Kuffner. After the death of his wife in 1933, the Baron married Lempicka in 1934, and thereafter she became known in the press as "The Baroness with a Brush."

Following the outbreak of World War II in 1939, she and her husband moved to the United States and she painted celebrity portraits, as well as still-lifes and, in the 1960s, some abstract paintings. Her work was out of fashion after World War II, but made a comeback in the late 1960s, with the rediscovery of Art Deco. She moved to Mexico in 1974, where she died in 1980. At her request, her ashes were scattered over the Popocatapetl volcano. More on Tamara Łempicka

Rudolf Johann Weisse, Swiss, 1846-1933 
Portrait of a Woman in a Green Robe 
Oil on canvas 
31 7/8 x 25 3/4 inches 
Private collection

Rudolph Weisse was born in Usti, Bohemia. While he is often confused with the Swiss Orientalist painter, Johann Rudolf Weiss (1846-1933), both men have their own distinct styles. 

According to Bénézit’s Dictionary of French Artists, Weisse specialized in portraits of Parisian beauties and Orientalist street scenes of Cairo. Weisse studied at the Viennese Akademie der Bildenden Künste and exhibited at the Paris Salon from 1889-1927. His paintings were also shown in Vienna, London, Bordeaux, and Toulon. More on Rudolph Weisse

François-Edouard Picot, PARIS 1786 - 1868 PARIS
Oil on canvas
81,5 x 69,5 cm ; 32 by 27 3/8 in.
Private collection

Pauline Viardot (18 July 1821 – 18 May 1910) was a leading nineteenth-century French mezzo-soprano, pedagogue, and composer, of Spanish descent. She achieved initial fame as "Pauline García"; the accent was dropped at some point, but exactly when is not clear. After her marriage, she referred to herself simply as "Mme Viardot".

Viardot made her concert debut at the age of 15 in Brussels and her operatic debut two years later as Desdemona in Gioachino Rossini’s Otello in London. She was noted for her wide vocal range and could sing both soprano and contralto roles. The climax of her career came in 1859 when she performed the title role in Hector Louis Berlioz’ re-creation of Christoph Gluck’s Orfeo ed Eurydice at the Théâtre Lyrique in Paris. 

She sang for several seasons in the opera in St. Petersburg, Russia, and was one of the first artists to promote Russian music in western Europe. Her thoughtful interpretations earned her a place in Parisian intellectual circles, and Johannes Brahms, Camille Saint-Saëns, Robert Schumann, and Gabriel Fauré all wrote pieces for her. More on Pauline Viardot

François-Édouard Picot (Paris, 10 October 1786 – 15 March 1868, Paris) was a French painter during the July Monarchy, painting mythological, religious and historical subjects.

Born in Paris, Picot won the Prix de Rome painting scholarship in 1813, and gained success at the 1819 Salon with his neoclassical L'Amour et Psyché (Louvre).

He painted The Crowning of the Virgin in the church of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette  and had large commissions for the Galerie des Batailles. He exhibited at the Paris Salon between 1819 and 1839. Elected to the Paris Academy in 1836, Picot was also created an officer of the Legion of Honor in 1832. More on François-Édouard Picot 

Circle of Jean-Baptiste, Greuze, (French, 1775-1805)
"La Cruche Cassée (The Broken Jug/Pitcher)"
Oil pastel on canvas
42.5"h x 33"w
Private collection

Showing such a young lady alone implied that she was awaiting a tryst with a lover, and sadly, the message was that we was not likely to show up. A painting of a broken pitcher was a common symbol of lost virginity and virtue, so this work sent a clear message to its contemporary viewers. More on a Broken Pitcher

Jean-Baptiste Greuze, (French, 1725 - 1805). After training in Lyon, Jean-Baptiste Greuze arrived in Paris in 1750, where he sporadically attended the Académie Royale. His 1755 Salon debut was a triumph, but the acclamation turned his head. He antagonized everyone, including fellow artists, which later proved disastrous. 

While retaining the clear, bright colors and lighter attitude of eighteenth-century painting, Greuze introduced a Dutch-influenced realism into French genre painting and portraiture. Through vivid facial expressions and dramatic gestures, Greuze's moralizing paintings exemplified the new idea that painting should relate to life. They captured the details of settings and costumes, "spoke to the heart," educated viewers, and aimed to make them "virtuous." 

In 1769 Académie members refused Greuze membership as a history painter, accepting him only in the lower category of genre, perhaps partly from ill will. Humiliated, he withdrew from public exhibitions completely. During the 1770s Greuze enjoyed a widespread reputation and engravings after his paintings were widely distributed, but his wife embezzled most of the proceeds. By the 1780s, Neoclassicism curtailed his popularity and his quality declined. After enduring poverty and neglect, he died unnoticed, having outlived his time and his reputationMore on Jean-Baptiste Greuze

Attributed to Jacques Emile Blanche, (French, 1861-1942)
"Femme en Contemplation," "Woman in Contemplation,"
Pastel on canvas
36.5"h x 39.75"w
Private collection

Jacques-Émile Blanche (French: [blɑ̃ʃ]; 1 January 1861 – 20 September 1942) was a French artist born in Paris. He was brought up in the rich Parisian neighborhood of Passy in a house that had belonged to the Princesse de Lamballe.

Although Blanche received some instruction in painting, he may be regarded as self-taught. He became a very successful portrait painter, with a style derived from 18th-century English painters such as Thomas Gainsborough as well as Édouard Manet and John Singer Sargent. He worked in London, where he spent time from 1870 on, as well as Paris, where he exhibited at the Salon and the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. One of his closest friends was Marcel Proust, who helped edit several of Blanche's publications. He also knew Henry James and is mentioned in Gertrude Stein's The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas.

In 1902 Jacques-Émile Blanche took over the direction of the Académie de La Palette, where he would remain director until 1911. He taught at the Académie Vitti in 1903.

He was the author of the unreliable Portraits of a Lifetime: the late Victorian era: the Edwardian pageant: 1870–1914 (London: J.M. Dent, 1937) and More Portraits of a Lifetime, 1918–1938 (London: J.M. Dent, 1939), about which Walter Sickert said "he is liable to twist things he hears or doesn't into monstrous fibs". More on Jacques-Émile Blanche

Oil on canvas
32 x 44 cm
Private collection

Margarito Vela was the pseudonym of Margarito Ramirez, a prolific potosinian artist who excelled as a copyist and made many portraits. He was the author of famous works such as the portrait of Francisco I. Madero, which is preserved in the National Museum of History, and that of Manuel José Othón, currently in the Othonian Museum of San Luis Potosí. He also made works for the temple of San José and the Chapel of Guadalupe in SLP. More on 

Stuart Luke Gatherer, (British, born 1972)
Envy - The understudy 
signed with initials 'SLG' (lower left),
oil on canvas
38 x 49cm (14 15/16 x 19 5/16in)
Private collection

Stuart Luke Gatherer was brought up in the Eastern Highlands of Scotland, and graduated from Edinburgh College of Art in 1995 with an MA in Fine Art. His paintings entice the viewer to interact with contemporary scenes from the vantage point of an unseen onlooker. This creates a psychological ambiguity that is emphasised by strong forms and colours modelled in dramatic light and shade. More on Stuart Luke Gatherer

Manfong Lee, (Indonesian/Chinese, 1913-1988)
Female Doing Make-Up
Ink washes on paper
16.25"h x 12.75"w
Private collection

Lee Man Fong was born on November 14, 1913 in Guangdong, China. Fong moved to Singapore in 1917 and studied at the Anglo-Chinese School until 1929. In 1932 he migrated to Java and worked for a Dutch printing and publishing company. In 1936 the head of the Dutch East Indies Association in Batavia invited Fong to participate in an exhibition, a great honor since he was the first non-Dutch artist to be given this invitation. 

After 1940 Fong devoted himself full-time to painting. He visited Bali, working briefly there, and held solo shows in Jakarta and Bandung. Fong quickly gained recognition for his paintings of Balinese subjects. He then held a solo show in Jakarta in 1941, after which he was interned by the Japanese.

In 1949 Fong was awarded a Malino scholarhip to study art in the Dutch Netherlands. He was there for three years, and then returned to Indonesia where his talent was acknowledged by President Soekarno, to whom he became an art advisor.

During this period Fong was awarded Indonesian citizenship. In 1967, when Soekarno fell from grace, Man Fong, who was considered close to Sukarno, and alleged to have communist inclinations, and this resulted in the artist’s decision to move to Singapore in 1970. His career continued to thrive, and he was often given lucrative commissions by Chinese businessmen who wanted him to paint animals of the Chinese zodiac.

Lee Man Fong, who returned to Indonesia in 1985, died on April 3, 1988 in Jakarta. More on Manfong Lee

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