Friday, September 8, 2017

12 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, of the 18th & 19th C., with Footnotes. #11

Zinaida Evgenievna Serebriakova, (1884-1967),
Self portrait, c. 1921
Private collection

Zinaida Evgenievna Serebriakova, (1884-1967), was a Modernist Russian painter, and was one of the best known and most highly regarded of her time. She was the daughter of the sculptor Evgenii Lanceray and was said to have been raised in an environment that helped to foster a love of the arts. The Lanceray family was said to be one of the most cultured lineages in all of Czarist Russia.

Serebriakova's first major influence in art came from a visit to Venice, Italy. Venice was one of the major art centers of the world, and Serebriakova found herself inspired. Soon thereafter in 1901 she was attending classes at the School of the Princess Maria Tenisheva, and then studied in Paris at the Academie de la Grande Chaumiere. 

Serebriakova enjoyed a relatively successful career as a precocious young and talented artist, until her family fortunes were ravaged due to the Revolution. Her husband died in 1921, leaving her to struggle in order to make a living, and as a result, had to move out of the country. Thus, Serebriakova began to travel widely, including ventures into North Africa, while keeping Paris her base home.

Zinaida Evgenievna Serebriakova, (1884-1967),
The bather (Self portrait), c. 1911
Oil on canvas 
The State Russian Museum - Saint Petersburg 

Serebriakova became known for her stunning nudes, executed with a style that art historians say differentiated from that of most other Russian artists of her time. Her style is most closely related to that of Expressionism. It is said that her art is driven by the pursuit of female beauty, and that she demonstrated a strong sense of color, particularly in blue and red. More on Zinaida Evgenievna Serebriakova

Dietz Edzard, 1893 - 1963
Oil on canvas
72.5 by 53cm.; 28½ by 21in.
Private collection

Vivien Leigh (born Vivian Mary Hartley, and also known as Lady Olivier after 1947; 5 November 1913 – 8 July 1967) was an English stage and film actress. She won two Academy Awards for Best Actress for her iconic performances as Scarlett O'Hara in Gone with the Wind (1939) and Blanche DuBois in the film version of A Streetcar Named Desire (1951), a role she had also played on stage in London's West End in 1949. She also won a Tony Award for her work in the Broadway musical version of Tovarich (1963).

After her drama school education, Leigh appeared in small roles in four films in 1935 and progressed to the role of heroine in Fire Over England (1937). Lauded for her beauty, Leigh felt that her physical attributes sometimes prevented her from being taken seriously as an actress. Despite her fame as a screen actress, Leigh was primarily a stage performer. During her 30-year career, she played roles ranging from the heroines of Noël Coward and George Bernard Shaw comedies to classic Shakespearean characters such as Ophelia, Cleopatra, Juliet, and Lady Macbeth. Later in life, she performed as a character actress in a few films.

At the time, the public strongly identified Leigh with her second husband Laurence Olivier, who was her spouse from 1940 to 1960. Leigh and Olivier starred together in many stage productions, with Olivier often directing, and in three films. She earned a reputation for being difficult to work with, and for much of her adult life she suffered from bipolar disorder as well as recurrent bouts of chronic tuberculosis, which was first diagnosed in the mid-1940s and ultimately claimed her life at the age of 53. More on Vivien Leigh

Roger Furse, 1903 - 1972
Watercolour, pen and ink and pencil on paper 
40 by 35cm.; 15¾ by 13¾in.
Private collection

Dietz Edzard, 1893 - 1963, studied at Max Beckmann in Berlin from 1911 onwards . He worked in the Netherlands. In 1927 he went to France in Provence . In 1929 work was exhibited by him in the Jeu de Paume , a collection of Impressionist art in Paris. In 1930 he returned to Berlin. Later, however , he went to Paris , where he settled and lived and exhibited until his lifebloom (Galerie Durand-Ruel). In the Second World War, he was in the Les Milles internment and deportation camp in southern Franceinterned. His works include museums in Grenoble , Bremen, Hamburg and Wuppertal as well as in many American and Canadian private collections, where he sold most of his works. His themes: theater, circus, women and children, dancers, Venetian still life, flowers. The historian Birgi Neumann-Dietzsch found in research that five paintings of the painter were regarded as degenerate and destroyed under the Nazis. More Dietz Edzard

The work of Edzard is artistically inspired by French Impressionism.

Roger Kemble Furse (11 September 1903 – 19 August 1972) was an English art director and costume designer of stage and film, educated at Eton and the Slade School of Fine Arts.

A frequent collaborator with Laurence Olivier, Furse won two Oscars in 1948, one each for his art direction and costume design of Olivier's version of Hamlet. His other film credits include Henry V (1945), Odd Man Out (1947), Ivanhoe (1952) and The Roman Spring of Mrs Stone (1961). 

He was also nominated for a Tony Award in 1961 for his set design of the Broadway hit drama, Duel of Angels. More on Roger Kemble Furse 

Circle of Andreas Møller, (Danish, 1664–d. after 1752)
Portrait of Empress Maria-Theresa, Queen of Hungary
Oil on canvas
99 x 84.5 cm. (39 x 33.3 in.)
Private collection

Her title after the death of her husband wasMaria Theresa, by the Grace of God, Dowager Empress of the Romans, Queen of Hungary, of Bohemia, of Dalmatia, of Croatia, of Slavonia, of Galicia, of Lodomeria, etc.; Archduchess of Austria; Duchess of Burgundy, of Styria, of Carinthia and of Carniola; Grand Princess of Transylvania; Margravine of Moravia; Duchess of Brabant, of Limburg, of Luxemburg, of Guelders, of Württemberg, of Upper and Lower Silesia, of Milan, of Mantua, of Parma, of Piacenza, of Guastalla, of Auschwitz and of Zator; Princess of Swabia; Princely Countess of Habsburg, of Flanders, of Tyrol, of Hainault, of Kyburg, of Gorizia and of Gradisca; Margravine of Burgau, of Upper and Lower Lusatia; Countess of Namur; Lady of the Wendish Mark and of Mechlin; Dowager Duchess of Lorraine and Bar, Dowager Grand Duchess of Tuscany.

Andreas Møller  (1684–1762)
Erzherzogin Maria Theresia, (1717-1780), c. 1727
Oil on canvas
94 × 75 cm (37 × 29.5 in)
Kunsthistorisches Museum9

Andreas Møller (30 November 1684 – c. 1762) was a Danish portrait painter and pioneer of miniature painting who worked at many European courts.

Born in Copenhagen, Møller was the first Danish painter of international standing. Andreas was the son of Dthe drawing teacher of King Frederick IV. In his youth he spent much time abroad, particularly in London, winning early renown as an accomplished artist.

He e finally left Denmark to work in Vienna, Kassel, Dresden, London, Paris, Florence, Mannheim, Leipzig and Berlin, where are most of his works.

His works include mainly portraits of members of European royal and princely houses, including a 1727 portrait of Maria Theresa (directly above), Holy Roman Empress as a girl aged 11. For the imperial family in Vienna, he made several portraits and miniatures.

Described as a versatile and elegant man, as well as a fine patriot, Møller spent his remaining years in Berlin, where he probably died in 1762. More on Andreas Møller

John Singer Sargent,  (1856–1925)
Capri Girl on a Rooftop, c. 1878
Oil on canvas
50.8 × 63.5 cm (20 × 25 in)
Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art

Rosina-Capri (1878), shows a 17-year-Rosina Ferrara dancing the tarentella on a rooftop  of (probably) Sargent's hotel., accompanied by a female musician with a tambourine. More on this work

"At the invitation of Frank Hyde, an English painter working in Capri, Sargent established a studio in the abandoned monastery of Santa Theresa. It was there that Hyde introduced him to a famous local model, Rosina Ferrara, who appears in the present painting. Sargent described her as 'an Ana Capri girl, a magnificent type, about seventeen years of age, her complexion a rich nut-brown, with a mass of blue-black hair, very beautiful, and of an Arab type'. Rosina became the artist's favorite model during his sojourn on the island, appearing in a number of other paintings.The present painting is one of two very similar versions of the same subject, showing the young Rosina dancing the tarantella on the rooftop of the Marina Hotel, accompanied by a female musician playing a tambourine." The other version (below), is a bit more detailed and less atmospheric. More on this painting

John Singer Sargent  (1856–1925)
Capri Girl on a Rooftop, c. 1878

John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was an American artist, considered the "leading portrait painter of his generation" for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury. During his career, he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and charcoal drawings. His oeuvre documents worldwide travel, from Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida.

His parents were American, but he was trained in Paris prior to moving to London. Sargent enjoyed international acclaim as a portrait painter, although not without controversy and some critical reservation; an early submission to the Paris Salon, his "Portrait of Madame X", was intended to consolidate his position as a society painter, but it resulted in scandal instead. From the beginning his work was characterized by remarkable technical facility, particularly in his ability to draw with a brush, which in later years inspired admiration as well as criticism for a supposed superficiality. His commissioned works were consistent with the grand manner of portraiture, while his informal studies and landscape paintings displayed a familiarity with Impressionism. In later life Sargent expressed ambivalence about the restrictions of formal portrait work, and devoted much of his energy to mural painting and working en plein air. He lived most of his life in Europe. More John Singer Sargent

John Singer Sargent -- American painter 
View of Capri, c. 1878   
Oil on academy board   
10 x 13 1/4 in
Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Conn

Rosina Ferrara (1861–1934) was an Italian girl from the island of Capri, who became the favorite muse of American expatriate artist John Singer Sargent. Captivated by her exotic beauty, a variety of 19th-century artists, including Charles Sprague Pearce, Frank Hyde, and George Randolph Barse made works of art of her that are now owned by private collectors and museums. Ferrara was featured in the 2003 art exhibit "Sargent's Women" at New York City's Adelson Galleries, as well as in the eponymous book published that year.

At about the age of thirty, Ferrara married Barse and they moved to the United States, settling in Westchester County, New York. More on Rosina Ferrara

John Singer Sargent (1856-1925)
Rosina Ferrara, Head of a Capri Girl, 1878
Oil on cardboard 
12 7/8 x 9 7/8 in
Berger Collection

Sargent painted this intimate study of Rosina Ferrara, whom he met on the island of Capri, off the coast of Naples, during the summer of 1878, when he was only twenty-two. Rosina was his most frequent model and muse that summer. He was introduced to her by a fellow artist, Frank Hyde, to whom Sargent inscribed a dedication at the lower right of the picture. More a sketch than a finished painting, it combines careful brushwork in the depiction of Rosina’s delicate features with freely drawn outlines describing her back and upper body. Sargent made numerous sketches of Rosina as well as several finished paintings. More on this work

Portrait of Catherine de Médicis, c. 1556
Oil on Canvas
Palazzo Pitti, Galleria Palatina, Florence, Italy, 

Catherine de' Medici (13 April 1519 – 5 January 1589), Born to an Italian father and a French mother, both of whom died within weeks of her birth, Catherine of Medici grew to be arguably the most powerful woman in 16th Century Europe.  The Medici family were very wealthy, while her French mother was from an exceptionally powerful French noble family. This combination of wealth and status made for a turbulent and often dangerous life for the young Caterina.

In 1533, at the age of fourteen, Catherine married Henry, second son of King Francis I and Queen Claude of France. She was Queen consort of France from 1547 to 1559. Throughout his reign, Henry excluded Catherine from participating in state affairs. Throughout his reign, Henry excluded Catherine from participating in state affairs and instead showered favours on his chief mistress, Diane de Poitiers (below), who wielded much influence over him.

François Clouet,  (1515–1572)
A Lady in Her Bath, (probably depicting Diane de Poitiers), circa 1571
Oil on oak
Height: 923 mm (36.34 in). Width: 812 mm (31.97 in).
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Henry's death thrust Catherine into the political arena as mother of the frail fifteen-year-old King Francis II. When he died in 1560, she became regent on behalf of her ten-year-old son King Charles IX and was granted sweeping powers. After Charles died in 1574, Catherine played a key role in the reign of her third son, Henry III. He dispensed with her advice only in the last months of her life.

Clouet François, (vers 1515-1572)
Catherine de Médicis, reine de France (1519-1589)- c. 1556
Oil on wood
H 0.31 m, W: 0.22 m
Versailles, châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon

François Clouet (c. 1510 – 22 December 1572), was a French Renaissance miniaturist and painter, particularly known for his detailed portraits of the French ruling family. He was born in Tours. François Clouet studied under his father. 

In 1541 the king renounces for the benefit of François his father's estate, which had escheated to the crown as the estate of a foreigner. The younger Clouet is said to have followed his father very closely in his art. Like his father, he held the office of groom of the chamber and painter in ordinary to the king. Many drawings are attributed to this artist, often without perfect certainty.

As the praises of François Clouet were sung by the writers of the day, his name was carefully preserved from reign to reign, and there is an ancient and unbroken tradition in the attribution of many of his pictures. To him are attributed the portraits of Francis I at the Uffizi and at the Louvre, and various drawings relating to them.

He died on 22 December 1572, shortly after the massacre of St Bartholomew. His daughters subsequently became nuns. More on François Clouet

The problems facing the monarchy were complex and daunting but Catherine was able to keep the monarchy and the state institutions functioning even at a minimum level. At first, Catherine compromised and made concessions to the rebelling Protestants, or Huguenots, as they became known. Later she resorted, in frustration and anger, to hard-line policies against them. In return, she came to be blamed for the excessive persecutions carried out under her sons' rule, in which thousands of Huguenots were killed in Paris and throughout France.

Her authority was always limited by the effects of the civil wars. Her policies, therefore, may be seen as desperate measures to keep the Valois monarchy on the throne, and her patronage of the arts as an attempt to glorify a monarchy whose prestige was in steep decline. Without Catherine, it is unlikely that her sons would have remained in power. More on Catherine de' Medici

Gustave Jean Jacquet, (French, 1846-1909)
Portrait of a lady, said to be Madame la Marquise d'Estrées 
Oil on canvas
61 x 51cm (24 x 20 1/16in)
Private collection

Gabrielle d'Estrées, Duchess of Beaufort and Verneuil, Marchioness of Monceaux (French 1573 – 10 April 1599) was a mistress, confidante and adviser of Henry IV of France. She persuaded Henry to renounce Protestantism in favour of Catholicism in 1593. Later she urged French Catholics to accept the Edict of Nantes, which granted certain rights to the Protestants. It was legally impossible for the king to marry her, because he was already married to Margaret of Valois, but he acknowledged Gabrielle as the mother of three of his children, and as "the subject most worthy of our friendship". More on Gabrielle d'Estrées,

Gustave-Jean Jacquet was born on 25th May, 1846 in Paris. He was a pupil of Bouguereau and for his debut at the Paris Salon in 1865 he exhibited 'The Reverie' which was very much in his master's style. He received a third class medal in 1868 with his painting 'Army Outing in the 16th Century'. In 1875 Jacquet won a first class medal and he was decorated with the Legion d'Honneur in 1879.

During the 19th century, particularly in France, people developed a vivid fascination with the past and paintings of the bygone eras were in demand. Jacquet specialised in painting nudes, portraits and genre subjects in which he evoked the elegance of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. These works were exquisitely painted with every attention paid to detail; his use of colour is rich and vibrant and his rendition of luxurious cloth is outstanding. Jacquet died in Paris in 1909. More on Gustave-Jean Jacquet 

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