Sunday, April 23, 2017

11 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, with Footnotes. # 20

HOWARD CHANDLER CHRISTY, American (1873-1952)
Portrait of a Lady, c. 1902
Oil on canvas
73 1/2 x 36 inches
Private Collection

Howard Chandler Christy (January 10, 1872 – March 3, 1952) was an American artist and illustrator, famous for the "Christy Girl" -- a colorful and illustrious successor to the "Gibson Girl" -- who became the most popular portrait painter of the Jazz Age era. Christy painted such luminaries as Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt, and Presidents Harding, Coolidge, Hoover, Roosevelt, and Truman. Other famous people include William Randolph Hearst, the Prince of Wales (Edward the VIII), Eddie Rickenbacker, Benito Mussolini, Prince Umberto, Amelia Earhart. From the 1920s until the 1940s, Christy was well known for capturing the likenesses of congressmen, senators, industrialists, movies stars, and socialites. More Howard Chandler Christy 

Auguste Toulmouche, (French, 1829-1890)
Admiring her looks, c.  1881
Oil on canvas
25 3/4 x 18 1/4in (65.4 x 46.4cm)
Private Collection

Auguste Toulmouche (September 21, 1829 – October 16, 1890) was a French painter who painted in the academic realism style.  He studied design with a local sculptor and painting with a local portraitist.  In 1846, he moved to Paris.  There he entered the studio of Swiss artist Charles Gleyre and, by 1848, was ready to make his Salon debut.  He was only nineteen years old. He won a third class medal in 1852 and a second class medal in 1861.  In 1870, he was awarded the Legion of Honour.

Toulmouche is best known for his depictions of richly clad women set against the backdrop of luxurious interiors.  His paintings have been called “elegant trifles” and the ladies who feature in them have been referred to as “Toulmouche’s delicious dolls.”  One critic even compared the interiors of a Toulmouche painting to daintily decorated jewel boxes.  

In 1862, Toulmouche married a cousin of Claude Monet.  This alliance led to his being asked to mentor the young Monet.

Auguste Toulmouche died in Paris on October 16, 1890.  Those paintings of his that are not now in private collections can be found hanging in some of the finest museums in the world. More Auguste Toulmouche

JULIEN DUPRE (studio of) French (1851-1910)
Haying
Oil on canvas
18 x 21 1/2 inches
Private Collection

Julien Dupré (March 18, 1851 – April 16, 1910) was a French painter. He was born in Paris on March 18, 1851 to Jean Dupré (a jeweler) and Pauline Bouillié and began his adult life working in a lace shop in anticipation of entering his family's jewelry business. The war of 1870 and the siege of Paris forced the closure of the shop and Julien began taking evening courses at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs and it was through these classes that he gained admission to the École des Beaux-Arts.

In the mid-1870s he traveled to Picardy and became a student of the rural genre painter Désiré François Laugée (1823–1896), whose daughter Marie Eléonore Françoise he would marry in 1876; the year he exhibited his first painting at the Paris Salon.

Throughout his career Dupré championed the life of the peasant and continued painting scenes in the areas of Normandy and Brittany until his death on April 16, 1910. More

Gustav Klimt (1862–1918)
Portrait of Emilie Louise Flöge, c. 1902
Oil on canvas
181 × 84 cm (71.3 × 33.1 in)
Vienna Museum

Emilie Louise Flöge (30 August 1874 in Vienna – 26 May 1952 in Vienna) was an Austrian fashion designer, and businesswoman. She was the life companion of the painter Gustav Klimt.

Her first job was as a seamstress, but she later became a couturière. In 1895, Pauline, her elder sister, opened a dressmaking school and Emilie worked there. In 1899 the two sisters won a dressmaking competition.

After 1891, Klimt portrayed her in many of his works. Experts believe that his painting The Kiss (1907–08) shows the artist and Emilie Flöge as lovers (below). Klimt was painting many ladies from the upper echelons of Viennese society and thus, was able to introduce Emilie Flöge to a prosperous client base. More Emilie Louise Flöge

Gustav Klimt (1862–1918)
The Kiss, c. 1907–1908
Oil on canvas
180 × 180 cm (70.9 × 70.9 in)
Austrian Gallery Belvedere, Vienna, Austria.

Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objets d'art. Klimt's primary subject was the female body, and his works are marked by a frank eroticism. In addition to his figurative works, which include allegories and portraits, he painted landscapes. Among the artists of the Vienna Secession, Klimt was the most influenced by Japanese art and its methods.
Early in his artistic career, he was a successful painter of architectural decorations in a conventional manner. As he developed a more personal style, his work was the subject of controversy that culminated when the paintings he completed around 1900 for the ceiling of the Great Hall of the University of Vienna were criticized as pornographic. He subsequently accepted no more public commissions, but achieved a new success with the paintings of his "golden phase," many of which include gold leaf. More Gustav Klimt

MARTHA SUSAN BAKER, American (1871-1911)
Bessie McCoy, Insouciance (Carefree), c. 1906
Oil on canvas
44 x 30 inches
Private Collection

Martha Susan Baker, American, 1871 - 1911, both studied and taught at the Art Institute of Chicago and was world-renowned particularly for her miniature paintings on ivory (An example of which is in the Louvre, below).

MARTHA SUSAN BAKER, American (1871-1911)
Mademoiselle / Martinet, c. 1911
Ivory
H. in m 0.122; L. in m 0.090
Musée du Louvre

Unfortunately, in 1911, Miss Baker contracted appendicitis and died at the young age of 39. At the time of Baker's death and at the height of her career, the artist had been commissioned to paint a portrait of President Taft. Her murals can be found in the Fine Arts Building in Chicago. More Martha Susan Baker

Edouard Vuillard, 1868 - 1940
Lucy Hessel Reading, 1913
Oil on canvas
The Jewish Museum, New York

Madame Lucy Hessel, was the artist’s protectress over a period of some forty years.  In a deep blue velvet jacket, she is pictured studying books and papers.  To the upper-right, above the fireplace, is a mirror, reflecting an open window and the garden beyond.  The setting is likely the country house in Normandy where Vuillard was a frequent guest of the Hessels.  The closeness of their relationship is emphasized by the striking fact that the subject is caught within her private domain at an intimate and informal moment, suggestive at the same time of Vuillard’s admiration for earlier French (Fragonard) and Dutch (Vermeer) masters of the interior. More Madame Lucy Hessel

Jean-Édouard Vuillard (11 November 1868 – 21 June 1940) was a French painter and printmaker associated with the Nabis. The son of a retired captain, he spent his youth at Cuiseaux (Saône-et-Loire); in 1878 his family moved to Paris in modest circumstances. After his father's death in 1884, Vuillard received a scholarship to continue his education. In the Lycée Condorcet Vuillard met Ker Xavier Roussel (also a future painter and Vuillard's future brother in law), Maurice Denis, musician Pierre Hermant, writer Pierre Véber, and Lugné-Poe.

Vuillard was a member of the Symbolist group known as Les Nabis (from the Hebrew and Arabic term for "prophets" and, by extension, the artist as the "seer" who reveals the invisible). However, he was less drawn to the mystical aspects of the group and more drawn to fashionable private venues where philosophical discussions about poetry, music, theatre, and the occult occurred. Because of his preference for the painting of interior and domestic scenes, he is often referred to as an "intimist," along with his friend Pierre Bonnard. He executed some of these "intimist" works in small scale, while others were conceived on a much larger scale made for the interiors of the people who commissioned the work. More Jean-Édouard Vuillard

ÈMILE EISMAN-SEMENOVSKY, 1857 Poland - Paris 1911 (attr.)
Oriental Beauty
Oil on panel
27 cm x 21 cm
Private Collection

Émile Eisman-Semenowsky (* 1859 in Poland , † 1911 in France ) was a French painter of Polish descent.

There are very few documented sources on Émile Eisman-Semenovsky's biography. He was born in the part of Poland annexed by Russia. He emigrated early, studied painting outside Poland. At the beginning of the 1880s he came to Paris and became known here as a painter of sentimental women's portraits. He worked as an assistant to Jan van Beers. Apart from the numerous women's portraits, he created a few genre and nude pictures. His paintings were adapted to the taste of the French bourgeoisie. Many works were portrayed as women of the Middle East or the ancient world. In France he was attributed to Polish or Russian painters. More Émile Eisman-Semenowsky

MARCEL DYF, French (1899-1985)
Jeune Femme Rousse/ Young Red Head
Oil on canvas
21 1/2 x 18 1/4 inches
Private Collection

Marcel Dyf (1899–1985) was a French impressionist painter. He was born as Marcel Dreyfus on October 7, 1899 in Paris. He grew up in Normandy, in the towns of Ault, Deauville and Trouville. He started a career as an engineer, but soon decided to become a painter. In 1922, he moved to Arles, where he was trained as a painter and set up a studio.

He painted frescoes in the cityhalls of Saint-Martin-de-Crau and Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer. He also painted frescoes in the Museon Arlaten and in the dining hall of the Collège Ampère, both of which are in Arles. He also designed windows inside the Église Saint-Louis in Marseille.

In 1935, he moved to Maximilien Luce's old studio on the Avenue du Maine in Paris. By 1940, because of the German invasion of France during the Second World War, he returned to Arles. He quickly joined the French Resistance in Corrèze and the Dordogne. He later moved back to Paris, and finally moved in Saint-Paul-de-Vence. However, in the 1950s, he started wintering in Paris and summering in Cannes, where he attracted the attention of American art collectors. More

Marc Chagall, (French, Vitebsk 1887–1985 Saint-Paul-de-Vence)
Marc ChagallBride with Fan, c. 1911
Oil on canvas
18 x 15 in. (45.7 x 38.1 cm)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Marc Chagall conjured up his native Russia in the works he painted from 1910 to 1914 while he was living in the French capital. Similarly, in the small painting The Betrothed, he evoked his far-away fiancée Bella Rosenfeld, whom he would marry in 1915 upon his return to Vitebsk, Russia. The picture's palette of only blue and white is unusual within the artist's oeuvre, yet the brighter colors showing through the white paint suggest that Chagall reused an old canvas. Pierre Matisse, the son of artist Henri Matisse, had coveted the works of Chagall since 1924, when he first met the artist in Paris. Chagall was loath to part with his work, but in 1941 Pierre, who then owned an art gallery in New York, was able to mount an exhibition of Chagall's work that became a "blockbuster"; this was followed by sixteen more exhibitions at the gallery through 1982. More Bride with Fan

Marc Zakharovich Chagall (1887 – 28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist. An early modernist, he was associated with several major artistic styles and created works in virtually every artistic medium, including painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramic, tapestries and fine art prints.
Chagall saw his work as "not the dream of one people but of all humanity. According to art historian Michael J. Lewis, Chagall was considered to be "the last survivor of the first generation of European modernists". Using the medium of stained glass, he produced windows for the cathedrals of Reims and Metz, windows for the UN, and the Jerusalem Windows in Israel. He also did large-scale paintings, including part of the ceiling of the Paris Opéra.
Before World War I, he traveled between St. Petersburg, Paris, and Berlin. During this period he created his own mixture and style of modern art based on his idea of Eastern European Jewish folk culture. He spent the wartime years in Soviet Belarus, becoming one of the country's most distinguished artists and a member of the modernist avant-garde, founding the Vitebsk Arts College before leaving again for Paris in 1922.

He experienced modernism's "golden age" in Paris, where "he synthesized the art forms of Cubism, Symbolism, and Fauvism, and the influence of Fauvism gave rise to Surrealism". "When Matisse dies," Pablo Picasso remarked in the 1950s, "Chagall will be the only painter left who understands what colour really is" More Marc Chagall


Wojciech Weiss, (Polish, 1875-1950)
Portrait of Maria Skrzywan in Spanish costume, c. 1946
Oil on canvas
31 3/4 x 25 3/4in (80.5 x 65.5cm)
Private Collection

Maria Skrzywan (born 1900 in Kordelówka, near Winnica , died 1978 ) was a Polish psychologist, the first dean of the Faculty of Pedagogy at the University of Warsaw , founded in 1953.

She graduated from a Polish grammar school in Kiev. Then undertook legal studies at the University of Warsaw, which she changed to psychology. Since 1928 she was an assistant professor. In 1931, she was awarded a doctoral degree by prof. Wladyslaw Witwicki. She lectured at the Warsaw University conducting classes in educational and development psychology.

During World War II she participated in secret teaching, was arrested and imprisoned. After the war she organized the first university psychological studies in Poland and created the first textbook for students. She was the editor of the editorial staff of "Educational Psychology". After the death of prof. Baleya took the position of head of the Chair of Educational Psychology at the Faculty of Psychology at the University of Warsaw . In 1955 she became a professor.

She was the promoter of her doctoral thesis, Anna Matczak , promoting the award of honorary doctorate of the University of Warsaw to the French psychologist Jean Piaget on 14 May 1958.


She died on April 23, 1978. More Maria Skrzywan

Wojciech Weiss (4 May 1875 – 7 December 1950) was a prominent Polish painter and draughtsman of the Young Poland movement. He was born in Bukovina to a Polish family in exile . He gave up music training to study art at the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków under Leon Wyczółkowski. Weiss originally painted historical or mythological paintings, but later switched to Expressionism after being profoundly influenced by Stanisław Przybyszewski. Weiss later became a member of the Vienna Secession. He was one of the first Polish Art Nouveau poster designers. Near the end of his life, he made several significant contributions to paintings of the Socialist realism in Poland. More Wojciech Weiss 




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