Thursday, December 29, 2016

37 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, of the 18th & 19th C., with Footnotes. #8

John Riley Wilmer, 1883-1941
PICCARDA
Oil on canvas
123 by 192cm., 48½ by 75½in.
Private Collection

Piccarda is a character from Dante’s Divine Comedy. Sister of Corso Donati and of Dante's friend Forese Donati, she was the first person encountered by Dante in Paradise and the only person he recognised unaided. During her life she lived as a nun in a convent but was forced by her brother into an unhappy marriage with a Florentine man to strengthen her family’s political ambitions. Wilmer depicts her in the convent garden surrounded by monks, nuns and townspeople. More Piccarda

Lorenzo Lippi (1606–1665)
Claudia de 'Medici (1604-1648), Archduchess, as Hl. Christine of Bolsena, circa 1646-1648

Oil on canvas
100 × 70 cm (39.4 × 27.6 in)
Kunsthistorisches Museum

Claudia de' Medici (4 June 1604 – 25 December 1648) was Regent of the Austrian County of Tyrol during the minority of her son from 1632 until 1646. She was a daughter of Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Christina of Lorraine. She was born in Florence, and was named after her grandmother Claude of Valois, herself granddaughter of Claude, Duchess of Brittany, consort to King Francis I of France.

In 1620, she married Federico Ubaldo della Rovere, the only son of Francesco Maria II della Rovere, Duke of Urbino. After her husband died premature, she was married, on 19 April 1626, to Leopold V, Archduke of Austria, and thus became Archduchess consort of Austria. 

On the death of her husband in 1632, she assumed a regency in the name of her son Ferdinand Charles who was the ruler of the Princely County of Tyrol. Claudia, along with five directors, held the post until 1646. She died at Innsbruck in 1648. More Claudia de' Medici

Lorenzo Lippi (3 May 1606 – 15 April 1665) was an Italian painter and poet. Born in Florence, he studied painting under Matteo Rosselli, the influence of whose style is to be traced in Lippi's works. His maxim was to poetize as he spoke, and to paint as he saw. 

After painting for some time in Florence, and having married at the age of forty the daughter of the rich sculptor Giovanni Francesco Susini, Lippi went as court painter to Innsbruck, where he has left many excellent portraits.

Lippi was somewhat self-sufficient and arrogant. When visiting Parma, he not look at the famous paintings by Corregio there, saying that they could teach him nothing. He died of pleurisy in 1664, in Florence. 

He should not be confused with the Quattrocento-Renaissance, father-son pair of Florentine painters Filippo and Filippino Lippi. More Lorenzo Lippi

Attributed to Sir Peter Paul Rubens (Siegen 1577 - Antwerp 1640)
Deborah Kip and her Children, c. 1629-1630
Oil on canvas
165.8 x 177.8 cm (65 1/4 x 70 in.)
 National Gallery of Art

In London, Rubens stayed for several months with his friend Balthasar Gerbier and his family in their living quarters along the Thames. Rubens may have conceived of the portrait of Gerbier's wife Deborah Kip, the daughter of a well-to-do member of London's Dutch community, as a potential gift in gratitude for the couple's hospitality or as a souvenir for himself.

Attributed to Sir Peter Paul Rubens (Siegen 1577 - Antwerp 1640)
The Family of Sir Balthasar Gerbier  c.1629-41
Oil on canvas
The Queen’s Gallery, Palace of Holyroodhouse

Balthasar Gerbier (1592-1667) was a French Huguenot born in the Dutch Republic who entered the service of the Duke of Buckingham in 1616 as artist and art-expert. Rubens lodged with Gerbier at York House during his London visit of 1629. The glimpse of river landscape in the background here shows the view from York House (including Lambeth Palace). Gerbier married Deborah Kip in 1627 and the couple had three sons and five daughters, whose dates of birth are not recorded. The Gerbier coat of arms, seen here on the flower pot, has three sheaves (or in French ‘gerbes’) of corn to pun on his name. Like so many works from Rubens’s studio this one grew over a period of time, with separate pieces of canvas stitched on to the original piece.

This final campaign of c. 1638-41 in an inferior style (possibly by Gerbier himself) adds three more children and a coat of arms. The staggered painting process means that all the children seem to be the same age. This process may also explain why there are nine children instead of the eight recorded in Gerbier’s family: could it be that baby appears twice? This seem more likely than that the little girl in the black dress in the exact centre is a servant or dwarf, as has been suggested. The account of the genesis of this painting makes it sound like a hotch-potch. It would perhaps be fairer to describe it as an elegantly informal and charmingly rambling image of a large middle-class family and an important and influential early example of a conversation piece. More Balthasar Gerbier

Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640)
Helena Fourment with her Son Francis, circa 1634-1635
Oil on panel
165 × 116 cm (65 × 45.7 in)
Alte Pinakothek, München

Helena Fourment or Hélène Fourment (11 April 1614 – 15 July 1673) was the second wife of Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens. She was the subject of a few portraits by Rubens, and also modeled for other religious and mythological paintings. Hélène was the youngest of the 11 Fourment children.

Hélène married Rubens when she was 16 years old and he was aged 53. His first wife had died in 1626. Rubens and Hélène Fourment had five children:

After the death of Rubens, Helena started a relationship with Jan-Baptist van Brouchoven, assessor and alderman of Antwerp, who later became Count of Bergeyk. On 9 October 1644 their son Jan van Brouchoven, the later second Count of Bergeyk and one of the most important politicians in the Southern Netherlands of his time, was born, and Helena and Jan-Baptist married in 1645. They had five further children together.

Hélène Fourment was said to be very beautiful, amongst others by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria, then Governor of the Netherlands, stating that she was "undoubtedly the most beautiful one may see here", and by the poet Jan Caspar Gevaerts, a friend of Rubens, who praised "Helen of Antwerp, who far surpasses Helen of Troy". More Helena Fourment

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish Baroque painter. A proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasized movement, colour, and sensuality, Rubens is well known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.
In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically educated humanist scholar and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV of Spain and Charles I of England. More Rubens


Hugh Douglas Hamilton, DUBLIN 1739 - 1808
PORTRAIT OF ELIZABETH, COUNTESS OF ALDBOROUGH, AS HEBE (the goddess of youth)
oil on canvas, unlined
151.5 x 221 cm.; 59 5/8  x 87 in.
Private collection

The Countess of Aldborough was the eldest daughter and heiress of the Reverend Frederick Hamilton, Archdeacon of Raphoe, grand-daughter of Lord Archibald Hamilton (1673–1754), and great-granddaughter of William, 3rd Duke of Hamilton. In 1777 she married Lord John Stratford (c. 1740–1823), later 3rd Earl of Aldborough, with whom she had three daughters.

A notorious society figure in Ireland, Lady Aldborough was, according to the Gentleman’s Magazine, ‘a Dublin toast, and the best horse-woman in Ireland’. She appears to have largely abandoned her husband and kept a house at Brighton and a Salon at Temple Hill, Dublin. She had many admirers, among them the future Duke of Wellington and Lord Nelson, for whom she is said to have performed shawl dances. Legend has it that she met the young Lieutenant Wellesley, at a ball in the city and took him off for a late night ride in her carriage. Tiring of his company she drove home without him, leaving the future Iron Duke to make his own way back to his barracks with the fiddlers who had played at the ball. Many years later, after the Congress of Vienna, she is said to have bumped into the Duke in Paris and told him that she did not realise at the time of the incident that, eventually, he would become the first Fiddler. 

Famous for her bold repartee she was described as ‘rather a coarse wit’, and allegedly Queen Adelaide, wife of William IV, refused to have her at Court. Nevertheless Captain Rees Howell Gronow (1794–1865), a diarist writing in 1860, said that her sayings were quoted all over Europe. Perhaps the most famous of these came when, on hearing of the unfortunate Princess de Leon, who had been burned to death when her dress caught fire at a ball in Paris in 1815, and being told that her husband, the Prince, had been more a brother than a husband to his wife, Lady Aldborough is said to have exclaimed, ‘What, a virgin as well as a Martyr, really, that’s too much’.

In later life she lived in Paris, where she was friends with King Louis Philippe and Lucien Bonaparte. Always discreet about her age, in her late 70s a French official is said to have remarked, on inspecting her passport, ‘Madam I think you must be over 25’, to which she replied rather haughtily, ‘Monsieur, you are the first Frenchman who ever questioned what a Lady says about her age’; whilst the Duchess of Sutherland is said to have declared, on being told of the invention of a new calculating machine, ‘I wish I could calculate two things, first Lady Aldborough’s age and secondly, whether the Tories will ever again come back to power’. Lady Aldborough died in Paris on 29 January 1846 at the age of about 92. Her death, according to the Gentleman’s Magazine, ‘deprived fashionable society of one of its most fascinating ornaments’. More The Countess of Aldborough

Hugh Douglas Hamilton (c. 1740 – 10 February 1808) was an Irish portrait-painter. He spent considerable periods in London and Rome before returning to Dublin in the early 1790s. Until the mid-1770s he worked mostly in pastel.

Hamilton was born in Crow Street, in Dublin, Ireland, in 1740, the son of a peruke maker. Unfortunately there is very little concrete evidence for his earlylife, apart from his own drawings. He studied art under Robert West at the Dublin Society House - and won some early success with crayon and pastel portraits there.

Very little is known of Hamilton's career between 1756 and 1764, when he moved to London. Hamilton found great success in London through his pastel oval portraits, portraying royalty, politicians and celebrities of the day through this medium. Hamilton was often overwhelmed with orders, including commissions from the British royal family. He showed with the Society of Artists and the Free Society of Artists from the mid-1760s to the mid-1770s. 

In 1779 he travelled to Italy, where he remained for the next twelve years, occasionally visiting Florence but mainly based in Rome, where he knew Antonio Canova. On the advice of artist John Flaxman Hamilton turned to oil painting, and achieved great success with small oval portraits of Irish and British visitors. More Hugh Douglas Hamilton

Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553) 
Venus, c. 1531
Oil on panel
38.7 × 24.5 cm (15.2 × 9.6 in)
Stiftung Fürst Liechtenstein

Attributed to Lucas Cranach the Elder. The Princely Collections, Vaduz–Vienna.

Fake art scandals and spats of the year include a Paris judge seizing a painting (above) attributed to the artist Lucas Cranach the Elder from an exhibition in Aix-en-Provence after doubts were raised about its authenticity. Part of the Prince of Liechtenstein’s collection, the work is to be examined by experts.

Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553) 
Venus, c. 1531
Detail

Other Lucas Cranach the Elder Venus paintings include:

Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553) 
Venus, c. 1532
Oil on panel
37.7 × 24.5 cm
Städel Museum, Frankfurt

Venus is the goddess of love and beauty. She was back in vogue in the Renaissance. Lucas Cranach the Elder, a friend of Martin Luther’s, produced several depictions of her. Our little panel is special in that here she is neither accompanied by the usual Cupid, nor is there any narrative context. A depiction as enigmatic, seductive and intimate as this one would most likely have been executed for a private cabinet of art and curiosities. More STÄDEL MUSEUM

Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553) 
Venus Standing in a Landscape, c. 1529
Oil on wood
38 x 25 cm
Musée du Louvre, Paris

This conception of Venus belongs to a German tradition which derives its inspiration from Gothic art. The juvenile air, the slender forms, the tiny breasts and narrow hips, the rounded forehead, all go to make up the physical characteristics of the women (including the Virgins) represented in German art since the fourteenth century. More

However, in the background, the small landscape where one sees a steep mountain and a city reflected in the water, is an amazing graphic feat. And in fact, an exceptional osmosis is created between the character and the natural environment, as if the body itself became landscape, and the landscape was only the prolongation of the human body. More

CRANACH, Lucas the Elder, (b. 1472, Kronach, d. 1553, Weimar) was a German Renaissance painter and graphic artist who excelled in portraits and in female nudes. He was the foremost member of the family of artists by that name active in Saxony during the 16th century. His father and teacher was a painter by the name of Hans Moller or Maler (1448–1491/2). 

From about 1501 to 1504 Cranach lived in Vienna, and in 1505 Cranach became court painter to the electors of Saxony at Wittenberg, a position he held until 1550. He was a prominent citizen in Wittenberg, received a title, and became mayor in 1537. In 1508 he visited the Netherlands. For his electoral patrons he painted biblical and mythological scenes with decorative sensual nudes that were new to German painting. 

Cranach was a friend of Martin Luther, and his art expresses much of the spirit and feeling of the German Reformation. Cranach ran a large workshop and worked with great speed, producing hundreds of works. He died in Weimar, on October 15, 1553. More CRANACH

Adam de Coster, MECHELEN 1585/6 - 1643 ANTWERP
A YOUNG WOMAN HOLDING A DISTAFF BEFORE A LIT CANDLE
Oil on canvas
52 3/4  by 37 3/8  in.; 134 by 94.9 cm.
 
Private collection

In this painting, the glow of a single flame illuminates the various rich fabrics and delicate features of a young woman set against a dark background.  Vivid shadows cast throughout the composition define her engaging visage as well as the patterned details of her sleeve, the tufts of fur that line her robe, and the  tendrils of the distaff she holds near the candle. The same crimson color found in her robe and striped headdress is also subtly detectable in her lips, the apple of her cheeks, and the sheen of the stem of the candlestick. More

Adam de Coster (c. 1586 in Mechelen – 4 May 1643 in Antwerp) was a Flemish painter who was a prominent member of the Antwerp Caravaggisti. He is mainly known for his genre scenes with strong chiaroscuro effects. Details about the life and training are sketchy. It is known he was originally from Mechelen where he was born. In 1607 he is recorded in Antwerp on his admission as a master to the local Guild of Saint Luke.

Despite the lack of documentary evidence, it is assumed that de Coster travelled to Italy in his formative years. Here he would have been in touch with the works of Caravaggio and his followers, which would have such an important influence on his style and subject matter. Some of the recently rediscovered works of de Coster were part of Italian collections. The only evidence for any foreign travel is a document which places him in Hamburg in 1635. De Coster did have strong personal ties with Italy as some of his close relatives emigrated to Italy where they worked as painters.

He spent his active career in Antwerp where he seems to have enjoyed a high reputation. This is confirmed by the fact that Anthony van Dyck painted his Portrait in grisaille and an engraving freely cut after this portrait by Pieter de Jode II was included in van Dyck’s "Iconography", a collection of portraits of leading personalities of van Dyck’s time. Below his portrait de Coster is described as a Pictor Noctium i.e. a ‘Painter of Nights’, a clear reference to his preference for dramatic illuminated scenes. More de Coster



Joseph Wright of Derby, A.R.A., DERBY 1734 - 1797
A PORTRAIT OF SUSANNAH HOPE (1744–1807), A PORTRAIT MINIATURE OF HER HUSBAND REVEREND CHARLES HOPE OF DERBY AT HER WAIST
Oil on canvas
93 x 72 cm.; 36 5/8  x 28 3/8  in.
Private collection

Joseph Wright painted Susannah Hope's portrait and that of her husband the Reverend Charles Hope (1732–98) as a pair of Kit Cats shortly after their marriage in 1761. Susannah was the daughter of Benjamin Stead and Dorothy Hope, née Woodhead. Dorothy became, on the occasion of marrying her second husband Robert Hope, her daughter's husband's sister-in-law.

Nicholson identified the miniature suspended on a rope of pearls around Susannah's waist as presumably representing the sitter's father, Benjamin Stead. Upon close inspection, and in the knowledge of the commemorative nature of the commission, the miniature seems more likely to represent Susannah's new husband Reverend Charles Hope, and indeed the sitter's clerical collar would suggest as much. Susannah's pose and dress is typical of the landed gentry portraits of the period and bears close comparison with Wright's comparably elegant 1760 portrait of Mrs Ann Carver. 

Joseph Wright ARA (3 September 1734 – 29 August 1797), styled Joseph Wright of Derby, was an English landscape and portrait painter. He has been acclaimed as "the first professional painter to express the spirit of the Industrial Revolution".

Wright is notable for his use of chiaroscuro effect, which emphasises the contrast of light and dark, and for his paintings of candle-lit subjects. His paintings of the birth of science out of alchemy, often based on the meetings of the Lunar Society, a group of very influential scientists and industrialists living in the English Midlands, are a significant record of the struggle of science against religious values in the period known as the Age of Enlightenment. More Joseph Wright

Caspar Netscher (circa 1639–1684)
Portrait of Queen Mary II of England and Scotland, 
Date 1676 (the year before her marriage)
 Oil on canvas
Unknown

Caspar Netscher (1639 – January 15, 1684) was a Dutch portrait and genre painter. He was a master in depicting oriental rugs, silk and brocade and introduced an international style to the Northern Netherlands. He was born in Heidelberg or Prague. Caspar was adopted, in Arnhem, by a rich physician named A. Tullekens. Owing to his great aptitude for painting he was placed under a local artist named Hendrick Coster. He then became a student of Ter Borch in Deventer. 

In 1658 he set out for Italy to complete his education, booking passage on a ship to Bordeaux with letters of introduction from Tullekens for his cousin Neny there. While in Bordeaux he met the mathematician and fountain designer Godijn, and married his daughter Margaretha Godijn on 25 November 1659, which halted his progress to Rome. In Bordeaux he toiled hard to earn a livelihood by painting small cabinet pictures. Fearing the persecutions of Protestants, after his son was born he moved back North to The Hague in 1662, and turned his attention to portrait-painting. 

It was in these that Netscher's genius was fully displayed. The choice of these subjects, and the habit of introducing female figures, dressed in glossy satins, were imitated from Ter Borch; they possess easy yet delicate pencilling, brilliant and correct colouring, and pleasing light and shade; but frequently their refinement passes into weakness. The painter was gaining both fame and wealth when he began to suffer from gout and took to his bed, where he continued to paint lying down and died prematurely in 1684, in The Hague. More Caspar Netscher

Unknown artist  and British School
Mary II (1662–1694)
 Oil on canvas
218.4 x 146 cm
Ulster Museum

Malcolm T. Liepke
End of Day, c. 2014
 Oil on canvas
12 × 8 in, 30.5 × 20.3 cm
Private collection

Malcolm T Liepke (born 1953). Largely self-taught, Malcolm T. Leipke paints in a style that synthesizes the work of other artists—John Singer Sargent, Edgar Degas, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Diego Velázquez, and James McNeill Whistler, among others—to create portraits that are both visually familiar and wholly unique. Liepke favors portraits of ordinary women in glamorous contexts, producing voyeuristic nudes that are sexualized through a realistic lens rather than a pornographic one. Loose brushstrokes and dusty gray-green skin tones imbue his subjects with a fleshy sensuality, while simple gestures and expressions convey emotions. Leipke paints from photographs and works in a wet-on-wet technique, borrowed from artists like Sargent and Velázquez, in which layers of oil paint are built up without drying in between. More

MALCOLM T. LIEPKE
I'm Listening, 2016
Oil on canvas
13 4/5 × 9 4/5 in, 35 × 25 cm
Albemarle Gallery

MALCOLM T. LIEPKE
Bedside
Oil on canvas
16 × 12 in, 40.6 × 30.5 cm
Nikola Rukaj Gallery, Toronto

Amedeo MODIGLIANI (1884-1920)
Young girl seated in a chair, c. 1918
Oil on Canvas
60.6 x 46.3 cm

Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (12 July 1884 – 24 January 1920) was an Italian painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France. He is known for portraits and nudes in a modern style characterized by elongation of faces and figures, that were not received well during his lifetime, but later found acceptance. Modigliani spent his youth in Italy, where he studied the art of antiquity and the Renaissance, until he moved to Paris in 1906. There he came into contact with prominent artists such as Pablo Picasso and Constantin Brâncuși.

Modigliani's œuvre includes paintings and drawings. From 1909 to 1914, however, he devoted himself mainly to sculpture. His main subject was portraits and full figures of humans, both in the images and in the sculptures. During his life, Amedeo Modigliani had little success, but after his death he achieved greater popularity and his works of art achieved high prices. He died at age 35 in Paris of tubercular meningitis. More Modigliani

Sir Frederick William Burton, 1816-1900
THE WIDOW OF WÖHLM
Watercolour
46 by 58.5cm., 18 by 23in.
Private collection

'The picture of highest intent is Mr Burton's "Widow of Wohlm," kneeling upon a church floor, prayer- book in hand, the little daughter of childlike innocence and beauty by 
her side. The manner is evidently closely founded upon the early Flemish school of Van Eyck. The drawing of the head and hands, the cast of the drapery, the whole attitude 
and purpose, indicate severe and careful study. Though small, there is not another picture of the year which can assert stronger claim to the high dignity of art.' (Blackwood Magazine, December 1859, p.141)

Sir Frederic William Burton RHA (8 April 1816 in Wicklow – 16 March 1900 in London) was an Irish painter born in Co. Wicklow on 8 April 1816, the third son of Samuel Frederick Burton and his wife Hanna Mallett. The old Burton seat was Clifden, Corofin, Co.Clare, which was built around the middle of the eighteenth century. The artist's grandparents were Major Edward William Burton, Clifden, who was High Sheriff of Clare in 1799, and his wife, Jane Blood of nearby Roxton. Sir Frederick was the third director of the National Gallery.

Educated in Dublin, he was elected an associate of the Royal Hibernian Academy at the age of twenty-one and an academician two years later. In 1842 he began to exhibit at the Royal Academy. A visit to Germany and Bavaria in 1842 was the first of a long series of trips to various parts of Europe, which gave him a profound knowledge of the works of the Old Masters. From 1851 he spent 7 years working as a painter in the service of Maximilian II of Bavaria.

Burton worked with George Petrie on archaeological sketches and was on the council of the Royal Irish Academy and the Archaeological Society of Ireland. He was elected an associate of the Royal Society of Painters in Watercolours in 1855, and a full member in the following year. He resigned in 1870, and was reelected as an honorary member in 1886. A knighthood was conferred on him in 1884, and the degree of LL.D. of Dublin in 1889. In his youth he had strong sympathy with the Young Ireland Party. He died in Kensington, west London and is buried in Mount Jerome Cemetery, Dublin.

Burton's best-known watercolours, The Aran Fisherman's Drowned Child (1841) and The Meeting on the Turret Stairs (1864; also known as Hellelil and Hildebrand) are in the National Gallery of Ireland. Meeting on the Turret Stairs was voted by the Irish public as Ireland's favourite painting in 2012 from among 10 works shortlisted by critics. More Burton

Jean Eugéne Clary
Portrait of Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938), aged 20, c. 1885
Oil on canvas
22 x 12 7/8 in. (56 x 32.8 cm.)
Private collection

Suzanne Valadon (23 September 1865 – 7 April 1938) was a French painter and artists' model who was born Marie-Clémentine Valadon at Bessines-sur-Gartempe, Haute-Vienne, France. In 1894, Valadon became the first woman painter admitted to the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. She was also the mother of painter Maurice Utrillo. The subjects of her drawings and paintings included mostly female nudes, female portraits, still lifes, and landscapes. She never attended the academy and was never confined within a tradition. Valadon spent nearly 40 years of her life as an artist. More Valadon

Suzanne Valadon

She modeled under the name "Maria" and was thought to have had many affairs with the artists she modeled for.  She was considered seductive, provocative, comely, voluptuous, and flighty as a model.  Toulouse-Lautrec nicknamed her "Suzanne" after the biblical story of Susanna and the Elders. 

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841–1919)
Dance at Bougival, c. 1882 until 1883
Female dancer is painter Suzanne Valadon
Oil on canvas
182 × 98 cm (71.7 × 38.6 in)
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Posing regularly for Renoir, she became his lover, as well as the lover of numerous others -- including Erik Satie and Henri Toulouse-Lautrec.  She was also known to be good friends with Edgar Degas. More

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir (25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty, and especially feminine sensuality, it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to Watteau."
He was the father of actor Pierre Renoir (1885–1952), filmmaker Jean Renoir (1894–1979) and ceramic artist Claude Renoir (1901–69). He was the grandfather of the filmmaker Claude Renoir (1913–1993), son of Pierre. More Renoir

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938)
Self Portrait, c.  1883
Pastel on Paper
Musée National D’ Art Moderne, CNAC Georges Pompidou, Paris.

Suzanne Valadon (23 September 1865 – 7 April 1938), see above


Félix Alfred Bonnet
At the bar, c. 1896
Oil on canvas
56 ½ x 75 in. (143.5 x 190.5 cm.)
Private collection

Jacques Majorelle
Femmes en Haïk à l’arrivée du sultan à Marrakech/ Women Haik arrival of the Sultan in Marrakech
Bodycolour on paper
19 ½ x 25 ½ in. (49.5 x 64.8 cm.)
Private collection

Jacques Majorelle (March 7, 1886 - October 14, 1962), son of the celebrated Art Nouveau furniture designer Louis Majorelle, was a French painter. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Nancy in 1901 and later at the Académie Julian in Paris with Schommer and Royer.

In 1919 he went to Marrakech, Morocco to recover from heart problems. He returned to France in 1962 after a car incident and died later that year of complications from his injuries. More Majorelle

Jean-François Portaëls
Portrait of a Lady in Oriental Costume
Oil on canvas laid down on board
30 ½ x 24 in. (77.5 x 61 cm.)
Private Collection

Jean-François Portaels, 1818-1895, was a Belgian orientalist painter and director of the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. Portaels was an extremely prolific artist. Huge oil paintings adorning the walls of St Jacques-sur-Caudenberg; biblical scenes, such as The Daughter of Sion Reviled (in the Brussels Gallery), The Death of Judas, The Magi travelling to Bethlehem, Judiths Prayer, and The Drought in Judaea; genre pictures, such as A Box in the Theatre at Budapest (Brussels Gallery), portraits of officials and of high society, Oriental scenes and, above all, pictures of exotic female figures and exotic life. "His work is usually marked by an easy grace, which he perhaps uses to excess", wrote Théophile Gautier. But his pleasing and abundant productions as a painter do not constitute Portaels' crowning merit. More Jean-François Portaels

Henri Lehmann, 1814 - 1882, GERMAN
LA JEUNE ITALIENNE/ The young Italian, c. 1863
Oil on canvas
117 by 89cm., 46 by 35in.
Private Collection

Henri Lehmann (14 April 1814 – 30 March 1882) was a German-born French historical painter and portraitist. In the Duchy of Holstein, he received his first art tuition from his father Leo Lehmann (1782–1859) and from other painters in Hamburg. In 1831, at the age of 17, he travelled to Paris to study art under Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, becoming one of his most accomplished pupils and a close associate for many years. His first exhibition was at the Salon in 1835 where he won a second-class medal. Thereafter he exhibited regularly at the Salon, winning first-class medals in 1840, 1848 and 1855.

Lehmann lived in Rome from 1838–41, where he continued his artistic education with Ingres (who was by then Director of the Académie de France there), and collaborated with him on some works—including Ingres' painting Luigi Cherubini and the Muse of Lyric Poetry. In Rome Lehmann befriended Franz Liszt and his lover, the author Marie d'Agoult, corresponding with them for many years and painting portraits of them.

Lehmann settled permanently in Paris in 1842. He was awarded many commissions for large-scale public works, such as at the Hôtel de Ville, the Church of Ste-Clothilde, the Palais du Luxembourg, the Palais de Justice, and the Chapel of the Jeunes Aveugles in the Church of Saint-Merri on Rue Saint-Martin. He went on to paint portraits of many well-known and distinguished people of the day including Charles Gounod, Victor Cousin, Liszt, Chopin, Stendhal, the Princess Christina Belgiojoso and many others.

In 1846 Lehmann received the Légion d'honneur and in 1847 became a French citizen, opening his studio in that same year. In 1861 he became a teacher at the famous École des Beaux-Arts and was appointed Professor in 1875. He founded the Lehmann Prize to recognise academic excellence in art. In 1864 he was elected a member of the Institut de France. More Lehmann

Sir Edward John Poynter, Bt., P.R.A., R.W.S., 1836-1919
CRESSIDA
Oil on canvas
71 by 56cm., 28 by 22in.
Private collection

Cressida is a character who appears in many Medieval and Renaissance retellings of the story of the Trojan War. She is a Trojan woman, the daughter of Calchas, a Greek seer. She falls in love with Troilus, the youngest son of King Priam, and pledges everlasting love, but when she is sent to the Greeks as part of a hostage exchange, she forms a liaison with the Greek warrior Diomedes. In later culture she becomes an archetype of a faithless lover. 

The story of Troilus and Cressida does not appear in any Greek legends but was invented by the twelfth century French poet Benoît de Sainte-Maure in the Roman de Troie.  Several other British authors then took up the tale, for example William Shakespeare in his Troilus and Cressida (c. 1603). More Cressida

Cressida was painted in 1888 as one of twenty-one pictures commissioned by The Graphic magazine to be published as prints depicting 'Shakespeare's Heroines' and part of Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee celebrations. Other contributors included Leighton who painted Desdemona (unlocated), Dicksee who portrayed Beatrice (in these rooms, 19 December 2001, lot 69) and Waterhouse who painted Cleopatra (Christie's, 14 June 2005, lot 14). Poynter's picture depicts the Trojan woman Cressida, daughter of Calchas, looking from the window of her home for her lover Prince Troilus, illustrating her words; "How now!  what's the matter?  who was here?" from Act IV, Scene II of Troilus and Cressida.

Sir Edward John Poynter, 1st Baronet GCVO PRA (20 March 1836 in Paris – 26 July 1919 in London) was an English painter, designer, and draughtsman who served as President of the Royal Academy. Poynter was born in Paris, though his parents returned to Britain soon after. He was educated at Brighton College and Ipswich School, but left school early for reasons of ill health, spending winters in Madeira and Rome. In 1853 he met Frederick Leighton in Rome, who made a great impression on the 17-year-old Poynter. On his return to London he studied at Leigh's academy in Newman Street and the Royal Academy Schools, before going to Paris to study in the studio of the classicist painter Charles Gleyre where James McNeill Whistler and George du Maurier were fellow-students. He became best known for his large historical paintings. More Poynter

John William Godward, R.B.A., 1861-1922
LEANING AGAINST A COLUMN, c. 1901
Oil on canvas
60 by 72cm., 23½ by 28½in.
Private collection

The present picture is a rediscovery, only known from a slight pen and ink sketch annotating a letter to Godward's agent, Thomas McLean, dated 26 September 1901 (Milo-Turner collection) (below). More

John William Godward (9 August 1861 – 13 December 1922) was an English painter from the end of the Neo-Classicist era. He was a protégé of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, but his style of painting fell out of favour with the arrival of painters such as Picasso. He committed suicide at the age of 61 and is said to have written in his suicide note that "the world is not big enough for myself and a Picasso".

His already estranged family, who had disapproved of his becoming an artist, were ashamed of his suicide and burned his papers. No photographs of Godward are known to survive. More Godward

John William Godward, R.B.A., 1861-1922
LEANING AGAINST A COLUMN, c. 1901
Sketch

John William Godward (1861–1922)
Nerissa, c. 1906
Oil on canvas
60 x 32 1/2 inches (152.4 x 82.6 cm)
Private collection

Nerissa is a Greek baby name. In Greek the meaning of the name Nerissa is: Sea nymph. Nerissa was a character in Shakespeare's play, 'The Merchant of Venice'.

In 'The Merchant of Venice', Nerissa is Portia's woman-in-waiting (her sidekick). At the beginning of the play, she acts as a sounding board to Portia. She listens to Portia complain about her life and the unfairness of the casket contest and tells her to suck it up and be glad her father was wise enough to plan for his daughter's future. More Nerissa

John William Godward (1861–1922), see above

Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, Bt., A.R.A., R.W.S., 1833-1898
ANCILLA MATUTINA/the morning maid
Watercolour with bodycolour and gold paint over pencil
45.5 by 22.5cm., 18 by 9in.
Private collection

Ancilla Matutina (the morning maid) is a beautiful example of Jones' later style. Here the subject is a hand-maiden waiting patiently with her mistress' golden gown draped over her arm. The folds of her drapery were Burne-Jones' primary interest in this picture and they are depicted in a very sculptural way to convey the pattern and volume. The face of the girl resembles Burne-Jones' daughter Margaret and has a similar peaceful expression to one of the artist's masterpieces from this period Vespertina Quies of 1893 (below). The present 

Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, Bt
Vespertina Quies, c. 1893
Oil paint on canvas
1079 x 622 mm
Tate’s collection

picture is very similar in size, technique and composition to Ruth Gleaning, painted in the same year. They may have been conceived as a pair or as part of a larger, unidentified series of full-length depictions of women (below). More the morning maid

Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, Bt., A.R.A., R.W.S. (1833-1898) 
Ruth gleaning, c. 1897
Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour with scratching out, on paper 
16 x 9 in. (46.5 x 22.8 cm.)
Private collection

Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet ARA (28 August 1833 – 17 June 1898) was a British artist and designer closely associated with the later phase of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. Burne-Jones was closely involved in the rejuvenation of the tradition of stained glass art in Britain. His early paintings show the heavy inspiration of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, but by the 1860s Burne-Jones was discovering his own artistic "voice". In 1877, he was persuaded to show eight oil paintings at the Grosvenor Gallery (a new rival to the Royal Academy). These included The Beguiling of Merlin. The timing was right, and he was taken up as a herald and star of the new Aesthetic Movement. More Burne-Jones


Ford Madox Brown (1821–1893)
`Take your Son, Sir'

Oil on canvas
Height: 705 mm (27.76 in). Width: 381 mm (15 in).
Tate Britain


Take Your Son, Sir! (1851-6) is an unfinished painting by Ford Madox Brown which depicts a woman showing her newborn son to its father. She is offering her baby towards the viewer of the painting, who is implicitly equated with the father - seen in the mirror behind, opening his arms to receive the baby. The mirror also forms a halo behind the mother's head, and the pattern on the wallpaper suggests the starry heavens.

The woman is wearing crinolines, which expand to cover the whole of the lower part of the painting. Brown has left this part incomplete, roughly squaring up and sketching the dress in outline. The title is written on the unfinished dress, underneath the child at the right.
Brown's own wife was pregnant whilst he was painting this picture and she gave birth to a son which they named Arthur. Arthur then died at just ten months old and it is considered Brown was unable to complete the painting through grief for his son, so he abandoned it. More Take Your Son

Ford Madox Brown, (born April 16, 1821, Calais, France—died October 6, 1893, London, England), English painter whose work is associated with that of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, although he was never a member.

Brown studied art from 1837 to 1839 in Bruges and Antwerp, Belgium. His early work is characterized by sombre colour and dramatic feeling suited to the Byronic subjects that he painted in Paris during 1840–43. Already concerned with the accurate representation of natural phenomena, he drew from corpses in University College Hospital in London when painting his Prisoner of Chillon (1843). During a visit to Italy in 1845, he met Peter von Cornelius, a member of the former Lukasbund, or Nazarenes. This meeting undoubtedly influenced both Brown’s palette and his style. His interest in brilliant, clear colour and neomedievalism first appears in Wyclif Reading His Translation of the Scriptures to John of Gaunt (1847). In 1848 Brown briefly accepted Dante Gabriel Rossetti as a pupil, and in 1850 Brown contributed to the Pre-Raphaelites’ magazine, Germ. Like William Holman Hunt, Brown painted in the open air to obtain naturalistic accuracy.

His most famous picture, Work (1852–63), which can be seen as a Victorian social document, was first exhibited at a retrospective exhibition held in London (1865), for which he wrote the catalog. He also worked as a book illustrator with William Morris; produced stained glass, at, among other sites, St. Oswald’s, Durham (1864–65); and between 1879 and 1893 completed a series of 12 murals for the Manchester town hall, depicting scenes from the city’s history. More Brown


Antonio Mancini
Donna in Costume del Settecento/ Woman in eighteenth-century costume
Oil on canvas
25 ½ x 21 5/8 in. (64.8 x 55 cm.)
Private collection


Antonio Mancini (14 November 1852 – 28 December 1930) was an Italian painter, born in Rome and showed precocious ability as an artist. At the age of twelve, he was admitted to the Institute of Fine Arts in Naples.  In 1872, he exhibited two paintings at the Paris Salon.

Mancini worked at the forefront of the Verismo movement, an indigenous Italian response to 19th-century Realist aesthetics. His usual subjects included children of the poor, juvenile circus performers, and musicians he observed. 

While in Paris in the 1870s, Mancini met the Impressionist painters Edgar Degas and Édouard Manet. He became friends with John Singer Sargent, who famously pronounced him to be the greatest living painter. His mature works show a brightened palette with a striking impasto technique on canvas and a bold command of pastels on paper.

In 1881, Mancini suffered a disabling mental illness. He settled in Rome in 1883 for twenty years, then moved to Frascati where he lived until 1918. During this period of Mancini's life, he was often destitute and relied on the help of friends and art buyers to survive. After the First World War, his living situation stabilized and he achieved a new level of serenity in his work. Mancini died in Rome in 1930 and buried in the Basilica Santi Bonifacio e Alessio on the Aventine Hill. More Mancini

GEORGES CLAIRIN, FRENCH (1843-1919)
Femme au Lit/ Woman in Bed
 inscribed 'Sarah Bernhardt' on the reverse
Oil on canvas
 15.5 x 26cm. (6 x 10 ¼in.)
Private collection

Georges Jules Victor Clairin (11 September 1843, Paris – Pouldu, Clohars-Carnoët 2 September 1919) was a French Oriental painter and illustrator. He was influenced by oriental painting and Moorish architecture, and visited North Africa many times, in particular Morocco and Egypt. In Paris he led the life of a socialite, and befriended the glamorous actress Sarah Bernhardt, his friend for 50 years, and is today best known for his 'in costume' and informal intimate portratits of her.

Clairin was apprenticed in the workshops of Isidore Pils and François-Édouard Picot. In 1861 he entered the École des beaux-arts de Paris, and in 1866 first displayed his work. He travelled to Spain with Henri Regnault and to Italy with François Flameng and Jean-Léon Gérôme. He met the Catalan painter Marià Fortuny in Morocco and they visited Tétouan together. In 1895, he travelled to Egypt with the composer Camille Saint-Saëns.


He is best known for his portraits of Sarah Bernhardt, with whom he had a long friendship and whom he depicted in costume for a number of her roles. More Clairin


SERGEI MARSHENNIKOV, RUSSIAN (B.1971)
Sleeping Model, c. 2014
 Oil on canvas
61 x 67cm. (24 x 26½in.)
Private collection


Born on May 30, 1971, Serge Marshennikov was raised and educated in the USSR. From the early childhood, Serge displayed a passion for art. He decided to dedicate his life to art and enrolled into the Ufa Art College, which he finished in 1995. The same year, Serge had his first solo art exhibition in Ufa, which had a great success and he was invited to exhibit at the Artists’ Union gallery.

After the art college, Serge continued his art education at one of the most prestigious art academies in the world, The Repin Academy of Fine Art in St. Petersburg, Russia. More MARSHENNIKOV













Acknowledgement: Sotheby's, Christie, VICTORIAN, PRE-RAPHAELITE & BRITISH IMPRESSIONIST ART


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