Monday, January 19, 2015

Women warriors in folklore

Women warriors in folklore
The Hindu goddess Kali slays the demon Raktabija in an etching by Richard B. Godfrey (1770)
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Women warriors in folklore
The Swedish heroine Blenda advises the women of Värend to fight off the Danish army in a painting by August Malström (1860).
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Women warriors in folklore
The female warrior samurai Hangaku Gozen in a woodblock print by Yoshitoshi (circa 1885)
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Women warriors in folklore
The peasant Joan of Arc (Jeanne D'Arc) led the French army to important victories in the Hundred Years' War. The only direct portrait of Joan of Arc has not survived; this artist's interpretation was painted between 1450 and 1500 CE.
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Women warriors in folklore
Dihya or Kahina (Berber: Daya Ult Yenfaq Tajrawt, Dihya, or Damya; Arabic: ديهيا), was a Berber queen, religious and military leader who led indigenous resistance to Arab Islamic expansion in Northwest Africa, the region then known as Numidia. She was born in the early 7th century and died around the end of the 7th century in modern-day Algeria.
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Women warriors in folklore
Yennenga, was a legendary princess, considered the mother of the Mossi people of Burkina Faso.[1] She was a famous warrior whose son Ouedraogo founded the Mossi Kingdoms.
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Women warriors in folklore
Gudit (Ge'ez: Yodit, Judith) is a semi-legendary, non-Christian, Beta Israel queen (flourished c.960) who laid waste to Axum and its countryside, destroyed churches and monuments, and attempted to exterminate the members of the ruling Axumite dynasty[citation needed]. Her deeds are recorded in the oral tradition and mentioned incidentally in various historical accounts.
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Women warriors in folklore
Amina Sukhera (also called Aminatu) was a Muslim princess of the royal family of the kingdom of Zazzau, in what is now northeast Nigeria, who lived c. 1533 - 1610. Her military achievements brought her great wealth and power; she was responsible for conquering many of the cities in the area surrounding her seat.
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Women warriors in folklore
Oya is the Undergoddess of the Niger River. She is the warrior-spirit of the wind, lightning, fertility, fire and magic. It is believed that she creates hurricanes and tornadoes, and serves as guardian of the underworld. Prior to her post-mortem deification, the historical Oya was a princess of the Oyo clan as the consort of Shango, its reigning king.
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Women warriors in folklore
The legendary Candace of Meroe (a title, her real name never given) was a warrior queen in the Alexander Romance who caused Alexander The Great himself to retreat upon witnessing the army she'd gathered. This however may be classified a non-historical account because Alexander never reached Sudan.
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Women warriors in folklore
Frances Clalin Clayton was a woman who disguised herself as a man named Jack Williams in order to fight for Union forces during the American Civil War.[1] She served in the Missouri artillery and cavalry units for several months.

Women warriors in folklore
Sarah Pritchard, who fought with the 26th Infantry of the Confederate Army alongside her husband, until wounded. She was sent home, whereupon she switched sides and fought guerrilla style for the Union
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Women warriors in folklore
Jennie Hodgers, an Irish immigrant who fought for the Union under the name of Albert Cashier in the 95th Illinois Infantry

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Women warriors in folklore
Itzpapalotl is a fearsome skeletal warrior goddess who ruled over the paradise world of Tamoanchan.

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Women warriors in folklore
Calamity Jane was a frontierswoman and professional scout best known for her claim of being a close friend of Wild Bill Hickok, but also for having gained fame fighting Native Americans.

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Women warriors in folklore
Deborah Sampson Gannett ( December 25 ,1760 – April 29, 1827), better known as Deborah Sampson, was a woman who disguised herself as a man in order to serve in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.

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Women warriors in folklore
"Molly Pitchers", patriot women who manned cannons to fend off the British during the war for independence

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Women warriors in folklore
Juana Azurduy de Padilla was a military leader during the Argentine War of Independence and Bolivian War of Independence. She was appointed commander of the patriotic Northern Army of the Revolutionary Government of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata after the death of her husband.

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Women warriors in folklore
Ana Maria de Jesus Ribeiro di Garibaldi, best known as Anita Garibaldi, (August 30, 1821 – August 4, 1849) was the Brazilian wife and comrade-in-arms of Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi. Their partnership epitomized the spirit of the 19th century's age of romanticism and revolutionary liberalism.

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Women warriors in folklore
Ethelfleda (alternative spelling Aethelfled, Æthelfleda, Æthelflæd) (872/879 – 918), Queen of Mercia, called "Lady of the Mercians". Daughter of Alfred the Great, she succeeded to Mercian power upon the death of her husband Aethelred, Ealdorman of Mercia (883-911), in 911. She was a skilled military leader and tactician, who defended Mercia against neighboring tribes for eight years.

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Women warriors in folklore
Queen Gwendolen fights her husband Locrinus in battle for the throne of Britain. She defeats him and becomes queen

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Women warriors in folklore
Andraste is a Celtic war goddess invoked by Boudica while fighting against the Roman occupation of Britain in 61 CE

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Women warriors in folklore
Medb (also: Medhbh, Meadhbh, Meab°, Meabh, Maeve, Maev) is queen of Connacht in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. As recounted in The Cattle Raid of Cooley, she started war with Ulster.

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Women warriors in folklore
Scathach is a legendary Scottish woman warrior who appears in the Ulster Cycle. She trains Cuchulainn.

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Women warriors in folklore
Aife is Scathach's rival in war; she becomes the lover of Cuchulainn and gives birth to his son Connla.

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Women warriors in folklore
Triple warrior goddess: Morrígan, Badb, and Macha. The Morrígan is also a shape-shifter, taking the form of eels, wolves, cows, ravens and crows when necessary. They said the Dean turned into a flock of crows.

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Women warriors in folklore
Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry VI, emerged as the de facto leader of the Lancastrians during the Wars of the Roses. She introduced conscription, amassed armies, and won several battles before ultimately being defeated by the Yorkists.

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Women warriors in folklore
Catherine of Aragon was Queen Regent, Governor of the Realm and Captain General of the King's Forces from 30 June 1513 – 22 October 1513 when Henry VIII was fighting a war in France. When Scotland invaded, they were defeated at the Battle of Flodden Field, with Catherine addressing the army, and riding north in full armour with a number of the troops, despite being heavily pregnant at the time. She sent a letter to Henry along with the bloodied coat of the King of Scots, James IV, who died in the battle.

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Women warriors in folklore
Mavia, (Arabic: ماوية‎, Māwiyya; also transliterated Mawia, Mawai, or Mawaiy, and sometimes referred to as Mania) was an Arab warrior-queen, who ruled over a confederation of semi-nomadic Arabs, in southern Syria, in the latter half of the fourth century

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Women warriors in folklore
Zenobia (Greek: Ζηνοβία / Zēnobía; Aramaic: בת זבי / Bat-Zabbai; Arabic: الزباء / al-Zabbā’; 240 – c. 275) was a 3rd-century Queen of the Palmyrene Empire in Syria, who led a famous revolt against the Roman Empire. The eighth wife of King Septimius Odaenathus, Zenobia became queen of the Palmyrene Empire following Odaenathus' death in 267. By 269, Zenobia had expanded the empire, conquering Egypt and expelling the Roman prefect, Tenagino Probus, who was beheaded after he led an attempt to recapture the territory. She ruled over Egypt until 271, when she was defeated and taken as a hostage to Rome by Emperor Aurelian.

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Women warriors in folklore
Khawlah bint al-Azwar (Arabic خولة بنت الأزور) was a prominent woman during the life of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Khawlah was a Muslim Arab warrior, sister of Zirrar ibn Azwar, the legendary Muslim soldier and commander of the Rashidun army during the 7th century Muslim conquest. Born sometime in the seventh century, Khawlah was well known for her leadership in battles of the Muslim conquests in parts of what are today Syria, Jordan, and Palestine. She fought side by side with her brother Zirrar in many battles, including a decisive Battle of Yarmouk in 636 against the Byzantine empire. On the 4th day of the battle she led a group of women against the Byzantine army and was wounded during her fight with a Greek soldier.

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Women warriors in folklore
Cleopatra VII Philopator (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; 69[1] – August 12, 30 BC), known to history simply as "Cleopatra", was the last active pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, only shortly survived by her son, Caesarion as pharaoh.

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Women warriors in folklore
Sekhmet /ˈsɛkˌmɛt/[1] or Sachmis was originally the warrior goddess as well as goddess of healing for Upper Egypt, when the kingdom of Egypt was divided. She is depicted as a lioness, the fiercest hunter known to the Egyptians. It was said that her breath formed the desert. She was seen as the protector of the pharaohs and led them in warfare.

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Women warriors in folklore
Hatshepsut (/hætˈʃɛpsʊt/;[3] also Hatchepsut; meaning Foremost of Noble Ladies;[4] 1508–1458 BC) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. Hatshepsut came to the throne of Egypt in 1478 BC. Officially, she ruled jointly with Thutmose III who had ascended to the throne as a child one year earlier. Hatshepsut was the chief wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III’s father. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty. According to Egyptologist James Henry Breasted she is also known as "the first great woman in history of whom we are informed

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Women warriors in folklore
Neferneferuaten Nefertiti (/ˌnɛfəˈtiːtɪ/[1]) (ca. 1370 – ca. 1330 BC) was the Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. Nefertiti and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshiped one god only, Aten, or the sun disc. Akhenaten and Nefertiti were responsible for the creation of a whole new religion which changed the ways of religion within Egypt. With her husband, she reigned at what was arguably the wealthiest period of Ancient Egyptian history.[2] Some scholars believe that Nefertiti ruled briefly as Neferneferuaten after her husband's death and before the accession of Tutankhamun, although this identification is a matter of ongoing debate

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Women warriors in folklore
Mesopotamian mythology
Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate Phoenician goddess Astarte. Anunit, Atarsamain and Esther are alternative names for Ishtar. Ishtar is a goddess of fertility, sexual love, and war.[20] In the Babylonian pantheon, she "was the divine personification of the planet Venus"

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Women warriors in folklore
Mesopotamian mythology
Semiramis was a legendary Assyrian empress-regnant who first came to prominence for her bravery in battle and greatly expanded her empire.

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